Mercatus Center

Mercatus Center, George Mason University


The Mercatus Center is a conservative think tank located at George Mason University and is a sister organization to the Institute for Humane Studies. The Mercatus Center was originally founded at Rutgers University by Richard Fink in the late 1970s, under the name the Center for Market Processes. [1]

Koch Industries began funding the organization when it moved to George Mason University in the 1980s, and still finances the center today. In 1999, the organization was renamed the Mercatus Center. Charles Koch and Richard Fink serve on its board of directors.  [1][2]

The Mercatus Center asserts that a gap exists between economic understanding and real-world decision and policy making. Its mission is to “bridge the gap between academic research and public policy problems, to advance an understanding of the economics of public policy” through “education (graduate student training), research (peer reviewed academic publications and policy studies), and outreach (media, testimony, and lectures).” [3]

The Wall Street Journal has called the Mercatus Center “the most important think tank you’ve never heard of.” SourceWatch identifies the Mercatus Center as “one of the best-funded think tanks in the United States.” [4], [5]

From 1999-2006, the Mercatus Center received a total of $2,670,662 in funding from conservative organizations, including $1.44 million from the Koch Family Charitable Foundations. Since 1998, the Mercatus Center at GMU has received at least $330,000 from ExxonMobil. [6]

Mercatus Center and Lobbying

According to the Center for Public Integrity, the Mercatus Center regularly lobbies in the federal government, including providing lawmakers with “Capitol Hill breakfasts and luncheons hosted by deregulation scholars.” [21]

The Mercatus Center states that it does not engage in lobbying, and does not employ nor retain any registered lobbyists. However, in 2005 Ohio Congressman Bob Ney, who has traveled on 19 occasions at the expense of the Mercatus Center, proposed a bill to amend the Clean Air Act. 

Ney’s bill called for the Secretary of Energy to build fifteen new oil refineries and sell them to private companies. Ney’s amendment fell in line with the position of the Mercatus Center, which had been trying to weaken the Clean Air Act, and had the potential to benefit Koch Industries, Inc.—the largest private oil company in the United States and the Mercatus Center’s largest beneficiary.

Lobbying rules stipulate that any organization that spends more than $24,500 within a six-month period trying to influence government representatives, must register itself as a lobbying group. In both 2004 and 2005, the Mercatus Center spent over $55,000 on congressional travel. Furthermore, between 2000 and 2005 Mercatus spent $227,000 on more than 400 trips by government officials and their aides. The Mercatus Center has never registered itself as lobbying group. [22]

Craig Holman of Public Citizen reported that “‘There is no conceivable argument of why this group has not registered to lobby. They have met the threshold that makes them a lobbying group.” Carrie Conko, the Center’s communications director responded, saying “The Mercatus Center does not engage in lobbying.” [23]

GMU Ties to Conservative Donors

Documents released in late April 2018 revealed George Mason University gave the Charles Koch Foundation a say in hiring decisions in exchange for donations, The Associated Press reported. [32]

The documents were released to former GMU student Samantha Parsons under a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request after years of having similar requests denied. Parsons now works for the group UnKoch My Campus. [32]

GMU president Angel Cabrera said the agreements “fall short of the standards of academic independence I expect any gift to meet.” His admission came three days after a judge began looking into the university’s previous refusal to release documents. [32]

The released donor agreements shed light onto million-dollar deals where the Koch Foundation would endow a fund to pay the salary for professors at the Mercatus Center. As part of the agreement, two members of a five-member committee could be chosen by donors to select the professor for the position. View an example of such an agreement, via The Washington Post. [32][33]

The Charles Koch Institute released a statement claiming the agreements were “old and inactive”: [32]

These old grant agreements at George Mason University did not allow us to cause the university to hire certain professors, nor did they allow us to make decisions regarding the curricula or research that professors pursued,” the document, entitled “Our Giving Principles,” claimed. [32]

The revelations run counter to previous claims made by the University that Koch foundation grants did not influence academic freedom. For example, Cabrera had said in a 2014 blog post: “these rules are an essential part of our academic integrity. If these rules are not acceptable, we simply don’t accept the gift. Academic freedom is never for sale. Period.” [32]

While heavily redacted, the documents also reveal some details of a $10 million donation from the Koch Foundation and a $20 million donation from an anonymous donor that occurred in conjunction with GMU renaming its law school after Antonin Scalia. While the donor is not named, Leonard Leo, executive vice president of the conservative Federalist Society, is mentioned as a representative. [32]

Private donors have been provided influence over faculty affairs at our public university,” Bethany Letiecq, president of the American Association of University Professors at GMU, said. “This is a violation of the public trust.” [32]

Stance on Climate Change

“The evidence regarding global warming and human contribution to it is mixed, and as forecasts of anthropogenic warming get more refined, they predict less extreme warming.” [7]


According to data compiled by the Conservative Transparency project, the Mercatus Center received the following funding from 1985 to 2015. Note that not all funding data has been verified by DeSmogBlog. [30]

*Note: Totals below include both grants given directly to the “Mercatus Center” and those earmarked for Mercatus, but funneled through the George Mason University or GMU Foundation.

See the attached spreadsheet for details on the Mercatus Center’s funding by year (.xlsx).

George Mason University Foundation$51,058,774
Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation$9,085,500
Searle Freedom Trust$3,470,000
Sarah Scaife Foundation$1,930,000
Donors Capital Fund$1,508,000
Marshall Heritage Foundation$1,500,000
John Templeton Foundation$1,298,367
Earhart Foundation$1,247,125
Schwab Charitable Fund$1,114,550
Richard and Helen DeVos Foundation$500,000
The TWS Foundation$467,000
Exxon Mobil$415,000
E L Craig Foundation$275,000
John William Pope Foundation$255,000
Pierre F. and Enid Goodrich Foundation$245,000
The Opportunity Foundation$243,000
Armstrong Foundation$240,000
David H. Koch Charitable Foundation$200,000
Bochnowski Family Foundation$190,000
The Challenge Foundation$175,000
The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation$165,000
Thomas W. Smith Foundation$150,000
Chase Foundation of Virginia$150,000
The Rodney Fund$126,200
Claws Foundation$125,000
The Shelby Cullom Davis Foundation$124,000
Lowndes Foundation$115,000
JM Foundation$75,000
The Roe Foundation$67,500
Tepper Family Foundation$53,000
Philip M. McKenna Foundation$51,000
Dodge Jones Foundation$50,500
DeVos Urban Leadership Initiative$50,000
Atlas Economic Research Foundation$40,000
Charles and Ann Johnson Foundation$38,000
Castle Rock Foundation$30,000
American Petroleum Institute$25,000
The Randolph Foundation$25,000
Diana Davis Spencer Foundation$25,000
Central Childrens Charities$25,000
The Gordon and Mary Cain Foundation$20,000
Richard Seth Staley Educational Foundation$17,700
Kickapoo Springs Foundation$15,000
National Christian Charitable Foundation$14,400
Peterson G Peterson Foundation$13,500
Lynn & Foster Friess Family Foundation$11,000
William H. Donner Foundation$10,000
National Philanthropic Trust$7,000
Aequus Institute$7,000
Leadership Institute$3,500
Eric Javits Family Foundation$3,100
The Howell Foundation$3,000
John P and Kathryn G Evans Foundation$1,110
The Vernon K. Krieble Foundation$1,000
Grand Total$92,191,436

Koch Funding

According to Greenpeace’s PolluterWatch project, the Mercatus Center received at least $10,474,500 from Koch Foundations from between 1997 and 2010. [8]

Greenpeace USA found that the Mercatus Center at George Mason University has received $9,285,500 since 1999, while the Center for the Study of Market Processes (the precursor to Mercatus) received $2,156,065 between 1986 and 1997 for a grand total of $11,441,565. [31]

*Note that original tax forms prior to 1997 are no longer available for verification.

 Charles Koch FoundationClaude R. Lambe Charitable FoundationDavid H. Koch Charitable FoundationGrand Total
Mercatus Center, George Mason University$9,085,500 $200,000$9,285,500
1999  $50,000$50,000
2000  $100,000$100,000
2001  $50,000$50,000
2002$400,000  $400,000
2003$27,000  $27,000
2005$1,015,000  $1,015,000
2006$3,900,000  $3,900,000
2007$2,682,500  $2,682,500
2008$1,050,000  $1,050,000
2012$11,000  $11,000
Center for the Study of Market Processes (precursor to Mercatus)$1,095,297$810,768$250,000$2,156,065
*1986 $87,200 $87,200
*1987 $72,825$20,000$92,825
*1988 $59,850$45,000$104,850
*1989$71,400 $35,000$106,400
*1990 $93,800 $93,800
*1991$9,300$10,600 $19,900
*1992$271,000$64,660 $335,660
*1993$118,597$421,833 $540,430
*1995$625,000 $50,000$675,000
*1996  $50,000$50,000
1997  $50,000$50,000
Grand Total (Mercatus + CSMP)$10,180,797$810,768$450,000$11,441,565

990 Forms

Key People

Board of Directors

As of September, 2015: [9]

  • Frank Atkinson
  • Donald J. Boudreaux — Senior Fellow
  • Emily Chamlee-Wright — Mercatus Center Senior Research Scholar
  • Tyler Cowen — Holbert L. Harris Chair of Economics at George Mason University.  Chairman and General Director of Mercatus Center
  • Richard Fink —  Executive VP and member of the board of directors of Koch Industries, Inc.
  • Brian Hooks — President of the Charles Koch Foundation 
  • Manuel H. Johnson
  • Charles Koch — Chairman of the Board and CEO of Koch Industries, Inc.
  • Edwin Meese
  • Vernon Smith — Mercatus Center Fellow


As of September, 2015: [10]

  • Sherzod Abdukadirov — Research Fellow; Regulatory Studies Program at the Mercatus Center
  • Paul Dragos Aligica — Senior Research Fellow; F. A. Hayek Program for Advanced Study in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics.
  • Charles Blahous — Director of Spending and Budget Initiative; Senior Research Fellow
  • Peter J. Boettke — Vice President and Director, F.A. Hayek Program for Advanced Study in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics; BB&T Professor for the Study of Capitalism;  University Professor of Economics and Philosophy, George Mason University
  • Donald J. Boudreaux — Senior Fellow; Martha and Nelson Getchell Chair for the Study of Free Market Capitalism, Mercatus Center; Senior Fellow, F.A. Hayek Program for Advanced Study in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics.
  • Tyler Cowen —  Holbert L. Harris Chair of Economics at George Mason University; General Director
  • Christopher Coyne —  Associate Director, F.A. Hayek Program for Advanced Study in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics;  Director of Graduate Programs, George Mason University
  • Veronique de Rugy —  Senior Research Fellow. Fiscal Policy Analyst at the Cato Institute. [11]
  • Eli Dourado —  Director of Technology Policy Program; Research Fellow
  • Jerry Ellig —  Senior Research Fellow
  • Michael Farren — Research Fellow; Mercatus Center Frédéric Bastiat Fellow.
  • Jason J. Fichtner —  Senior Research Fellow
  • Jack Goldstone —  Senior Fellow; Hazel Professor of Public Policy, George Mason University; Director, Center for Global Policy at George Mason University
  • Robert Graboyes —  Senior Research Fellow
  • Tim Groseclose —  Adam Smith Chair, Mercatus Center; Professor of Economics, George Mason University
  • Joseph V. Gulfo —  Visiting Scholar
  • Steven Horwitz —  Affiliated Senior Scholar. Has been listed as a Heartland Institute “Expert.”
  • Garett Jones —  Senior Scholar;  BB&T Professor for the Study of Capitalism. One called for “Less Democracy” in an event on campus. [12]
  • Daniel Klein JIN Chair in Economics; Professor of Economics, George Mason University. 
  • Christopher Koopman — Research Fellow with the Project for the Study of American Capitalism at the Mercatus Center.
  • Timur Kuran —  Visiting Scholar, F.A. Hayek Program for Advanced Study in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics.
  • Peter Leeson —  BB&T Professor for the Study of Capitalism; Duncan Black Professor of Economics and Law, George Mason University. A “Peter Leeson” is listed as a “Select Faculty Member” of the Foundation for Economic Education, according to Sourcewatch. [13]
  • Jayme Lemke —  Senior Research Fellow;  Associate Director, Academic and Student Programs; Senior Fellow, F.A. Hayek Program for Advanced Study in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics.
  • Kevin McCabe —  Mercatus Center Scholar; Professor of Economics and Law, George Mason University
  • Patrick McLaughlin —  Senior Research Fellow
  • Maurice P. McTigue —  Vice President, Outreach; Director of the Mercatus Center’s Government Accountability Project and a member of its Spending and Budget Initiative. A Maurice P. McTigue is listed as a Former Fellow at the Texas Public Policy Foundation, according to SourceWatch. [14]
  • Stephen Matteo Miller — Senior Research Fellow
  • Adam Millsap — Research fellow for the State and Local Policy Project at the Mercatus Center at George Mason University; Mercatus Center Adam Smith Fellow.
  • Matthew Mitchell —  Director of the Project for the Study of American Capitalism; Senior Research Fellow
  • Johanna Mollerstrom — Senior Scholar; Assistant Professor of Economics, George Mason University
  • Eileen Norcross —  Senior Research Fellow; Director for the State and Local Policy Project
  • John Nye —  Frederic Bastiat Chair in Political Economy, Mercatus Center; Professor of Economics, George Mason University.
  • Hester Peirce —  Director of Financial Markets Working Group; Senior Research Fellow
  • Margaret Polski —  Affiliate Research Fellow at the Krasnow Institute for Advanced Study.
  • Dima Yazji Shamoun — Research Fellow with the Regulatory Studies Program 
  • Brent Skorup —  Research Fellow in the Technology Policy Program at the Mercatus Center
  • Vernon Smith —  Mercatus Center Fellow; Professor of Economics and Law, Chapman University; Board Member, Mercatus Center
  • Solomon Stein —  Research Fellow, F.A. Hayek Program for Advanced Study in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics
  • Virgil Storr — Senior Research Fellow; Senior Director, Academic and Student Programs;Senior Fellow, F. A. Hayek Program for Advanced Study in Philosophy, Politics and Economics
  • Thomas Stratmann —  Mercatus Center Scholar; University Professor of Economics, George Mason University
  • Alexander Tabarrok — Bartley J. Madden Chair in Economics, George Mason University. Also a Senior Fellow and Former Research Director of the Independent Institute. [15]
  • Adam Thierer —  Senior Research Fellow with the Technology Policy Program at the Mercatus Center
  • J. W. Verret —  Member, Financial Markets Working Group; Affiliated Senior Scholar; Assistant Professor, George Mason University School of Law
  • Richard Wagner —  Holbert L. Harris Professor of Economics, George Mason University; Distinguished Senior Fellow, F. A. Hayek Program for Advanced Study in Philosophy, Politics and Economics
  • Mark J. Warshawsky —  Senior Research Fellow
  • Richard Williams —  Vice President, Policy Research; Director of Regulatory Studies Program; Senior Research Fellow
  • Todd Zywicki —  Senior Scholar; Senior Fellow, F. A. Hayek Program for Advanced Study in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics; George Mason University Foundation; Professor of Law, George Mason University School of Law. A Todd J. Zywicki is Chairman of the Competitive Enterprise Institute.

Board of Directors (2012)

As of March, 2012, the Mercatus Center listed the following members of their Board of Directors on their website: [16]

Scholars (2012)

The Mercatus Center at George Mason University listed the following “Scholars” on their website as of March, 2012. [17]

  • Sherzod Abdukadirov — Research Associate, Regulatory Studies Program.
  • Omar Ahmad Al-Ubaydli — Research Fellow.
  • Paul Dragos Aligica — Senior Research Fellow.
  • Charles Blahous — Senior Research Fellow.
  • Peter J. Boettke
  • Donald J. Boudreaux — Senior Education Advisor.
  • Karol Boudreaux — Affiliated Research Fellow.
  • Jerry Brito — Senior Research Fellow.
  • Bryan Caplan — Senior Scholar.    
  • Emily Chamlee-Wright —  Senior Research Scholar.    
  • Tyler Cowen — General Director.
  • Christopher Coyne
  • David Borys
  • Veronique de Rugy — Senior Research Fellow. Also a monthly columnist for Reason Magazine of the Reason Foundation. [18]
  • Eli Dourado — Research Fellow.    
  • Jerry Ellig — Senior Research Fellow.    
  • Jason J. Fichtner —  Senior Research Fellow.    
  • Jack Goldstone —  Senior Fellow.
  • Wendy Gramm —  Distinguished Senior Scholar (Emeritus).
  • Andrew Hale
  • Robin D. Hanson — Associate Professor of Economics, GMU.
  • Steven Horwitz —  Affiliated Senior Scholar. Also listed as “Faculty” of the Foundation for Economic Education (FEE)[13]
  • Noel D. Johnson — Research Fellow.    
  • Garett Jones —  Senior Scholar.
  • Don W. King — Senior scholar.
  • Arnold Kling —  Affiliated Senior Scholar.
  • Mark Koyama — Senior Scholar.
  • Peter Leeson — Senior Scholar. Also listed as a “Faculty” member at the Foundation for Economic Education (FEE)[13]
  • Kevin McCabe — Scholar.    
  • Maurice P. McTigue — Vice President and Distinguished Visiting Scholar. Also listed as a “Senior Fellow” at the Texas Public Policy Foundation. [14]
  • Matthew Mitchell —  Senior Research Fellow    
  • Claire Morgan —  Director, Social Change Project.    
  • John Morrall —  Affiliated Senior Scholar.    
  • Andrew Morriss — Senior Scholar.    
  • Eileen Norcross — Senior Research Fellow.    
  • Sarah Nutter — Senior Scholar.     
  • John Nye —  Frederic Bastiat Chair in Political Economy, Mercatus Center.
  • Hester Peirce — Senior Research Fellow.    
  • Margaret Polski — Affiliate Research Fellow at the Krasnow Institute for Advanced Study.    
  • Russell Roberts —  J. Fish and Lillian F. Smith Professor of Economics Chair, Mercatus Center. Also ALEC “Featured Speaker.  [19]
  • Hilton Root — Affiliated Senior Scholar.    
  • William Ruger —  Affiliated Scholar.     
  • Anthony B. Sanders — Senior Scholar.
  • Houman Shadab
  • Vernon Smith — Fellow, and member of the Mercatus Center’s Board of Directors.
  • Jason Sorens — Affiliated Scholar.
  • Virgil Storr —  Senior Research Fellow.     
  • Thomas Stratmann — Scholar.
  • Daniel Sutter — Senior Scholar.
  • Alexander Tabarrok — Research Fellow. Also Research Director, The Independent Institute.   [15]
  • Adam Thierer — Senior Research Fellow.    
  • Gordon Tullock — Emeritus Professor of Law, George Mason University.    
  • J. W. Verret — Senior Scholar.
  • Richard Wagner — Senior Fellow.
  • Lawrence H. White — Senior Fellow. Also listed as a “Adjunct Scholar” at the Cato Institute. [20]
  • Lawrence J. White — Member, Financial Markets Working Group.
  • Bob Williams — Visiting Fellow. Founder and Senior Fellow at the Freedom Foundation.
  • Richard Williams — Director of Policy Research.
  • Bruce Yandle — Member, Financial Markets Working Group.
  • Todd Zywicki — Senior Scholar.


January 29, 2019

The Mercatus Center was one of 24 US and UK thinktanks and industry lobby groups to give evidence to a public hearing on “negotiating objectives” hosted by the US Trade Representative agency in Washington, DC.  The Center was represented by Daniel Griswold, a Senior Research Fellow for the thinktank, who told the hearing: [34]

I think as soon as the U.K can free itself from the precautionary principle, we’ll have a lot more opportunity to trade based on sensible regulations that are aimed at public health and safety, not at ill-founded fears about certain things.” [34]

The precautionary principle is an EU approach to legislation that allows countries to place restrictions on substances where there is uncertainty over the impact on the environment and health. It has been used to justify EU bans on substances including the bee-killing pesticides neonicotinoids and the organophosphate chlorpyrifos which research shows may harm the brain development of children. It gives regulators significantly more power to regulate substances than the US, which defends its approach as “science-based” or “risk-based.” [35], [36], [37], [38]

June 2016

The Mercatus Center was among organizations named in a Massachusetts subpoena looking for communications between ExxonMobil and organizations denying climate change, reports The Washington Times. [28]

Organizations named in the Massachusetts subpoena include the following: [28]

This latest inquiry by Massachusetts Attorney General Maura Healey is one in a series of investigations into what ExxonMobil knew about climate change and when, started by a coalition of attorneys general in the US. [29] 


The Mercatus Center opposed a mandatory greenhouse gas reporting rule. They claimed that a solution to global warming should not be cutting emissions, but rather “Work to facilitate movement of people from areas likely to be harmed by climate change” (PDF). [24]


In 2002, the Mercatus Center’s Distinguished Senior Scholar, Wendy Gramm asked for the reassessment of 44 of the Clean Air Act’s federal regulations.

Regulations included in the Mercatus Center’s requests for review were: national public health standards for smog and soot, and standards for tailpipe exhaust pollution from gasoline vehicles, diesel vehicles, and heavy diesel trucks.  As the non-profit group, Clean Air Trust highlighted, “Gramm would like to pull the plug on virtually every effective air pollution cleanup measure adopted in recent years.” [25]

January 2001

In a public comment (PDF) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on vehicle emissions, the Mercatus Center suggested that global warming would be, “beneficial, occurring at night, in the winter, and at the poles. If a slight warming does occur, historical evidence suggests it is likely to be beneficial, stimulating plant growth and making humans better off.” [7]


The Mercatus Center suggested 44 regulations to kill or modify under the Bush Administration, among them rules governing renovations to electric-utility plants. 14 of the 23 rules that the Whitehouse chose had been suggested by Mercatus, which according to the Wall Street Journal was “a record that flabbergasted Washington lobbying heavyweights.” [26]

Mercatus Center/CSMP Founding

The Mercatus Center began as the Center for the Study of Market Processes, “an educational and research center affiliated with George Mason University.” View historic documents below:

Mercatus Center Contact & Location

As of June 2016, the Mercatus Center listed the following contact information on its website: [27]

Mercatus Center
George Mason University
3434 Washington Boulevard, 4th Floor
Arlington, VA 22201-4508

Social Media


  1. History and Timeline,” Mercatus Center: George Mason University. Archived September 20, 2015. WebCite URL
  2. Jane Mayer. “Covert Operations,” The New Yorker, August 30, 2010. Archived September 22, 2015.  WebCite URL
  3. About,” Mercatus Center, George Mason University. Archived September 22, 2015. WebCite url:
  4. Rey Banks. “Mercatus Center Quietly Wields Influence,” The Mason Gazette, August 11, 2004. Archived August 24, 2007. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
  5. Mercatus Center,” SourceWatch. Archived September 21, 2015.
  6. ExxonSecrets Factsheet: George Mason University.
  7. “Public Interest Comment on the Environmental Protection Agency’s Request for Comment on a Petition: Control of Emissions From New and In-use Highway Vehicles and Engines” (PDF), Mercatus Center Regulatory Studies Program. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
  8. Mercatus Center: Koch Industries Climate Denial Front Group,” Greenpeace USA. Archived September 22, 2015. WebCite URL
  9. All – Board of Directors,” Mercatus Center: George Mason University. Archived September 22, 2015. WebCite URL:
  10. All- Scholars,” Mercatus Center: George Mason University. Archived September 22, 2015. WebCite URL
  11. Veronique de Rugy. “The Republican Spending Explosion,” Cato Institute, 2004. Archived September 22, 2015. WebCite URL
  12. Zaid Jilani. “Professor at Koch-funded university department calls for ‘less democracy’,” Raw Story, March 8, 2015. Archived September 22, 2015.
  13. Foundation for Economic Education,” SourceWatch. Archived September 22, 2015. 
  14. Texas Public Policy Foundation,” SourceWatch. Archived September 22, 2015.
  15. Alexander T. Tabarrok: Senior Fellow,” Independent Institute. Archived September 22, 2015. 
  16. All – Board of Directors,” Mercatus Center. Archived February 15, 2012.
  17. All – Scholars,” Mercatus Center. Archived May 3, 2012.
  18. Policy Study Authors: Veronique de Rugy,” Reason Foundation. Archived September 22, 2015. WebCite URL
  19. ALEC Featured Speakers,” SourceWatch. Archived September 22, 2015.
  20. Cato Institute/Personnel,” SourceWatch. Archived September 22, 2015.
  21. Kevin Bogardus. “Koch’s low profile belies political power,”  The Center for Public Integrity, July 15, 2004. Archived September 22, 2015. WebCite URL
  22. Anupama Narayanswamy and Alex Knott. “Unregistered advocates?“ The Center for Public Integrity, June 20, 2006. Archived September 22, 2015. WebCite URL
  23. Pam Martens. “The Koch Whisperers,” CounterPunch, September 12, 2011. Archived September 22, 2015. WebCite URL
  24. Bruce Yandle, Distinguished Adjunct Professor of Economics, MERCATUS CENTER. “Environmental Quality & Market Processes,” Mercatus Center. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
  25. Clean Air Villain of the Month,” Clean Air Trust, January, 2002. Archived September 22, 2015.
  26. Rule Breaker: In Washington, Tiny Think Tank Wields Big Stick on Regulation,” Wall Street Journal. Republished by the Mercatus Center. Archived September 22, 2015. WebCite URL
  27. Contact,” Mercatus Center. Archived June 15, 2016. WebCite URL:
  28. Valerie Richardson. “Exxon fights Mass. AG’s ‘political’ probe into climate change dissent,” The Washington Times, June 15, 2016. Archived June 24, 2016. WebCite URL:
  29. Ben Jervey. “State Investigations Into What Exxon Knew Double, and Exxon Gets Defensive,” Desmog, April 1, 2016.
  30. Mercatus Center,” Conservative Transparency. Data retrieved May 7, 2018.
  31. Mercatus Center” Koch Industries Climate Denial Front Group,” Greenpeace USA. Archived March 14, 2017. URL
  32. Documents show ties between university, conservative donors,” Associated Press, February 13, 2018. Archived April 30, 2018. URL:
  33. Donor agreement between the Mercatus Center and George Mason University to fund a faculty position,” The Washington Post, April 30, 2018.
  34. Transcript – Public Hearing on Negotiating Objectives for a USUK Trade Agreement (PDF),” Trade Policy Staff Committee, Office of the United States Trade Representative, January 29, 2019. Archived July 23, 2020. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.
  35. Natasha Foote, EU Commission set to vote on ban of controversial organophosphate pesticides,” Euractiv, December 4, 2019. Archived August 12, 2020. URL:
  36. Philip Case, “Bayer and NFU battling to overturn neonicotinoids ban,” Farmers Weekly, June 4, 2020. Archived August 12, 2020. URL
  37. Staffan Dahllof and Stéphane Horel, “Pesticide chlorpyrifos banned by EU,” EU Observer, December 9, 2019. Archived August 13, 2020. URL
  38. The Pesticide Action Network UK, Sustain and Dr Emily Lydgate, “Toxic Trade: How Trade Deals Threaten to Weaken UK Pesticide Standards,” Pesticide Action Network UK. Archived August 12, 2020. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.

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