Friends of Science

Friends of Science (FoS)


Friends of Science (FoS), or the Friends of Science Society, is a Canadian non-profit group based in Calgary, Alberta, “comprised mainly of active and retired earth and atmospheric scientists, engineers, and other professionals” whose main concern is what they describe as “the abuse of science displayed in the politically inspired Kyoto protocol.” [1]

FoS lists their goal as “To educate the public about climate science and through them bring pressure to bear on governments to engage in public debates on the scientific merits of the hypothesis of human induced global warming and the various policies that intend to address the issue.” [1]

In a January 28, 2007 article in the Toronto Star titled “Who’s still cool on global warming?” the President of the FOS admitted that about one-third of the funding for the FOS is provided by the oil industry. [2]

In an August 2006 Globe and Mail feature, the FOS was exposed for hiding the fact that they were funded in part by the oil and gas sector. According to the Globe and Mail, the oil industry money was funneled through the Calgary Foundation charity, to the University of Calgary and then put into an education trust for the FOS. [3]

According to the University of Calgary paper, the Gauntlet, the inspiration for the FoS came from Chris de Freitas of the University of Auckland: [72]

In the late ’90s we had a visit from Dr. Chris de Freitas–he came and spoke to the Geological Society twice,” said Friends of Science vice-president Eric Loughead. “He was an expert with respect to the IPCC and in both cases he was very critical of what was being said about the role of carbon dioxide in global warming. We all left the luncheon speeches all shaking our heads that this silliness was going on.”

FoS runs the “plain language climate change information outreach project” Climate Change 101. [84]


At the FoS launch in 2002, only two PR contacts were listed: Tom Harris, formerly employed by High Park Group and who has assisted the FOS, and APCO representative Evan Zelikovitz.  Also attending the press conference were Dr. Fred Singer, Dr. Tim BallDr. Pat Michaels, and other other Canadian climate “experts.” APCO Worldwide is a group with a history of representing the interests of the tobacco industry including Philip Morris and has formed other “astroturf” groups including The Advancement for Sound Science Coalition (TASSC).  [68], [69], [70]

Charles Montgomery atThe Globe and Mail reported that Tom Harris—then employed at APCO Worldwide—organized the initial Friends of Science Ottawa press conference in 2002. [71][3]

In 2002, for example, Mr. Harris organized the Friends’ first Ottawa press conference in 2002, and helped make their video, according to Mr. [Albert] Jacobs. And as recently as May, he organized a trip to Ottawa for Tim Ball, paying him $2,000 to give a presentation to federal MPs,” Montgomery wrote. Harris was also the Ottawa director of the High Park Group, and a registered lobbyist for the Canadian Electricity Association and the Canadian Gas Association. [3]

Stance on Climate Change

According to Friends of Science, there are six things everyone should know about climate change: [5]

  1. “The earth is cooling.”
  2. “The Sun causes climate change.”
  3. “Al Gore was wrong about CO2.”
  4. “Violent weather isn’t getting worse.”
  5. “It’s been hotter.”
  6. “Climate computer models are proven wrong.”

On their website, Climate Change 101, they claim “’Catastrophic Anthropogenic (Human-caused) Global Warming’ (CAGW) is a theoretical threat, mostly used by environmental groups to raise money.” [85]

June 2009

The Friends of Science Society Position Statement (PDF) on climate change is reproduced below (last revision of June 14, 2009): [4]

“Our goal is to educate the public about climate science and through them bring pressure to bear on governments to engage in public debates on the scientific merits of the hypothesis of human induced global warming and the various policies that intend to address the issue. While FoS does not do any original scientific research, it draws on the worldwide body of work by scientists in all fields relating to global climate change. It is our opinion that the Sun is the main direct and indirect driver of climate change. Variations in solar activity and cosmic rays correlate to temperature much better than CO2. This may be because an electro-magnetically active sun diverts cosmic rays from hitting the atmosphere. Cosmic rays have been shown experimentally to assist in cloud formation. Fewer cosmic rays result in reduced low cloud cover, which allows more sunlight to warm the Earth’s surface.

The United Nations – IPCC reports have been misrepresented by the nonscientific IPCC bureaucrats in preparing the Summary-for-Policy-Makers. Recent research casts doubt on historical data used by the IPCC. Urban effects have contaminated surface temperature data. Some measured CO2 levels of the past 180 years appear to be in excess of present levels. Current climate computer models are unsuitable for making reliable climate forecasts mainly because they assume without justification that CO2 is the major driver of climate. The cosmic ray effects on clouds are ignored. The input assumptions are adjusted to make the temperature projections match recent temperature trends, thereby grossly exaggerating the effects of CO2 on the climate. The models, in response to CO2, predict a distinctive temperature profile in the atmosphere, which is totally absent from the observational record. “

The Friends of Science provided some details on their motivations in a 2009 membership newsletter (read below, emphasis added):

“Public support for an alarmist driven agenda has been waning as evidence for a warming atmosphere has not materialized. But still Canadian media such as the CBC and the Globe & Mail continue to stress the coming climate disasters: rising sea levels, greater incidence of malaria, extensive droughts, etc….

The Friends have lobbied politicians in an attempt to encourage a debate between the two sides of the climate change issue. But we have failed. It has become clear that our “leaders” are reluctant to adopt a stance which they fear is politically incorrect. If change is to be accomplished it must be driven by the “man on the street”. We won’t change the way politicians act until we change what the majority of Canadians believe.

The Friends feel that steps should be taken to make the Canadian public better aware of actual climatic events which render IPCC predictions unacceptable as a basis for government policy. To that end we are planning two projects: a Canada-wide speaking tour by Lord Christopher Monckton and a radio blitz which will direct the listener to the Friends of Science web page.” [6]

On Renewables

November 6, 2013

The Friends of Science produced a presentation describing wind farms as “A tragic waste of resources (PDF).”

Comments Surrounding 2021 Capitol Insurrection

Friends of Science was among dozens of the individuals and organizations profiled in DeSmog’s Disinformation Database who posted online or gave interviews about the events surrounding the Jan. 6, 2021 Capitol insurrection. Some posted claims of election fraud, similar to those that drove the Stop the Steal rally on Jan. 6. Some circulated dubious information about the insurrection itself. DeSmog has preserved a selection of notable posts related to the events of Jan. 6, 2021, including some that were later deleted or removed.

Friends of Science retweeted a claim that a petition was circulated by a university student to expel another student who had participated in Stop the Steal events and the march by Trump supporters to the Capitol building in Washington DC on Jan. 6, 2021. (Pearson has since said that he participated in the march but that he “left when things got violent.” As of Feb. 10, 2021, Pearson still listed the university in question in his Twitter bio.) [91], [92]

Friends of Science also retweeted a message on Jan. 6, 2021 claiming that a “climate alarmist” had stormed the Capitol. The man depicted, Jacob Chansley (a/k/a Jake Angeli) is in fact also known as the “QAnon Shaman,” and, according to an article published in Nature on social media disinformation, “a known superspreader of conspiracy theories.” [93], [94]


The Globe and Mail reported that FoS has taken undisclosed sums from Alberta oil and gas interests. The money was funneled through the Calgary Foundation, to the University of Calgary and on to the FOS through something called the “Science Education Fund.” [3]

The following from SourceWatch: [7]

In the course of an internal review and audit begun in March of 2007, the University determined that some of the research funds accepted on behalf of the Friends of Science “had been used to support a partisan viewpoint on climate change” and had returned unspent grant money on September 10, 2007, according to a Calgary Foundation statement (PDF).

As a consequence, the University advised FoS “that it would no longer accept funds on the organization’s behalf”, according to an email from University legal counsel Elizabeth Osler sent on December 24, 2007 (PDF)

On February 17, 2008, CanWest News Service reported that UofC officials had shut down Cooper’s “’Research on Climate Change’ trust account”, and were about to advise Elections Canada of the University’s ongoing review of the matter. [8]

SourceWatch also provides a grant history of the Calgary Foundation (PDF). 

Key People

FoS does not maintain an official membership or staff page. The following has been collected from archived FoS newsletters and other documents over the years, and may not be a complete representation of FoS membership. All resources on file at DeSmog.

Directors & Leadership

Name 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015[34] [11] [12] 2016 2017 Description
Ian Cameron           Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Director, Friends of Science
Ken Gregory         Y Y Y Y Y Y Y   Y President, Friends of Science
Andrew Bonvicini                         Y Vice-President, Friends of Science
Warren Blair                     Y Y   President, Friends of Science
Len Maier             Y Y Y Y       President, Friends of Science
Neil Hutton               Y Y Y       Director, Friends of Science
John Wasson                   Y       Director, Friends of Science
Peter Burns         Y Y   Y           Vice-President, Friends of Science
Douglas Leahey Y Y Y Y Y Y Y             President, Friends of Science (June 2011 newsletter — PDF)
Charles Simpson     Y   Y   Y             Past Director Friends of Science (March, 2011 — PDF)
Albert F Jacobs     Y                     Past Director
Eric Loughead     Y                     Vice President
Giles Wilderman     Y                     Secretary
John Leeson     Y                      
Leonard F. Maier     Y                      
Lloyd Flood     Y                     Treasurer
Norm Kalmanovitch     Y                      
William Howell     Y                      

Scientific Advisory Board

Name 2007 2008 2011 2014 2015
Tim Patterson [9]       Y Y
Sallie Baliunas [10] Y       Y
Chris de Freitas [9]     Y Y  
Madhav Khandekar [9]       Y  
Tim Ball   Y      

Staff & Other People

Name 2006 2014 2015 2016 2017 Description
Michelle Stirling-Anosh   Y Y Y Y Communications Manager
Morten Paulsen Y         Media Contact

Other People

Morten Paulsen of the international PR and lobby firm, Fleishmann-Hillard, was listed as the media contact for the Friends of Science until July, 2006. [13]

Paulsen was senior vice president and general manager of Fleishman-Hillard Canada, and was also a “spokesperson for the Conservative party in the last federal election and co-chaired the 2006 Alberta Provincial PC Convention.” He was registered as a lobbyist for the Friends of Science as well as two oil and gas companies in 2006 along with his associate at Fleishmann-Hillard, Bryon Thomas. [14]

FoS “Annual Luncheon”

Friends of Science hosts an “annual luncheon” in Calgary, Alberta, where they invite prominent climate change deniers who regularly promote the view that man-made carbon dioxide emissions are not contributing to climate change. Examples below.

April 10, 2019 — Friends of Science 16th Annual Major Event at the Red & White Club

The Friends of Science sixteenth annual event featured a speech by Susan Crockford entitled “Too Hot To Handle: Exposing the Polar Bear Catastrophe Than [sic] Never Happened.” [80]


The Friends of Science fourteenth annual event featured Robert Lyman and Steve Goreham. [73]

Robert Lyman’s speech:

Steve Goreham’s speech:


Friends of Science hosted Ezra Levant and John D. Harper at their 13th annual event. Levant’s talks was titled “Climate Leadership Catastrophe: Carbon Taxes, Job Loss, Freedoms Denied” while Harper’s presentation was titled “Ice Age to Nice Age to Dry Age and Back Again – and Again.” View Harper’s slides here (PDF), and video for both speakers below. [66], [67]


According to the Friends of Science event description: [47] 

“Dr. Shaviv explained and demonstrated that the sun is an important climate driver but it is missing from the standard climate analyses. As a consequence, the standard (i.e. IPCC) models have a much higher climate sensitivity than the real Earth has, such that future climate response to anthropogenic forcing will be “much more benign” than what alarmists claim.” 

A PDF of Shaviv’s presentation is also available here. [48]

Nir Shaviv is a regular speaker at the Heartland Institute‘s International Conferences on Climate Change, and appeared on “the Great Global Warming Swindle.” 


Ross McKitrick‘s talk was titled “The ‘Pause’ in Global Warming: Climate Policy Implications.” McKitrick is an Associate Professor of Economics at the University of Guelph and a senior fellow at the Libertarian Fraser Institute (a group with connections to the Koch Brothers). View McKitrick’s PDF presentation here[49], [50]


The title of Peiser’s talk was “To Heat or Eat: Europe’s Climate Policy Fiasco.” The Friends of Science event description read as follows: [51]

“Citing Europe’s ‘green obsession’ and inflexible, failed climate policies as key reasons why so many EU economies are faltering on the brink of bankruptcy, Dr. Benny Peiser shocked his audience with images of EU forests ravaged by energy-poor citizens in search of fuel. Friends of Science say climate change and global warming policies should be based on scientific evidence, not apocalyptic computer modeled forecasts.” [51]

View a PDF of Peiser’s presentation here. [52]

Benny Peiser is the director of the Global Warming Policy Foundation (GWPF), an “all-party and non-party think tank and registered charity” founded by climate change skeptic Nigel Lawson.


The title of Donna Laframboise‘s speech was “The UN‘s Climate Change Panel: Activist and Untrustworthy.” Laframboise holds a degree in women’s studes, and is the founder of [53]

View Laframboise’s  presentation here (PDF). [54]


The title of Ian Plimers talk was “Human Induced Global Warming: Why I am Skeptical.” Ian Plimer is a professor of Mining Geology, and author of two climate change denial books. View Plimer’s presentation here (PDF). [55], [56]

Plimer has been a director of numerous mining companies including Ivanhoe Australia, a subsidiary of Bob Friedland’s Ivanhoe Mines, CBH Resources, Kefi Minerals, Silver City Minerals, Ormil Energy Ltd, TNT Mines, Niuminco Group and Lakes Oil.


The title of John R. Christy‘s Talk was “Global Warming: Where’s the Alarm?“ John R. Christy is a meteorologist at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. View his presentation here (PDF)[57], [58]


The title of Timothy F. Balls talk was “Recent Theoretical and Observational Evidence for Atmospheric Cooling.” Tim Ball is a past professor of geography. He has affiliations with the now-defunct Natural Resources Stewardship Project (NRSP), is a past scientific advsior to the Friends of Science, and also has associations with the Frontier Center for Public Policy (FCPP). [59]


Patrick J. Michaels‘s presentation was titled “Global Warming: Some Convenient Facts.” Michaels is the director of the Cato Institute’s Center for the Study of Science, and a regular commentator at Fox News and other conservative news outlets. [60]


Timothy R. Patterson‘s powerpoint presentation was titled “Cosmoclimatology: A Possible Paradigm Shift in Our Understanding of the  Primary Drivers of Climate Change.” Timothy Patterson is a past chairman of the International Climate Science Coalition (ICSC). See Patterson’s presentation here (PPT). [61]


Chris de Freitas is an Associate Professor at the School of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Auckland. He is best known for his role as editor of the Climate Research journal where a number of questionable papers were published that caused the resignation of several editors.

“Reality is not conducive to alarmism,” de Freitas said, according to The Calgary Herald. “Given a choice between alarmism and honesty, science must always choose honesty.” [62]


Salllie Baliunas‘s presentation was titled “Witches, Whiskey, and the Little Ice Age (Is Global Climate Change Really Caused By Humans?)” Baliunas is the former editor of the World Climate Report, a blog published by Patrick J. Michaels’s New Hope Environmental Services, “an advocacy science consulting firm.” View Baliunas’s presentation here (PDF). [63], [64]


Timothy F. Ball’s presentation was titled “What You Haven’t Heard About Global Warming and Kyoto.” [65]


February 16, 2021

Friends of Science issued a press release criticizing BBC News reporting that had suggested deaths due to climate change could exceed those from Covid by mid-century unless action is taken. [95], [96]

“Friends of Science says death rates from heat and extreme weather events have declined by 99% since the 1920s while global temperatures have increased 1.0 °C,” the press release reads, citing Cato Institute data claiming that warming “would greatly reduce temperature related deaths.” [95]

January 2021

University of Calgary professor Barry Cooper, founder of Friends of Science, was among those who wrote a report submission to Alberta Premier Jason Kenney’s public inquiry into “anti-Alberta energy campaigns.” As of January 31, 2021, the inquiry had been extended to May 31. [97], [98], [99]

CBC reported that experts found commissioned studies were “based on junk climate-denial science, bizarre conspiracy theories and oil-industry propaganda.” [100]

“If you read any of this stuff, it really strays into Marxism and conspiracy theory and George Soros and Bill Gates,” said Andrew Leach, an energy and environmental economist at the University of Alberta.

As noted by PressProgress, Barry Cooper’s report at times used biblical terms to describe the scientific consensus around anthropogenic climate change:

The apocalyptic rhetoric of so much current environmental discourse is unlikely to end anytime soon,” Cooper wrote. “The evocation of an apocalypse has been part of Western political symbolism since the book of Daniel in the Hebrew bible.”

According to CBC, report commissioner Steve Allan has said his team doesn’t have time to fact check whether statements are misleading or false. [101]

“In many, if not most, cases evaluation of whether a statement made in opposition to the development of Alberta’s oil and gas resources is ‘misleading or false’ is an enormous task, and impractical for the commission to undertake within the resources available to it,” Allan wrote.

According to a blog posted by University of Alberta law professor Martin Olszynski, who said he participated in the Inquiry, “by and large the Commissioned Reports are textbook examples of climate change denialism,” He added: [102]

All of them minimize or outright dismiss the reality and seriousness of climate change, even though none of their authors appear to be trained in climate science [at the time of writing, I did not have access to Dr. Nemeth’s c.v., but its recent receipt confirms this gap].”

November 2, 2020

Friends of Science publicised a letter written by Clintel President Professor Guus Berkhout to  Dickon Pinner, who leads management consultancy firm McKinsey & Company’s sustainability practice. The letter criticised the “lack of objectivity” in McKinsey’s publications on climate change, stating that “we therefore see no climate emergency whatsoever”. [89], [90]

June–September 2020

Friends of Science reported via its email newsletter that it planned to webcast the complete trilogy of European filmmaker Marijn Poels on its YouTube Channel from June to September 2020. [88]

Poels’ first documentary, The Uncertainty Has Settled, was produced three years ago and argued renewable energy sources were damaging agricultural productivity. [88]

In his second film, Return to Eden, he “visits inspiring people worldwide who adapt to the changing climate instead of regulating.” [88]

Friends of Science describes the effort as a “collaboration with Marijn Poels” and notes he had been a guest speaker at the FoS 2017 Annual Event “Extreme Climate Uncertainty” where he appeared on stage beside Madhav Khandekar[88]

Friends of Science said it would release the first episode “The Uncertainty Has Settled” on June 24th, 2020. “PARADOGMA” will be released on July 1st, 2020.  The third episode “Return to Eden” will be released in September 2020. [88]

March 24, 2020

Friends of Science promoted an open letter from CLINTEL, entitled “Fight virus not carbon.” [86]

The letter, signed by prominent climate change deniers like Christopher Monckton, Richard Lindzen, Viv Forbes, and numerous others, calls on world leaders to shift focus away from low-carbon technologies. [87]

“Considering COVID-19, climate alarmists and climate critics should admit that global warming is a non-problem. Therefore, stop fighting, step over your own shadow and work together against the deadly virus. In this tough battle we need each other!” The letter reads.

View the Friends of Science video promoting the letter below: [86]

August 27, 2019

The Friends of Science Society sent a letter of complaint to Elections Canada, the federal agency overseeing the country’s voting processes, over what it viewed as the politicization of climate science by environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs). [82]

The letter claims environmental groups have “disproportionate financial resources” as compared with Canada’s four major political parties, and were funded in part by “foreign interests,” with the latter statement echoing recent arguments by Alberta premier Jason Kenney and by blogger Vivian Krause[82], [83]

On climate change, the letter claims:

there is no consensus that human industrial activity is mainly responsible for global warming or climate change. […] Climate science is not settled.” [82]

The letter also suggested that a conspiracy was being orchestrated by wealthy elites to further enrich themselves at Canada’s expense:

This is a global plan by foreign green billionaires to create a global cap and trade system, carbon pricing and to put $12 trillion in their vested interest renewables (wind and solar) on the power grid, largely by demarketing the use of coal, natural gas and oil/oilsands.” [82]

The letter did not specify a desired outcome from its formal complaint to Elections Canada, but concluded with the statement:

Climate change science must be debated. Powerful, foreign-or-vested interest-funded ENGOs must not take the spotlight.” [82]

March 27, 2019

Friends of Science issued an open letter to NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine urging the agency to revise its website’s statements on the scientific consensus of climate change. [81]

The letter states that NASA’s support for the consensus viewpoint is “detrimental to open public debate” and that “there is no singular consensus on human influence on climate change.” [81]

Praising NASA’s storied history of space exploration, the letter suggests that fossil fuels deserve most of the credit. It reads:

NASA holds a special place in the hearts of millions of people around the world. It was through the brilliant concepts and precision work of thousands of NASA employees and sub-contractors that so many exceptional space missions were successfully completed. Indeed, all of these were only possible to bring into fruition using the energy from hydrocarbons and the many useful by-products.” [81]

September 30, 2017

A Friends of Science press release promoted recent media appeareances, blog posts, and a book by Roy Spencer. Spencer appeared as an “actual scientist” on the Louder with Crowder show to claim that hurricanes Harvey and Irma in 2017 weren’t correlated with climate change. The FoS press release notes that Spencer also made similar claims in an August 29, 2017 blog post and also in his new book, Inevitable Disaster. [74], [75]

Spencer released his new book, Inevitable Disaster, on September 18, 2017. The Washington Times reported the book challenged statements “by Jennifer Lawrence, Bill Nye, Stevie Wonder and others linking global warming to this year’s active hurricane season.” [76]

What made Harvey rain totals exceptional was the system stalled next to the coast, which was due to a very temporary weakening of atmospheric steering currents,” Spencer said, quoted by The Washington Times. “Virtually the whole month of August was below normal in temperature over most of the U.S., not what global warming theory predicts at all.” [76]

Notably, pointing to a single cold month as evidence contrary to global warming theory is listed as a common myth listed at Skepticalscience, right next to the idea that extreme weather isn’t linked to climate change. Writing at The Guardian in August, climate scientist Michael Man said that certain elements including sea level rise and sea surface temperatures contributed to the severity of Hurricane Harvey. “Harvey was almost certainly more intense than it would have been in the absence of human-caused warming, which means stronger winds, more wind damage and a larger storm surge,” Mann wrote. [77], [78], [79]

The FoS press release concludes: [74]

“Students of history know that extreme weather and cyclical warming/cooling climate periods are an integral challenge for human life on earth. […]

Friends of Science Society says trillions of dollars are being diverted to climate change initiatives, such as wind and solar farms, when that money would be better spent on adaptation, flood mitigation, and reserve funds set-up for post-hurricane restoration programs.

Friends of Science Society says natural factors like solar cycles and ocean fluctuations are the main drivers of climate change.”

May 9, 2017

The Friends of Science Society put on a presentation by speaker Robert Lyman titled “Can Canada Survive Climate Change Policy?” Lyman told the audience: [44]

Achieving the aspirational goal of 80 per cent reduction recommended by the IPCC would mean reducing emissions to 147 megatonnes CO2 equivalent. That would be comparable to reducing Canada’s per capita emissions and our energy economy to the current levels of Bolivia, Sudan or Iraq.” [45]

After noting that the United States is considering withdrawing from the Paris Agreement, the FoS press release suggests that Canada should join them:  [44]

“Friends of Science says Canada should keep in step with the country’s largest trading partner,” the press release said. [44]

April 25, 2017

The FoS released a report titled “Due Diligence on Renewable Demands by David Suzuki Foundation,” asserting that a renewable energy campaign by the Suzuki Foundation was “ based on partisan demands that are not supported by evidence” and that would be “ a wasteful use of public funds and detrimental for the nation at large.” [46]

June 13, 2016

Friends of Science was listed as a creditor in Peabody Energy’s 2016 bankruptcy filings, reports the Center for Media and Democracy (CMD/PRWatch). [39]

When asked, Friends of Science communication manager Michelle Stirling said she was unaware of the connection

That would be news to us,” wrote Michelle Stirling, in an email response to a query about the funding from National Observer. Stirling said she would need to review the document, which she believes was filed by a party other than Peabody, and said the filing could be a “spurious attempt” to connect the Friends of Science to the coal company: “Until I review the full document and check the source I can’t say much more.” [40]

While the available bankruptcy documents do not list the scale or dates of funding, they outline Peabody Energy’s financial ties to a large network of groups promoting climate change denial. [41]

Prominent individuals appearing in the documents include climate deniers Willie SoonRichard LindzenRoy Spencer and Richard Berman. The long list of organizations also includes groups such as Americans for ProsperityAmerican Legislative Exchange CouncilCFACTInstitute for Energy ResearchState Policy Network, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and dozens more. [42]

The Guardian also analysed and reported on the Peabody bankruptcy findings: [43]

These groups collectively are the heart and soul of climate denial,” said Kert Davies, founder of the Climate Investigation Center, who has spent 20 years tracking funding for climate denial. “It’s the broadest list I have seen of one company funding so many nodes in the denial machine.”

The company’s filings reveal funding for a range of organisations which have fought Barack Obama’s plans to cut greenhouse gas emissions, and denied the very existence of climate change. […]

Among Peabody’s beneficiaries, the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change has insisted – wrongly – that carbon emissions are not a threat but “the elixir of life” while the American Legislative Exchange Council is trying to overturn Environmental Protection Agency rules cutting emissions from power plants. Meanwhile, Americans for Prosperity campaigns against carbon pricing. The Oklahoma chapter was on the list. […]

The breadth of the groups with financial ties to Peabody is extraordinary. Thinktanks, litigation groups, climate scientists, political organisations, dozens of organisations blocking action on climate all receiving funding from the coal industry,” said Nick Surgey, director of research for the Center for Media and Democracy.

We expected to see some denial money, but it looks like Peabody is the treasury for a very substantial part of the climate denial movement.”

Notable organizations listed in the initial documents include:

Notable individuals named in the initial documents include the following:

December 13, 2015

Writing as a guest blogger on Watts Up With That, CFACT‘s executive director Craig Rucker denounced the latest UN climate change agreement: [39]

“This agreement will not meaningfully alter the temperature of the Earth, even under the U.N.’s own computer models.

“The bad news is that it plants the seeds of a new UN climate regime that left unchecked will swell into a bureaucratic behemoth.”

June 9, 2016

The Friends of Science released a new report titled “Why Renewable Energy Cannot Replace Fossil Fuels by 2050” challenging a previous climate change risk report by the Grantham Research Institute. [37], [38]

According to the FoS report, “no ‘low-carbon’ technology can exist without the use of fossil fuels.”

“Both wind and solar require vast quantities of exotic materials and oil, coal and natural gas for the creation of the turbines and panels,” says Michelle Stirling, Communications Manager for Friends of Science Society. “Robert Lyman’s report demonstrates there is no magical replacement for hydrocarbons and the carbon risk has been exaggerated.”  “The alleged ‘carbon risk’ related to climate change has been exaggerated,” says Stirling. [37]

Michelle Stirling also comments on a report co-authored by climate change denier Ross McKitrick contending we are facing a solar cooling period. “In that case, fossil fuels will spike in value,” says Stirling. “Years of extended colder temperatures will remind people that there’s nothing nicer than barrel of oil or a lump of coal for Christmas.” [37]

June 2015

The Friends of Science released a controversial digital billboard campaign to debut at the Montreal Grand Prix from June 5 – 7, 2015. The billboard features messaging “Climate Change Is Influenced the Most By You… Or the Sun?” In the wake of their controversial billboard campaign in 2014, the message is comparatively subdued. Friends of Science faced claims that their billboards were “misleading and not based on valid scientific evidence.” [15]

April 7, 2015

In response to a recent “Acting on Climate Change” (PDF) report by over 70 Canadian scholars, supported by the Trottier Institute of McGill University, Friends of Science issued their own “evidence-based rebuttal” titled “Reality Vs. Climate Change Uncertainties.”

According to the FoS Press Release

“Canadian premiers will converge on Quebec City April 14, 2015 to discuss climate change policies and Friends of Science want them to make decisions based on evidence, not emotional climate change rhetoric like that of numerous eco-groups that are planning mass demonstrations on April 11th, as reported by CTV Montreal, March 15, 2015.” [16]

March 3, 2015

As reported in a Friends of Science Press Release, The FoS sent a letter to Charles Bolden, Cheif Administrator of NASA, asking him to retract the claim of a 97% consensus regarding climate change. They cite a FoS research paper — “97% Consensus? No! Global Warming Math, Myths & Social Proofs” (PDF). [17]

May 2014

The Friends of Science issued a letter to the Association for Psychological Science, asking them to retract a paper by Lewandowsky et al (2013) titled “NASA Faked the Moon Landing – Therefore, (Climate) Science is a Hoax: An Anatomy of the Motivated Rejection of Science.”

According to the Friends of Science, “it would seem to have been self-evident that, in the contentious world of climate science, such a title would immediately subject any dissenting climate scientist or individual to public humiliation.” [18] 

November 2014

The Friends of Science targeted the Alberta Wilderness Association, having supporters write to the Canadian Revenue Agency. Global News Edmonton reported (“Friends of Science tackle Alberta Wilderness Association”). [19]

“We think there are some questions that should be asked of the CRA,” Friends of Science spokeswoman Michelle Stirling said.

This was in response to the Association’s refusal to print a rebuttal article by FoS in the Wilderness Association’s newsletter. The Wilderness Association had previously published an article critical of a billboard rented by the FoS (pictured at the top of this entry) where the FoS said the sun was the cause of climate change as opposed to greenhouse gas emissions.

“Groups like the Friends of Science prey on our values and comforts,” said the Wilderness Association article.

“They tell our luxury Lexus LX 570, 5.7L SUV owner, as she speeds by the billboard driving the kids to school, that all is well. To follow this group’s message will deliver this and future generations a fate no better than that of the children who followed the Pied Piper of Hamelin.”

“The Sun is the main driver of climate change. Not you. Not CO2,” the billboard reads. The FoS billboard was also criticized by Slate  in an article titled “With Friends Like These.” [20]

John Bennett at the Sierra Club of Canada describes the billboards as a “classic disinformation campaign to counter important global talks on reducing greenhouse gas emissions that got underway this week in Lima, Peru.” [21]

The wilderness association filed a complaint of its own against Friends of Science president Len Maier with the Association of Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of Albertas. Urquhart said Maier has distorted the results of studies contrary to professional ethics.

November 2009

FoS ran a “radio advertisement blitz” in 15 Canadian cities with the purpose being to “… demonstrate the futility of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions… .that global warming stopped about 10 years ago, and that the Sun is the primary cause of climate change.” [22]

September 29 – October 8, 2009

Friends of Science, in association with the Frontier Centre for Public policy (FCPP), sponsored Lord Christopher Monckton‘s cross-Canada speaking tour (See FoS PDF Brochure) from September 28 to October 8, 2009. [23]

June 2009
As reported at RealClimate, Ken Gregory of Friends of Science may have contributed to a “suppressed” document meant to discredit the EPA Endangerment finding about man—made carbon dioxide emissions.  Authors also included Alan Carlin and John Davidson. 
According to RealClimate, “parts of the Carlin and Davidson report appear to be lifted directly from Ken’s rambling.” Patrick Michaels’s website World Climate Report may also have contributed to the report. [24], [25]

September 22, 2006

FoS sponsored Tim Ball‘s presentation at a Conservative party gathering in Victoria. “The breakfast speech was organized by Conservative electoral district associations in Victoria, Esquimalt-Juan de Fuca, and [Natural Resources Minister Gary] Lunn’s Saanich-Gulf Islands riding.” [26]

August 12, 2006

Globe and Mail feature article by Charles Montgomery,  titled “Mr Cool,” revealed that the Friends of Science had taken undisclosed sums of money from Alberta oil and gas interests. 

According to the Globe and Mail, the oil industry money was funneled through the Calgary Foundation charity, to the University of Calgary and then put into an education trust for the FOS[3]

May 2006

Tom Harris of the High Park Group arranged a meeting between Tim Ball and federal conservatives in Ottawa where Ball “gave his slide show to a half-dozen federal Conservative MPs and a clutch of Tory staffers.” [3]

April 2006

According to a May, 2006 FoS newsletter (PDF), Tim Ball made “an eye opening presentation … to members of the Alberta PC Calgary Caucus … The Calgary Caucus is an influential body, and we were pleased that several Ministers, including Energy Minister Greg Melchin, were in attendance. That presentation on the lack of science underlying Kyoto has lead to another presentation to be held this month in Edmonton to the Standing Policy Committee on Energy.” [27]

January 2006

Before and during the 2006 Canadian federal election campaign, the Friends of Science ran a series of anti-Kyoto radio ads targeted at key Ontario ridings.

The ads were funded through the Calgary Foundation and a University of Calgary “climate change research” trust fund controlled by professor Barry Cooper.

The January, 2006 FoS newsletter (PDF) describes the campaign:


“Our campaign is working. Before and during the election, Friends bought radio advertising in 5 major Ontario markets. Our message was that voters have not been given the facts on climate change, and that candidates need to be questioned on their intentions to spend billions on global warming theories…

“The response was intense. Some radio stations faced pro-Kyoto interest groups who actually demanded that our ads be pulled! We received a great deal of hostile mail from activists stunned that we would challenge the pro-Kyoto status quo. At the same time though, positive mail poured in, and hits to our website soared into the stratosphere. We registered over 300,000 hits to our website in the first 12 days of January alone.” [28]

April 2005

FoS released a video directed by Mike Visser entitled “Climate Catastrophe Canceled” in conjunction with Professor Barry Cooper of the Politics Department of the University of Calgary. A second version of the video was released on September 13, 2007. FoS has stated that it “invested $400,000” into the video Climate Catastrophe Cancelled. [29]

The PR contact is listed as Sheila Roy of APCO Worldwide Canada. [30]

The video was funded through the Calgary Foundation and the University of Calgary, and it was revealed that one of the largest donors was Talisman Energy.

The video features among others:

    Tim Ball
    Sallie L. Baliunas (credited as being from Tech Central Station)
    Ross McKitrick
    Prof. Tim Patterson

Feb 10, 2005

Charles Simpson, President of Friends of Science at the time, and Tim Patterson appeared as expert witnesses before the House of commons Standing Committee on the Environment and Sustainable Development.

The FoS witnesses testified that Kyoto should not be implemented “until a national public scientific debate has been held on the science underlying climate change,” because their view is that “the curent scientific evidence” suggests climate change is naturally caused. [31]

Friends of Science Contact & Location

As of June 2016, the Friends of Science listed the following contact information on their website: [36]

Friends of Science Society
P.O. Box 23167, Mission Post Office
Calgary, AB    T2S 3B1 
[email protected]

Social Media

Related Organizations


FOS has significant overlap with the staff who run the Envirotruth website.

Natural Resources Stewardship Project (NRSP)

DeSmog noted similarities and overlap between the now-defunct Natural Resources Stewardship Project (NRSP) and FoS. [32]

The Frontier Center for Public Policy (FCPP)

As reported at DeepClimate, the FCPP received funding from the Calgary Foundation around the same time as Friends of Science. 

The Frontier Centre was also involved in the last two Friends of Science annual luncheons. Frontier president Peter Holle introduced featured speaker Patrick Michaels at the 2008 event. And in 2009, at a luncheon featuring Tim Ball, free copies of Alberta geologist Bruno Wiskel’s book “The Emperor’s New Climate” were given out to attendees, courtesy of The Frontier Centre. [33]

Climate Change 101

“Plain language climate change information outreach project” run by FoS. [84]


  1. About Us,” Friends of Science. Archived October 2, 2019. URL

  2. Peter Gorrie. “Who’s still cool on global warming?“ The Star. January 28, 2007. Archived June 18, 2015. 

  3. Mr. Cool: Nurturing doubt about climate change is big business,” Globe and Mail, Aug 12, 2006. Republished at Charles Montgomery journalist. Archived May 3, 2011.

  4. Friends of Science Society Position Statement” (PDF), Friends of Science. Archived August 13, 2015.

  5. Homepage, Friends of Science. Archived August 13, 2015.

  6. FOS MEMBERSHIP QUARTERLY NEWSLETTER No. 22 (PDF),” Friends of Science. June, 2009. Archived June 18, 2015.

  7. Friends of Science,” SourceWatch Profile.

  8. Elections Canada to investigate anti-Kyoto group,” Canwest News Service. Republished at, February 17, 2008. Archived July, 2014.

  9. SCIENTIFIC ADVISORY BOARD,” Friends of Science. Archived July 2, 2014.

  10. Scientific Advisory Board,” Friends of Science. Archived July 15, 2007.

  11. FOS Membership Quarterly Newsletter” (PDF) No. 28, December, 2011.

  12. FOS MEMBERSHIP QUARTERLY NEWSLETTER No. 45 (PDF),” Friends of Science, March 2015. Archived June 18, 2015.

  13. Contact Us,” Friends of Science. Archived January 16, 2006.

  14. Anti-Kyoto campaigner volunteer member of Tory election team,” Canwest News Service. February 21, 2008. Published at Archived June 18, 2015.

  15. New Friends of Science Climate Change Billboards Welcome Montreal Grand Prix Revellers,” PRWEB (Press Release) June 5, 2015. Archived June 19, 2015.

  16. Friends of Science New Report Challenges claims by Canadian Scholars on Climate Change Policy and Power Generation in Advance of Climate Confab in Quebec,” PRWeb, April 7, 2015.

  17. Friends of Science ask NASA to Revise 97% Consensus Statements on Climate Change and Global Warming,” PR Web, March 3, 2015. Archived August 13, 2015.


  19. Bob Weber. “Friends of Science tackle Alberta Wilderness Association,” Global News. November 14, 2014. Archived June 18, 2015.

  20. Phil Plait. “With Friends Like These…“ Slate. June 12, 2014. Archived June 18, 2015.

  21. John Bennet. “Here comes the sun, but I say…” John Bennett’s Blog (Sierra Club of Canada, December 4, 2014. Archived June 18, 2015. 

  22. Friends of Science 2009 Radio Ads,” Friends of Science. Archived August 13, 2015.

  23. Lord Christopher Monckton Canadian Tour,” Friends of Science. Archived August 13, 2015.

  24. Buybkes.” RealClimate, June 26, 2009. Archived May 9, 2015.

  25. EPA‘s Alan Carlin channels Patrick Michaels and the Friends of Science,” Deep Climate. June 28, 2009. Archived September 4, 2014.

  26. Minister distances self from global-warming skeptic,” Canwest News Service, September 22, 2006. Archived June 18, 2015.

  27. FOS Membership Quarterly Newsletter No. 10 (May, 2006)” (PDF), Friends of Science. Archived August 13, 2015.

  28. FOS Membership Quarterly Newsletter No. 9 (January, 2006),” Friends of Science. Archived August 13, 2015.

  29. Friends Of Science Critiques The Evidence For Man-Made Climate Change,” Daily Oil Bulletin. June 12, 2006. Archived June 16, 2006.

  30. Climate Catastrophe Cancelled: What You’re Not Being Told About the Science of Climate Change,” Friends of Science. Archived December 20, 2005.

  31. FoS Presentation to House of Commons (PDF), Friends of Science. Accessed December 24, 2011.

  32. Richard Littlemore. “Discredited Friends of Science Re-emerge as the Natural Resources Stewardship Project,” DeSmogBlog, October 12, 2006. 

  33. Friends of Science: They’re back!“ Deep Climate. July 16, 2009. Archived June 18, 2015.

  34. FOS MEMBERSHIP QUARTERLY NEWSLETTERNo. 48” (PDF), December, 2015. Archived January 25, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog. 

  35. The F-Word in Quebec Premier’s climate change hypocrisy” (PDF), Troy Media, July 27, 2015. Archived January 25, 2016. Retrieved from Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  36. Contact Us,” Friends of Science. Archived June 13, 2016. WebCite URL:

  37. Friends of Science Report ‘Why Renewable Energy Cannot Replace Fossil Fuels by 2050’ Will Shock Green Investors and Challenges the Grantham Climate Change Risk Scenario,” PRWeb, June 9, 2016. Archived June 14, 2016. WebCite URL

  38. WHY RENEWABLE ENERGY CANNOT REPLACE FOSSIL FUELS BY 2050” (PDF) Friends of Science, May 30, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  39. Nick Surgey. “Peabody Coal Bankruptcy Reveals Climate Denial Network Funding,” PRWatch, June 13, 2016. Archived June 20, 2016. WebCite URL:

  40. Charles Mandel. “Canadian Climate Denial Group, Friends of Science, Named as Creditor in Coal Giant’s Bankruptcy Files,” DeSmogBlog, June 20, 2016. Originally published at the National Observer.

  41. In re: Peabody Energy Corporation, et al. Debtors,” United States Bankruptcy Court Eastern District of Missouri Eastern Division, Case 16-42529, May 27, 2016. Retrieved from DocumentCloud.

  42. Farron Cousins. “Court Documents Show Coal Giant Peabody Energy Funded Dozens Of Climate Denial Groups,” DeSmogBlog, June 13, 2016.

  43. Suzanne Goldenberg and Helena Bengtsson. “Biggest US coal company funded dozens of groups questioning climate change,” The Guardian, June 13, 2016. Archived June 20, 2016. WebCite URL

  44. (Press Release). “Friends of Science Society Believes that Climate Change Policy Threatens the Survival of Canada and is Contrary to the UN Charter – Recommends Withdrawal from Paris,” PRWeb, May 25, 2017. Archived May 25, 2017. URL:

  45. Can Canada Survive Climate Change Policy?Friends of Science Calgary, May 10, 2017. Archived May 25, 2017. URL:

  46. “Due Diligence on Renewable Demands by David Suzuki Foundation” (PDF), Friends of Science, April 25, 2017.

  47. FRIENDS OF SCIENCE TWELFTH ANNUAL EVENT, WITH DR. SHAVIV,” Friends of Science. Archived May 25, 2017. URL

  48. “The Sun’s Role in climate change” (PDF), Nir Shaviv. Retrieved from


  50. “The ‘Pause’ in Global Warming: Climate Policy Implications” (PDF), Ross McKitrick. Retrieved from

  51. FRIENDS OF SCIENCE TENTH ANNUAL LUNCHEON, WITH DR. BENNY PEISER,” Friends of Science. Archived May 25, 2017. URL:

  52. “Heat Or Eat? Europe’s Failed Climate Policy” (PDF), Benny Pesier. The Global Warming Policy Foundation. Retrieved from


  54. “The 9Th Annual Friends of Science Luncheon: The UN‘s Climate Change Panel: Activist and Untrustworthy” (PDF), Friends of Science. 

  55. FRIENDS OF SCIENCE EIGHTH ANNUAL LUNCHEON, WITH DR. IAN PLIMER,” Friends of Science. Archived June 19, 2015. URL:

  56. “Human-induced global warming: Why I am sceptical” (PDF), Ian Plimer. Retrieved from

  57. FRIENDS OF SCIENCE SEVENTH ANNUAL LUNCHEON, WITH DR. JOHN CHRISTY,” Friends of Science. Archived June 19, 2015. URL:

  58. “Global Warming: Where’s the Alarm” (PDF), John R. Christy. Retrieved from

  59. FRIENDS OF SCIENCE SIXTH ANNUAL LUNCHEON, WITH DR. TIM BALL,” Friends of Science. Archived May 25, 2017. URL:




  63. “Luncheon: Sponsored by Advocates of Climate Change Debate” (PDF), Friends of Science.

  64. “Ice age begins anew, ca. 2 million years ago” (PDF), Sallie Baliunas. Retrieved from

  65. FRIENDS OF SCIENCE FIRST ANNUAL LUNCHEON, WITH DR. TIM BALL,” Friends of Science. Archived May 25, 2017. URL:


  67. “Ice Age to Nice Age to Dry Age and Back Again – and Again” (PDF), Dr. John D. Harper. Retrieved from

  68. James Hoggan. “Astroturf: The Only Grass That Withstands Toxic Friends of Science,” DeSmog, September 6, 2006.

  69. Kyoto’s Fatal Flaws Revealed,” Climate Search, November 12, 2002. Archived February 7, 2003. URL

  70. Evan Zelikovitz: Senior Counselor,” APCO Worldwide. Archived June 12, 2017. URL

  71. Our People,” APCO Worldwide. Archived December 19, 2002. URL

  72. In the beginning: Friends of Science, Talisman Energy and the de Freitas brothers,” DeepCliamte, December 2, 2009. Archived June 12, 2017. URL:


  74. Hurricanes Harvey and Irma Hysteria tied to Claims of Global Warming and Climate Change Debunked by Dr. Roy Spencer’s New Book says Friends of Science Society,” Friends of Science via PRWeb. September 30, 2017. Archived October 3, 2017. URL

  75. Texas Major Hurricane Intensity Not Related to Gulf Water Temperatures,”, August 29, 2017. Archived October 3, 2017. URL:

  76. What Weather Looks Like,” The Washington Times, September 21, 2017. Archived October 3, 2017. URL:

  77. Does cold weather disprove global warming?Skepticalscience. Archived October 3, 2017. URL:

  78. Is extreme weather caused by global warming?SkepticalScience. Archived October 3, 2017. URL

  79. Michael E Mann. “It’s a fact: climate change made Hurricane Harvey more deadly,” The Guardian, August 28, 2017. Archived October 3, 2017. URL:

  80. Too Hot To Handle: Exposing the Polar Bear Catastrophe Than Never Happened,” YouTube video uploaded by user “Friends of Science” on April 20, 2019. Archived .mp4 on file at DeSmog.

  81. An Open Letter to NASA Re: Alleged Consensus on Climate Change,”, March 27, 2019. Archived May 10, 2019.

  82. Elections Canada and Climate – An Open Letter Rebuttal to 352 Scientists and Evidence for Democracy,”, August 27, 2019. Archived September 10, 2019. URL: .PDF on file at DeSmog.

  83. Anis Heydari. “Jason Kenney touts $30M ‘war room’ but provides few details,” CBC News, June 7, 2019. URL:

  84. About Us,” Climate Change 101. Archived October 2, 2019. URL

  85. 97% Nonsensus,” Climate Change 101. Archived October 2, 2019. URL

  86. Open Letter from CLINTEL to World Leaders: ‘Fight virus not carbon’,” YouTube video uploaded by user ‘Friends of Science’, March 24, 2020. Archived .mp4 on file at DeSmog.

  87. Message CLINTEL: ‘Fight virus not carbon’,” CLINTEL, March 23, 2020. Archived April 9, 2020. Archive URL:

  88. “Marijn Poels – Climate and Free Speech Documentaries Online Free of Charge,” Friends of Science, June 25, 2020. Archived email on file at DeSmog.

  89. Professor Guus Berkhout. “Open letter from CLINTEL to McKinsey exposing extremely unrealistic climate claims”, Clintel, October 28, 2020. Archived November 2, 2020. URL: 

  90. CLINTEL calls out McKinsey Global Institute for Peddling Climate Science Fiction says Friends of Science”, Friends of the Earth, October 29, 2020. Archived November 2, 2020. URL: 

  91. Possible College Expulsion for Attending Trump Rally | 01-08-2021,” 77 WABC Talk Radio. Archived .mp3 on file at DeSmog.

  92. Lachlan Markay. “‘Centrist’ group paid for right-wing influencers’ support,” Axios, February 9, 2021. Archived February 12, 2021. Archive URL:

  93. Cam Cabral and Roderick Macleod. “Capitol riots: Five takeaways from the arrests,” BBC News, February 8, 2021. Archived February 12, 2021. Archive URL:

  94. Tracking QAnon: how Trump turned conspiracy-theory research upside down,” Nature, February 4, 2021.

  95. Sharanjit Leyl. “Mark Carney: Climate crisis deaths ‘will be worse than Covid’,” BBC News, February 5, 2021. Archived February 17, 2021. Archive URL:

  96. (Press Release–Friends of Science Society). “Mark Carney Conflates Climate-COVID Fearmongering on False Grounds – Peak Carbon was Reached in 2019,” WFMZTV 69 News, February 16, 2021. Archived February 17, 2021. Archive URL

  97. Barry Cooper. “Background Report on Changes in the Organizational and Ideology of Philanthropic Foundations with a Focus on Environmental issues as Reflected in Contemporary Social Science Research” (PDF), retrieved from Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog. PDF dated January 13, 2021.

  98. Jason Kenney’s Inquiry Into ‘Anti-Alberta’ Activities Publishes Report Attacking Climate Change Science,” PressProgress, January 14, 2021. Archived February 18, 2021. Archive URL:

  99. Jason Herring. “Extended deadline for inquiry into anti-Alberta energy campaigns draws criticism,” Calgary Herald, January 31, 2021. Archived February 18, 2021. Archive URL:

  100. Jennie Russell and Charles Rusnell. “Critics denounce ‘climate-change denialism’ reports commissioned by Alberta inquiry,” CBC, January 14, 2021. Archive URL:

  101. Sarah Rieger. “Inquiry into alleged anti-Alberta energy campaigns doesn’t have time to fact-check statements: commissioner,” CBC News, September 16, 2020.

  102. ’Textbook Climate Denialism’: A Submission to the Public Inquiry into Anti-Alberta Energy Campaigns,”, January 14, 2021. Archived February 18, 2021. PDF version. Archive URL:

Other Resources

Related Profiles

APCO Worldwide Background APCO has been described as “one of the world's most powerful PR firms.” [1], [2] According to its agency profile at O'Dwyers, “APCO Worldwide is a global c...
Hugh W. Ellsaesser Credentials Ph.D., Meteorology. [1] Background Hugh W. Ellsaesser, born in 1920, is a meteorologist by training and retired “guest scientist” at the Lawrence Liverm...
Alfred (Al) Pekarek Credentials Ph.D., University of Wyoming (1974). [1] B.A. University of Minnesota-Twin (1965). [1] Background Alfred (Al) Pekarek is a former associate...
Benny Josef Peiser Credentials Ph.D. , University of Frankfurt (1993). Peiser studied political science, English, and sports science. [1], [2] Background Benny Peiser is a sports ...