Will Happer Rebrands George C. Marshall Institute As CO2 Coalition


The George C. Marshall Institute (GMI) was a leader in climate denial from 1990 onward, but disbanded in 2015. Its chairman Will Happer and CEO WIlliam O’Keefe rebranded its climate denial effort as the CO2 Coalition, more accurately a CoalOILition.

Of its 18 people, 15 signed Happer’s “300 scientists” (sic) letter to help Lamar Smith(R-TX) waste more taxpayer money harassing NOAA. Early analysis of the signers list makes it look even sillier than Happer’s 2009 petition to the American Physical Society, as will be seen in a forthcoming detailed post. Oil and coal industry people are well-represented.

Inspired by DeSmog UK‘s recent exposure of Patrick Moore’s work for European coal, this post summarizes known connections of those involved in the CO2 CoalOILition. People were tagged Coal and/or OIL, explained below.1  For example, of 18, five worked directly for Exxon, Shell or the American Petroleum Institute.  Also, 14 have been involved with Heartland ICCC meetings.

The first table is a dense summary, the second gives the backup details. 
Readers might evaluate climate-related efforts from such a group as akin to health recommendations from Big Tobacco. 

Coal, OIL and the CO2 CoalOILition
C O Board of Directors C O Advisory Committee
O Roger Cohen C O Larry Bell
O Bruce Everett Jan Breslow
C O Will Happer C O Kathleen Hartnett-White
C O Craig Idso C O Richard Lindzen
C O Patrick Moore C O Pat Michaels
O Rodney Nichols C O Mark Mills
C O Harrison Schmitt C O Norman Rogers
C O Leighton Steward C O
O William O’Keefe O Lorraine Yapps Cohen

The detailed list annotates the descriptions from their website, to explain the C and O tags.
Money flows are often hidden via Donors TrustDonors Capital Fund or transfers among think tanks, but the following have gotten OIL funding directly from ExxonMobil, the Kochs and/or Richard Mellon Scaife.2

TPPF has run key conferences in 2014 and 2015:
TPPF2014 conference speakers included Hartnett-White (organizer), Mills, Steward, Spencer.
TPPF2015 speakers included Happer, Lindzen, Mills, Moore, Steward, and Lamar Smith. One may wonder if they talked.
Robert Murray, CEO of Murray Energy (coal), gave the opening keynote.

Almost everyone here already has extensive DeSmog profiles. (Scroll down to view the table)

Coal, OIL and CO2 CoalOILition – Details
C O  co2coalition/about WebCited 03/14/15+annotations  Involved3 GMI, Heartland, TPPF2014, 2015 ,Lamar Letter -> G H T L
Board of Directors
O Roger Cohen, PhD: fellow of the American Physical Society. Former Manager Strategic Planning ExxonMobil Research and Engineering.  OIL: ExxonMobil. 3 2 x
O Bruce Everett, PhD: faculty Tufts University’s Fletcher School, over forty years of experience in the international energy industry.  OIL: 22 years at ExxonMobil.  Advisor on September 2015 list, now on Board x
C O Will Happer, PhD: Cyrus Fogg Brackett Professor of Physics (emeritus) Princeton University, former Director Office of Energy Research Director of Research, U.S. Department of Energy, co-founder Magnetic Imaging Technologies. President.  OIL: GMI Chairman ;  December 2015 sting.  Coal: Peabody, for 2015 MN  hearing
Coal+OIL: spoke at Heartland ICCC-10.
5 4 3 x
C O Craig Idso, PhD: founder Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change, member American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Geophysical Union, and the American Meteorological Society.  OIL: ExxonMobil, Scaife, Koch(Lambe) direct funding, and likely indirect via DONORS and Heartland.
Coal: was Peabody Energy employee; Western Fuels Association, while working on PhD via Robert Balling, wrote several articles for WFA-funded World Climate Report.
Coal: Cyprus Amax Minerals (coal), gave Balling and Idso 1996 and 1998 grants, and
OIL: ExxonMobil F. gave them 1999 grant. CSCDGC was formed in 1998, and $(if any)  no longer public.
Coal+OIL: spoke at Heartland ICCC-1, -2, -3,  -4, -6, -7, -9, -10: NIPCC
5 x
C O Patrick Moore, PhDCo-founder and 15-year leader of Greenpeace (1971-1986). Chairman and Chief Scientist, Ecosense Environmental. Leader, Campaign to Allow Golden Rice Now. False:Not Co-Founder.
Coal: Euracoal in 2015.  OIL: speak at TPPF2015.
Coal+OIL:: gave keynote at Heartland ICCC-9.
4 3 x
O Rodney Nichols: former Chief Executive Officer of the New York Academy of Sciences; Scholar-in-Residence at the Carnegie Corporation of New York, former Executive Vice President Rockefeller University.
OIL: Director GMITruth Tobacco Industry Docs 
4 x
C O Harrison Schmitt, PhD: geologist, astronaut and last man to walk the moon (Apollo 17), adjunct professor 
OIL: Chairman/President of Annapolis Center for Science-Based Public Policy (ExxonMobil, Scaife, Kochs)

Coal+OIL:: spoke at Heartland ICCC-2, -3, -4, -6, -7.
4 x
C O Leighton Steward: geologist, former Chairman, Louisiana Land and Exploration Company; chair, Institute for the Study of Earth and Man Southern Methodist University, author.
OIL: Shell Oil for 16 years (SourceWatchEOG (Enron Oil and Gas), Burlington Resouurces.
Spoke at TPPF2014 and TPPF2015.
Plants Need CO2 website, backed by coal magnate  Corbin Robertson.
Coal+OIL: spoke at Heartland ICCC-4,  Moderated ICCC -7, -9
4 3 x
O William O’Keefe: CEO George C. Marshall Institute; founder Solutions Consulting; former Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer American Petroleum Institute.  He was listed as the Contact for the 501(c)(3) filing,  as Director September 2015, involved in the Lamar Smith letter, but as of 03/13/16, was not included.
OIL: GMI, 25-year API executive, also ExxonMobil lobbyist. .
5 3 x
4 9 Of 9 who are/were on Board; all have some Coal/OIL connection. All 9 signed the Letter for Lamar Smith. 4 7 3 9
Advisory Committee
C O Larry Bell, PhD: Professor University of Houston, established the research program in space architecture, author of Climate of Corruption: Politics and Power Behind the Global Warming Hoax.
Coal+OIL: Spoke at Heartland ICC-6, -7, -9
3 x
Jan Breslow, M.D., Senior Attending Physician, Frederick Henry Leonhardt Professor, Laboratory of Biochemical Genetics and Metabolism, Rockefeller University.
Tobacco connection (likely via Frederick Seitz at Rockefeller): Truth Tobacco Industry Documents
  “jan breslow”
C O Kathleen Hartnett-White: distinguished fellow and director of the Armstrong Center for Energy and the Environment, Texas Public Policy Foundation, former chair Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.
OIL: TPPF from CG Koch, C Lambe (Koch), ExxonMobil (as per SourceWatch), DONORS.
Coal: although no known funding, strong support: Google: site:
site:www.texaspolicy.com coal gives 300+ hits
OIL+Coal: SPoke at Heartland ICCC-10
The website misspells her name as Harnett-White, twice.  TPPF BIo.
3 3 x
C O Richard Lindzen, PhD: emeritus Alfred P. Sloan Professor of Meteorology, member National Academy of Sciences, fellow of the American Meteorological Society and American Association for the Advancement of Science, author of 200 scientific articles and books.
Coal : Western Fuels Association 1991 video and 1995 MN Hearing2015 MN Hearing
OIL: 1992 OPEC talk in Vienna, also via Annapolis Center, GMI, Heartland, Tech Central Station (ExxonMobil)

Coal+OIL: spoke at Heartland ICCC–2, -3, -4
4 4 3 x
C O Pat Michaels, PhD: director of the Center for the Study of Science, Cato Institute, past president American Association of State Climatologists, former Virginia state climatologist, program chair American Meteorological Society.
Coal: Western Fuels Association funding of World Climate Report, many others
OIL: 40 percent from petroleum.

Coal+OIL: spoke at Heartland ICCC-1, –2, -3, -4, -6, -7, -9, -10.
5 4
C O Mark Mills: senior fellow Manhattan Institute, CEO Digital Power Group, a tech-centric capital advisory group, faculty Fellow McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science at Northwestern University.
Coal: Western Fuels Association via Greening Earth Society (“Scientific Advisor”), World Climate Report. Google site:www.worldclimatereport.com mills  for example: “Want to Improve Your Nation’s Health? Burn Coal”
OIL: via Manhattan Insitute (CG Koch, C Lambe(Koch), Scaife); spoke at TPPF2014 and TPPF2015.

Coal+OIL: spoke at Heartland ICCC-10.
4 3 3
C O Norman Rogers: founder of Rabbit Semiconductor company, policy advisor to The Heartland Institute, member of the American Geophysical Union and the American Meteorological Society.
Coal+OIL: Heartland Policy Advisor; moderated at  Heartland ICCC-9
4 x
C O Roy Spencer, PhD: Principal Research Scientist at the University of Alabama Huntsville; served as Senior Scientist for Climate Studies at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center; co-developer of satellite temperature measurement system.
Coal: Peabody, for MN 2015 Hearing

Coal+OIL: spoke at Heartland ICCC-1, -2, -3, -4, -6,  -9, -10.
Oil: GMI, Tech Central Station
4 4 3 x
O Lorraine Yapps Cohen: former communications & marketing manager ExxonMobil, columnist Examiner newspapers.  OIL: ExxonMobil.  Examiner.
6 8  of 9 Advisors; only 1 has  no known connections with Coal or OIL (or both), although a few are indirect 4 7 4 6
10 17  of 18 Board + Advisors 8 14 7 15

1 People were tagged with C or O if at some time or other, not necessarily currently, and not necessarily paid personally, they:

  • were long-time fossil employees.  For example, of 18 people, 3 worked for ExxonMobil, 1 for Shell.
  • got paid directly by fossil companies or their associations for consulting, testimony, other work or their think tank business.
  • got paid indirectly through fossil-funded groups, either via employment or other serious association, at least expenses likely. For example, Heartland ICCC speakers are counted but merely being a “Heartland expert” (sic) does not.
  • were fossil-funded think tank Trustees/Board members, so would know funding, although perhaps not paid.

Think tank finances are purposefully murky. Many ways exist to funnel money to advocates, such as speaking fees or book purchases. Readers can imagine the funding effects of any associated with these think tanks of saying “I accept mainstream science, we must reduce fossil burning.”

Crescendo to Climategate Cacophony pp.93-95 shows GMI, Heartland, and Manhattan. They (and TPPF) have had either tobacco connections (GMI, via Frederick Seitz) or direct funding (the rest), Fakery2 p.39. Of course, tobacco companies stay in business only by addicting people during adolescent brain development, knowing many will die. Some think tanks help and get paid for it.
For TPPF see
 Truth Tobacco Industry Documents, as for example Philip Morris (1998):

“We have had a close relationship with them for many years.  Per Neal’s operation, they have done a lot of work on issues that we deem important.  We are a longtime financial supporter.”

Involvement level is estimated as in Crescendo, p.96 and other tables there:
5  Organizers of petitions, conferences, projects; CEO/Chairman of Board, WSJ OpEd.
4  Active in small workshop, keynote speaker, chapter author; Board member, active worker, WSJ letter.
3  Speaker; contributor to report, journal article; Advisory Board member, occasional projects.
2  Attend conference, give one talk for Roundtable, sign small letter/petition; temporary connection.
1  Sign “mass-market” petition

GMI, as the pioneer think tank for climate denial, was of course the focus of Merchants of Doubt.

Hashtag: #CO2CoalOILition
Update 04/04/16: Cohen GMI score upped to 3, given coauthoring with Happer.

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