Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board

Background

The Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board (AHDB) is an “arm’s length body” (ALB) of the UK’s Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (Defra), classified as a  non-departmental public body (NDPB). As an NDPB, the AHDB has some operational control over policy, can collect levies, and accept grant-in-aid money. [1], [2]

The AHDB is funded through statutory levies paid by “farmers, growers and others in the supply chain,” including beef, lamb, pork, and dairy producers. [3]

The AHDB was formed in 2008 from five previous levy bodies: the Meat and Livestock Commission, the Milk Development Council, the British Potato Council, the Home-Grown Cereals Authority, and the Horticultural Development Council. The board’s legal purpose is to develop, improve, and increase the efficiency, productivity, marketing, services, and sustainability of the UK’s agriculture and horticulture industry. [4], [5]

Working with more than 100,000 farming and supply chain businesses across the UK, the AHDB employs both regional officers and an international team to “develop export markets in new countries such as China and the Far East”. [3]

In January 2021, the AHDB launched a £1.5 million advertising campaign titled “We Eat Balanced” to “provide clear facts to help those reducing meat and dairy consumption to re-consider their choices and to promote a healthy, sustainable diet.” [6]

Stance on Climate Change

The AHDB states: “Over the next 40 years, the global food system will have to feed more people with less impact. This will mean providing a higher quality diet whilst dealing with greater competition for land, water and energy and the economic and political pressures of globalisation as the climate changes.” According to the organisation, “agriculture can also make a big contribution to mitigating climate change by storing carbon in soils and vegetation and by generating renewable energy.” [7]

The AHDB is a member of the industry-led initiative Greenhouse Gas Action Plan (GHGAP), which aims to reduce its members’ greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 3 megatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (Mt CO2e) per year from 2018 to 2022. [7] 

In March 2021, the AHDB hosted a webinar series titled “Carbon Week.” One session titled “Supply chain requirements – building a narrative” explored why AHDB members “should invest time and effort in measuring and reporting our sustainability and environmental performance” in order to “demonstrate that its products are sustainable in a way that is transparent, assured and timely, to continue to ensure consumer, investor and retailer confidence.” [8], [9]

In January 2021, the AHDB wrote in a press release in response to Veganuary, a campaign that encourages people to eat plant-based during January, that “there is a belief that the month is now ‘owned’ by those who follow alternative lifestyle choices and set out to convert others while spreading misinformation and mischief around livestock farming.” The board announced plans “to use social media to push positive messages about our meat and dairy sectors, supported by advertorials in high-profile titles, and working behind the scenes with social media influencers.” [10] 

The same month, AHDB launched a campaign titled “We Eat Balanced” to “provide clear facts to help those reducing meat and dairy consumption to re-consider.” [6]

In December 2020, the AHDB responded to the Sixth Carbon Budget report published by the UK Climate Change Committee, stating that “despite the UK having some of the world’s most sustainable red meat and dairy production systems, it is clear that in order for us to continue production and consumption, significant carbon savings must be made.” [11] 

In late 2020, the AHDB announced the launch of a “Farm Excellence” network — a program to assess the carbon footprints of member farms, including 10 beef and lamb producers and four pork producers. [12], [13]

Livestock emissions

In a 2020 presentation, the AHDB stated that “while emissions of the entire agricultural sector (including livestock and aquaculture) account for 10% of the [UK’s] total emissions, those due to the use of fossil fuels represent a far more important 64%.” The organisation also argues that “it is commonly cited that livestock emit more emissions than transport, but this is untrue.” [14], [6]

During the same year, Greenpeace published a report estimating that animal farming in the EU, including the UK, emitted 704 Mt CO2e in 2018, more than “all EU cars and vans combined.” In the report, Greenpeace considered not only the livestock sector’s direct emissions and energy consumption emissions, known as scope 1 and 2 emissions, but also indirect emissions caused by livestock farming, such as land use and land-use change associated with animal feed production. These types of emissions, which are also referred to as scope 3 emissions, account for the majority of the meat industry’s emissions and are not included the 10 percent estimate given by the AHDB. [15], [16]

Key Narratives

The AHDB promotes a number of narratives to justify the meat industry’s business model. Find out more about how the meat industry is climate-washing its activities in our investigation. And you can read counter-arguments and criticisms of these narratives in our factsheet.

‘Animal agriculture isn’t a serious driver of climate change’

‘Animal agriculture’s climate impact is exaggerated’

In 2020, the AHDB criticised the BBC for rewarding children for going meat-free for at least two weeks, as part of children’s TV show Blue Peter’s “climate hero challenge.” The AHDB claimed that “phrases including ‘reducing the amount of meat you eat, especially beef and lamb, is known to be even better for the climate than reducing the amount you travel in a car’ is incorrect, misleading and based on widely-debunked data.” In 2020, Greenpeace published a report estimating that animal farming in the EU, including the UK, emitted 704 Mt CO2e in 2018, more than “all EU cars and vans combined,” considering both the sector’s direct and indirect emissions. [17], [15]

Other meat industry groups also criticised the BBC’s “climate hero challenge”, including Quality Meat Scotland (QMS), a member of SAI Platform, a food industry initiative that encompasses the European Roundtable for Beef Sustainability, and Hybu Cig Cymru/Meat Promotion Wales, a member of the Global Roundtable on Sustainable Beef. [17], [18] 

‘British meat is environmentally friendly’

According to the AHDB, “the UK is one of the most sustainable places in the world to produce beef and lamb.” The organisation notes that “land and water are different across the world, so while livestock require large quantities in comparison with plant-based foods, they are often being used for their ideal purpose.” [19], [20]

According to a 2019 study by environmental scientists from Harvard University, transitioning to a more plant-based food production system in the UK has the potential to extend the UK’s 1.5°C carbon budget by 75% to 103% up to 2050 while still meeting the population’s nutrition requirements. [21]

‘Grazing supports biodiversity and sequesters carbon’

In a 2020 presentation, the AHDB stated that “grasslands [used for livestock grazing] capture and store carbon from the atmosphere, provide a habitat for wildlife and aid biodiversity.” [14]

The AHDB states elsewhere that “by taking a more holistic approach to measuring the carbon footprint of livestock farming, the emissions from cattle and sheep are likely to be largely offset through carbon sequestration, or carbon absorption.” It supported this claim by referring to an unspecified study from New Zealand “showing how sustainable red meat production can be in temperate climates such as the UK.” The AHDB further notes that “while carbon sequestration would occur without cattle and sheep grazing, their existence allows us to produce food from this land while in harmony with nature.” [6]

When contacted by DeSmog, the AHDB specified that it was referring to a 2020 study by ecologists from Auckland University of Technology (AUT) commissioned by the meat industry group Beef + Lamb New Zealand, showing that “woody vegetation on NZ sheep and beef farms is offsetting between 63% and 118% of their on farm agricultural emissions.” [22] 

The AHDB later deleted the original document that included these statements, telling DeSmog that “as the campaign activity has now ended, the [campaigns conversation] pack has been removed.”

In 2021, New Zealand’s Ministry for the Environment stated in a separate report that the AUT study included “some fundamental limitations in how the estimates of carbon sequestration were derived” and concluded that the proportion of emissions being offset was only 33 percent. A study on the concept of “grazed ecosystems,” also known as “holistic management,” has found that “the application of HM [holistic management] principles of trampling and intensive foraging are as detrimental to plants, soils, water storage, and plant productivity as are conventional grazing systems.” [23], [24]

‘Livestock graze on land unsuitable for other uses’

In a 2020 presentation, the AHDB argued that “just over 60% of UK agricultural land is grassland, less suitable economically and environmentally for anything other than livestock grazing.” [14]

University of Oxford environmental researcher Marco Springmann argues that “if everybody were to make the argument that ‘our pastures are the best and should be used for grazing’, then there would be no way to limit global warming.” A 2020 study by biodiversity experts from Aarhus University on how rewilding can serve as a climate mitigation strategy identified plant-based diets as a key means of freeing up land for this purpose. [25], [26]

‘Plant-based diets do not solve the problem of climate change’

‘Dietary change is an ineffective climate strategy’

As part of the “We Eat Balanced” campaign, the AHDB states that “should livestock production be dramatically reduced due to more people becoming semi-vegetarian, emissions are unlikely to reduce very much. This is due to the emissions of any replacement foods and products. This is supported by a Swedish study which shows the carbon footprint of lifelong vegans is only 4% lower than meat eaters.” [6]

When contacted by DeSmog, the AHDB specified that it was referring to a 2014 study by economists from the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU). According to the study, switching to vegetarianism could reduce GHG emissions associated with diet by 20 percent. The study hypothesised that if consumers spend the income they save by not buying meat “according to their current preferences, they would forego 96% of potential energy savings and 49% of greenhouse gas emission savings.” The AHDB later deleted the original document that included these statements, telling DeSmog that “as the campaign activity has now ended, the [campaigns conversation] pack has been removed.” [27]

The organisation further states: “Studies suggest removing animal products from western diets could reduce personal carbon footprints by around 2%. Care must be taken to avoid replacing sustainably and locally produced foods such as red meat and dairy with imported goods, with potentially wider environmental implications.” [28]

However, a systematic review based on multiple studies concluded that GHG emissions “differ considerably per diet, with a vegan diet having the lowest CO2eq production per 2000 kcal consumed.” According to an analysis published by Oxford University’s Our World in Data project, the transport of food accounts for only a small share of emissions, while most GHG emissions caused by animal agriculture result from the production of the meat itself. [29], [30]

‘Less meat is wasted than fruit and vegetables’

In response to the publication of the EAT-Lancet report, which calls for a reduction in food waste to decrease food demand, the AHDB cites the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), stating that “food waste from meat and dairy is one of the lowest at 20%, with up to 45% of fruit and vegetables wasted, 30% of cereals and 30% of fish.” [6]

Studies have found “plant-based diets are also more climate friendly when they are wasted,” however.  Researchers from the University of Michigan showed that “fruits and vegetables which comprise 33 percent of food waste [in the U.S.], account for only 8 percent of carbon dioxide emissions,” while animal products “account for 33 percent of food waste by mass and 74 percent of carbon dioxide emissions.” [29], [31], [29]

A 2021 study by researchers from Freiburg University and Vienna University of Economics and Business concluded that “an exclusive focus on food waste would potentially mislead policymakers and prevent them from addressing diets, despite [dietary change towards more plant-based diets] being the more effective strategy for reducing resource use.” [32]

‘Meat is needed for a healthy diet and to feed the world’ 

‘Meat is crucial to feeding a growing global population’

The AHDB states on its website: “Over the next 40 years, the global food system will have to feed more people with less impact.” It argues elsewhere that “responsible and strategic livestock farming is a highly productive industry that produces a large amount of nutritious food for the population.” [7], [6]

AHDB Head of Market Specialists for Livestock and Dairy Chris Gooderham stated in 2019: “Any cap on [the sector’s] production would be a misguided and meaningless tactic for tackling climate change. Our farmers need support to further improve productivity and reduce their carbon footprint while continuing to produce vital, nourishing food for a growing population.” [33]

According to the World Resources Institute (WRI), a sustainable development organisation, feeding 10 billion people by 2050 without transitioning to a more plant-based global diet would necessitate the destruction of the world’s remaining forests and “agriculture alone would produce almost twice the emissions allowable from all human activities.” [34], [35]

‘Diet is a personal choice’

As part of the AHDB’s “We Eat Balanced” campaign, which aims to “help those reducing meat and dairy consumption to re-consider [sic] their choices,” the AHDB stated that “choosing to exclude all animal products is a personal choice,” noting that “the majority of people in the UK include animal products like red meat and dairy.” [6]

‘Meat is particularly nutrient-dense’

In 2020, the AHDB criticised the BBC for encouraging children to reduce their meat consumption as part of an environmental initiative by children’s TV show Blue Peter, stating that “the minerals and vitamins found in red meat should form an important part of a growing young person’s diet.” [17]

As part of the AHDB’s “We Eat Balanced” campaign, the AHDB notes that vitamin B12 is “found naturally in red meat […] and in dairy […], as well as eggs and fish and can be more difficult to source from foods of plant origin.” [36]

Will Jackson, AHDB’s Strategy Director for Beef & Lamb, responded to the EAT-Lancet Commission report stating: “[Dairy and red meat] are an important nutritional part of a healthy, balanced diet. […] Government guidelines suggest we should have 70g of red meat a day. Average population intake in the UK is currently below this figure. Any suggestion that we should further reduce our intake could have unintended detrimental consequences on health.” The UK’s official dietary guidelines, however, recommends reducing the intake of red and processed meat to “no more than 70 grams per day.” [37], [38]

Nutrition associations, including the British Nutrition Foundation, approve of meat-free diets. According to the American Dietetic Association, “appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases.” [39], [40]

The AHDB states elsewhere that “food’s carbon footprint is typically calculated by weight and doesn’t factor in nutrient availability.” According to an analysis by Oxford University’s Our World in Data, beef, lamb, and mutton also have significantly higher carbon footprints per 100 grams of protein than plant-based sources of protein such as tofu and other pulses. [6], [41]

‘Innovations in animal agriculture will tackle climate change’

‘Slaughtering and livestock management innovations will cut emissions’

The AHDB suggests reducing farms’ carbon footprint by slaughtering animals earlier, the use of anaerobic digesters, and better slurry and manure management. [42]

Environmental organisations GRAIN and the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP) argue “that the large gains in ‘efficiency’ realised by industrial farming in the twentieth century will be hard to repeat without major ecological, social and health impacts.” They describe the efficiency of intensive livestock production as “a myth.” [43]

‘New grazing techniques can sequester carbon’

In a 2020 presentation, the AHDB stated that “research is currently underway which looks at the extent of carbon neutrality when responsible and strategic grazing methods are used to produce red meat” and that “the early results have been promising, demonstrating that managing livestock effectively can sequester tons of atmospheric carbon in soils.” [14]

Environmental scientists from the University of Oxford have criticised the idea of using cattle grazing to capture carbon for only offsetting 20-60 percent of annual average emissions from the grazing ruminant sector, concluding that “grass-fed cattle remain net contributors to warming.” [44]

Funding

The Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board (AHDB) is an “arm’s length body” of the UK’s Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (Defra), classified as a non-departmental public body (NDPB). The AHDB is funded through statutory levies paid by “farmers, growers and others in the supply chain,” including beef, lamb, pork, and dairy producers. [1], [3]

For the financial period 2019/20, the AHDB reported a total income of £67.2 million. According to a 2018 Defra report, the AHDB also has “non-levy income of around £10 million per year from EU grants, fees for services, and from its commercial subsidiary, Meat and Livestock Commercial Services Ltd (MLCSL).” [45], [46]

A £1 million dairy marketing campaign the AHDB launched in 2020, titled “Milk Your Moments,” was co-funded by Defra, the Scottish government, the Welsh government, and the Northern Ireland Executive. [47]

Lobbying

According to LobbyFacts.eu, the AHDB spent €300,000-399,999 on lobbying EU institutions every year between 2015 and 2019, declared four full-time lobbyists, and has held at least one meeting with the European Commission since 2014. According to the database, the AHDB Brussels office “monitored” a range of policies, including the ongoing Common Agricultural Policy simplification, policies on animal and plant health, promotion of agricultural products, climate and energy framework and air quality proposals, and food labelling. [48]

Starting from 2017, the AHDB participated in an EU-funded campaign, “aiming to convince millennial consumers (aged 25-35) across four EU markets (France, Ireland, Germany and the UK) to ‘Love Lamb,’” alongside Interbev, France’s leading cattle association, and Bord Bia, the Irish Food Board. [49]

The AHDB co-developed the UK’s national dietary guidelines with Public Health England (PHE), an executive agency of the Department of Health and Social Care, as a member of the guidelines’ “external reference group.” It is also a “sustaining member” of the British Nutrition Association, another organisation involved in shaping governmental nutrition policies. [50], [51]

In 2020, the AHDB launched a £1 million dairy marketing campaign titled “Milk Your Moments,” co-funded by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), the Scottish government, the Welsh government, and the Northern Ireland Executive. [47]

The same year, along with meat industry groups Quality Meat Scotland (QMS) and Hybu Cig Cymru / Meat Promotion Wales (HCC), the AHDB criticised the BBC for suggesting that children reduce their meat consumption as part of children’s TV show Blue Peter’s “climate hero challenge.” The BBC subsequently changed the challenge from asking children to go “meat-free” for at least two weeks to choosing a couple of vegetarian meals a week. Vegan campaign group Surge criticised the BBC for bowing to meat industry pressure, arguing that critics of the campaign perpetuated “the false narrative that land can either produce crops or, if it can’t, it must be used to produce meat.” [17], [52], [53]

In 2017, Mick Sloyan, Senior Director for Pork at AHDB, stated that a meat tax would be “an incredibly blunt tool for a complex problem,” in response to Jeremy Coller, founder of the Farm Animal Investment Risk & Return (FAIRR) Initiative, who had suggested that “if policymakers are to cover the true cost of livestock epidemics like avian flu and human epidemics like obesity, diabetes and cancer, while also tackling the twin challenges of climate change and antibiotic resistance, then a shift from subsidisation to taxation of the meat industry looks inevitable.” [54]

Affiliations

The AHDB is an affiliate of the European Livestock Voice, an EU-level campaign started in 2019 by the farming association COPA-COGECA and 10 other livestock organisations. [55], [56]

The AHDB is also a member of the International Meat Secretariat, a nonprofit organisation representing the red meat sector at a global level. [57], [58]

Phil Bicknell, Market Intelligence Director at AHDB, is the former Head of Food and Farming at the National Farmers’ Union (NFU), an organisation representing farmers in England and Wales. [59], [60]

As part of the AHDB’s “We Eat Balanced” campaign, the organisation partnered with food standards scheme Red Tractor and launched the Food Advisory Board (FAB) at the Food Matters Live 2019 event, an annual health and nutrition exhibition. [61], [62]

The AHDB’s Chair Nicholas Saphir was formerly employed by dairy company Dairy Crest (now Saputo Dairy UK) and the Organic Milk Producers’ Cooperative (Omsco). According to the organisation’s website, Saphir “has a long and successful record of chairing industry and government bodies in the food and farming sector, including being the chair of the Central Council for Agricultural and Horticultural Cooperation, founder chair of Food from Britain, president of the Fresh Produce Consortium and chair of the Agricultural Forum.” [63]

Speakers at the AHDB’s 2021 “Carbon Week” webinar series included Sarah Haire, Head of Agriculture at Dawn Meats and former Chair of the European Roundtable for Beef Sustainability; Harriet Wilson, agriculture and sustainable sourcing manager at McDonald’s; and multiple speakers from agricultural and environmental consultancy ADAS Climate and Sustainability. [9] 

Research Collaborations

According to the EU Transparency Register, the AHDB participated in Euro Dairy, EU Pig, Dairy-4-Future and Innovation for Sustainable Sheep and Goat Production in Europe (iSAGE), EU-funded projects aiming to improve the efficiency, resiliency and sustainability of EU livestock farming. [57], [64], [65], [66], [67]

Resources

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  2. Public Bodies Handbook – Part 1,” Cabinet Office. Archived June 15, 2021.
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  5. The Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board Order 2008, Article 3Legislation.gov.uk. Archived June 15, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/wip/bpOHZ 
  6. Eat Balanced: Having Positive Conversations About Meat & Dairy 2021”, AHDB. Archived January 30, 2021.
  7. Greenhouse Gas Action Plan (GHGAP),” AHDB. Archived July 15, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/uR7UC 
  8. Carbon Week,” AHDB, January 29, 2021. Archived July 15, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/sh343 
  9. Carbon Week: Supply chain requirements – building a narrative,AHDB. Archived June 15, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/wip/vRjsL 
  10. It’s time the livestock sector reclaimed January,AHDB, January 2, 2020. Archived July 15, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/PFPci 
  11. AHDB responds to UK Climate Change Committee report,” AHDB, December 9, 2020. Archived July 15, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/wip/Bt0rt 
  12. AHDB launches on-farm carbon footprinting,” AHDB, November 18, 2020. Archived July 15, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/wip/UZQAi 
  13. Farm Excellence,” AHDB. Archived July 15, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/wip/3MlxP 
  14. Having positive conversations about meat & dairy, January 2020,” AHDB. Archived June 15, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/z6QTk 
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  16. Fiona Harvey. “EU’s farm animals ‘produce more emissions than cars and vans combined’,” The Guardian. Archived July 15, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/wip/hKn5J 
  17. AHDB, QMS and HCC respond to CBBC’s Blue Peter Green Badge campaign,” AHDB, April 13, 2021. Archived June 15, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/wip/56RHn 
  18. HCC joins global push for sustainable meat,Meat Management, March 16, 2021. Archived July 15, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/RlmgW
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  21. Eating Away at Climate Change With Negative Emissions,” Harvard Law School, April 11, 2019. Archived July 14, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/Jfgjy 
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  24. John Carter et al. “Holistic Management: Misinformation on the Science of Grazed Ecosystems,” International Journal of Biodiversity. Archived July 15, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/wip/jvg3j 
  25. Damian Carrington. “Why you should go animal-free: 18 arguments for eating meat debunked,” The Guardian, June 19, 2020. Archived July 9, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/wip/zVUwT 
  26. Jens-Christian Svenning. “Rewilding should be central to global restoration efforts,” One Earth, December 18, 2020. Archived June 30, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/Q4qpv
  27. Janina Grabs. “The rebound effects of switching to vegetarianism. A microeconomic analysis of Swedish consumption behavior,Ecological Economics, August 2015. Archived July 15, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/wip/RbPPK 
  28. Will reducing the UK’s red meat consumption improve our environmental impact?,” We Eat Balanced. Archived July 15, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/wip/SFHIq 
  29. Bingli Chai et al. “Which Diet Has the Least Environmental Impact on Our Planet? A Systematic Review of Vegan, Vegetarian and Omnivorous Diets,” Sustainability, July 2019. Archived July 15, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/wip/ICLxh 
  30. Hannah Ritchie. “You want to reduce the carbon footprint of your food? Focus on what you eat, not whether your food is local,” Our World in Data, January 24, 2020. Archived July 13, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/wip/wJHsU 
  31. Martin Heller & Gregory Keoleian. “Greenhouse Gas Emission Estimates of U.S. Dietary Choices and Food Loss,” Journal of Industrial Ecology, September 4, 2014. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/wip/IsaIH
  32. Hanna Helander et al. “Eating healthy or wasting less? Reducing resource footprints of food consumption,” Environmental Research Letters, February, 2021. Archived June 30, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/d2J7R 
  33. AHDB responds to ‘Peak Meat’ by 2030,” AHDB, December 16, 2019. Archived June 15, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/wip/5WEat
  34. World Resources Report: Creating a Sustainable Food Future,World Resources Institute, December 2018. Archived July 14, 2021
  35. Damian Carrington. “Beef-eating ‘must fall drastically’ as world population grows,” The Guardian, December 5, 2018. Archived July 14, 2021. Archive.ph URL: ​​https://archive.ph/wip/0CheC
  36. Vitamin B12,” We Eat Balanced. Archived June 15, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/wip/xGIws 
  37. AHDB response to Eat Lancet Commission report,” AHDB, January 16, 2019. Archived June 15, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/wip/ZxQKP
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  44. Tara Garnett et al. “Grazed and confused?,” FCRN. Archived June 30, 2021
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  53. Claire Hamlett. “Blue Peter bends to flesh industry bullying,Surge, April 14, 2021. Archived July 15, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/wip/x7eiJ 
  54. Lauren Dean. “Meat tax ‘increasingly probable’ to keep within 2degc Paris agreement,” Farmers Guardian, December 16, 2017. Archived July 15, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/wip/b25Nr 
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  58. About the IMS,” International Meat Secretariat. Archived June 16, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/wip/N8PoV
  59. Phil Bicknell,” AHDB. Archived July 15, 2021. Archive.ph URL: ​​https://archive.ph/wip/XXZm9 
  60. National Farmers’ Union (UK),” DeSmog. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/1xbhd 
  61. Enjoy the food you eat We Eat Balanced,” We Eat Balanced. Archived June 15, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/wip/3AJPv 
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  64. EuroDairy,” EuroDairy. Archived July 15, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/wip/O4qxe 
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