Americans for Tax Reform

Americans for Tax Reform (ATR)


Americans for Tax Reform (ATR) is a nonprofit 501(c)(4) “taxpayer advocacy group”  founded in 1985 by Grover Norquist at the request of Ronald Reagan. According to their website, “Americans for Tax Reform (ATR) opposes all tax increases as a matter of principle.” [1]

Grover Norquist, President and Founder of ATR, has been called ”one of the Republican Party’s most influential policy strategists,” by the New York Times and one of the “Gang of Five” in Nina Easton’s 2000 book by the same name that describes the history of the leaders of the modern conservative movement. [2]

Americans for Tax Reform has close ties to the Republican Party, and historically served as a gathering place for conservative political organizing, with regular meetings that included Republican congressional leaders, right-leaning think tanks, conservative advocacy groups and K Street lobbyists. They continue their national “Wednesday Meeting” in the states that brings together “a broad cross section of the center-right community- taxpayer groups, social conservative groups, business groups, legislators, etc., to promote limited government ideals.” [3], [1]

Americans for Tax Reform is known for its “Taxpayer Protection Pledge,” which asks candidates for federal and state office to commit themselves in writing to oppose all tax increases. The pledge comes in versions for the national and for the state level. According to Americans for tax Reform, “Since its rollout with the endorsement of President Reagan in 1986, the pledge has become practically required for Republicans seeking office, and is a necessity for Democrats running in Republican districts.” [4]

Americans for Tax Reform is a member of the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC)the Cooler Heads Coalition (CHC), and has been known to ally itself with the tobacco industry, having received funding from R.J. Reynolds, Phillip Morris (now Atria), and the Tobacco Institute. [5]

ATR runs a number of projects. The Property Rights Alliance describes itself as an “Affiliate” of ATR, and opposes estate tax, environmental protection, and licensing restrictions. The “Alliance for Worker Freedom,” which opposes unions, describes itself as a “special project of Americans for Tax Reform.” [6], [7]

Stance on Climate Change

“Americans for Tax Reform opposes a carbon tax and will work tirelessly to ensure one does not become law.” [8]

“Increased carbon emissions caused a ‘greenhouse effect’ which changed the climate and caused the earth to warm. The increases in carbon eventually changed the climate again and the earth is now cooling. The carbon has continued to increase and the planet has warmed (slightly) and cooled (slightly) …” [9]

“The actions of these do-gooder greenies have led to the deaths of millions of people in developing countries due to malaria outbreaks that could have been prevented with the use of DDT. The current proposals to limit CO2 emissions will have equally devastating effects to not only Americans but to the rest of the world as well.” [10]


Both Americans for Tax Reform (ATR) and the related Americans for Tax Reform Foundation have received significant funding from corporations, right-wing organizations, and conservative foundations.

The following is taken from the Conservative Transparency Project’s database, based on publicly-available 990 tax forms. Note that not all values have been confirmed by DeSmog.  [11]

See the attached spreadsheet for Americans for Tax Reform funding by year (.xlsx)[11]

ATR as Donor

RecipientAmericans for Tax ReformAmericans for Tax Reform FoundationGrand Total
Independent Women’s Voice$260,000 $260,000
Center for Civic Renewal $175,000$175,000
Atlas Network $68,400$68,400
Citizens for Limited Taxation$52,200 $52,200
Beacon Hill Institute $25,250$25,250
New Hampshire Advantage Coalition$25,000 $25,000
Alliance for America’s Future$25,000 $25,000
Texas Public Policy Foundation $25,000$25,000
Texans for Fiscal Responsibility$25,000 $25,000
Utah Taxpayers Association$25,000 $25,000
American Conservative Union Foundation$14,500$10,450$24,950
Friends of the Austrian Economics Center $22,000$22,000
American Encore$20,000 $20,000
Citizens in Charge Foundation $15,000$15,000
Frontiers of Freedom $15,000$15,000
Jaime Guzman Foundation $6,000$6,000
Nuestra Decision $5,000$5,000
American Spectator Foundation $5,000$5,000
CA Term Limits$5,000 $5,000
Nebraskans Against Amendment 3$5,000 $5,000
The Helm’s Center $5,000$5,000
Evergreen Freedom Foundation $5,000$5,000
Adam Smith Institute $4,500$4,500
Jesse Helms Center $3,000$3,000
The Independent Institute $2,000$2,000
Cato Institute $2,000$2,000
Indiana Policy Review Foundation $2,000$2,000
America’s Future Foundation $1,550$1,550
The Philadelphia Society $1,190$1,190
Victims of Communism Memorial $600$600
State Policy Network $500$500
Leadership Institute $500$500
Minaret of Freedom Institute $100$100
Pic Education Foundation $100$100
Grand Total$456,700$400,140$856,840

ATR as Recipient

DonorAmericans for Tax ReformAmericans for Tax Reform FoundationGrand Total
Crossroads GPS$30,400,000 $30,400,000
Center to Protect Patient Rights$4,539,000 $4,539,000
The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation $1,072,500$1,072,500
Schwab Charitable Fund $1,000,000$1,000,000
Free Enterprise America$813,000 $813,000
American Petroleum Institute$807,500 $807,500
Walton Family Foundation $658,500$658,500
The Randolph Foundation$419,250$124,200$543,450
John M. Olin Foundation$525,000 $525,000
DonorsTrust $446,750$446,750
Sarah Scaife Foundation $375,000$375,000
The Carthage Foundation $325,000$325,000
Donors Capital Fund $250,000$250,000
Searle Freedom Trust $243,000$243,000$195,000 $195,000
John William Pope Foundation $195,000$195,000
Reynolds American$175,000 $175,000
Edison Electric Institute$163,500 $163,500
Lovett and Ruth Peters Foundation$10,000$105,000$115,000
Kickapoo Springs Foundation $113,500$113,500
Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation$60,000$50,000$110,000
Freedom Partners$100,000 $100,000
Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers$75,000 $75,000
Pew Charitable Trusts$50,000 $50,000
William H. Donner Foundation $45,000$45,000
Dodge Jones Foundation$42,500 $42,500
William E. Simon Foundation $35,000$35,000
The Roe Foundation$30,000 $30,000
American Natural Gas Alliance$25,000 $25,000
National Christian Charitable Foundation $25,000$25,000
JM Foundation $25,000$25,000
The Vernon K. Krieble Foundation $22,000$22,000
Legett Foundation $20,000$20,000
Americans for Limited Government$20,000 $20,000
Charles G Koch Charitable Foundation $14,500$14,500
Robert and Marie Hansen Foundation$7,500 $7,500
Americans for Limited Government Foundation$5,000 $5,000
Gilder Foundation $5,000$5,000
The Shelby Cullom Davis Foundation $3,000$3,000
Armstrong Foundation$2,500 $2,500
Dunn’s Foundation for the Advancement of Right Thinking$2,500 $2,500
Grand Total$39,428,250$5,172,950$44,601,200

Koch Funding

According to the most recent data from Greenpeace, ATR received at least $117,250 from Koch foundations between 2003 and 2017. [12]

Below are values taken from publicly available 990 tax forms:

RecipientClaude R. Lambe Charitable FoundationCharles G Koch Charitable FoundationGrand Total
Americans for Tax Reform Foundation$50,000$14,500$64,500
2012$50,000 $50,000
2016 $7,250$7,250
2017 $7,250$7,250
Americans for Tax Reform$60,000 $60,000
2003$10,000 $10,000
2004$10,000 $10,000
2005$15,000 $15,000
2007$25,000 $25,000
Grand Total$110,000$14,500$124,500

Other Funding

SourceWatch lists funding from numerous tobacco companies including R.J. Reynolds, Philip Morris, and the Tobacco Institute. [5]

ATR 990 Forms

ATR Foundation 990 Forms

Key People

Americans for Tax Reform

The following were listed on Americans for Tax Reform’s 2013 990 tax return (PDF): [13]

  • Grover G. Norquist — President
  • Peter Balkin — Vice President
  • Steve Masty — Secretary 
  • Karen Kerrigan — Secretary
  • Christopher Butler — Chief of Staff
  • Patrick Gleason — State Affairs Director

Americans for Tax Reform Foundation

The following were listed on Americans for Tax Reform Foundation’s 2013 990 tax return (PDF): [14]

  • Grover G Norquist — President
  • Steve Masty — Secretary
  • Peter Balkin — Vice-President
  • William Roesing — Director
  • Mark Klugmann — Director
  • Karen Kerrigan — Director
  • Chip Faulkner —  Director
  • Chuck Muth — Director
  • Paul Smith — Director
  • Fred Marckini — Director
  • Patrick Gleason — State Affairs Director
  • Christopher Butler — Chief Of Staff 


January 8, 2021

According to The New Yorker, Americans for Tax Reform founder and President Grover Norquist participated in a conference call with billionaire political donor Charles Koch and Steve Donaldson, policy advisor to Senator Mitch McConnell. The call had discussed strategies for blocking the ratification of the For the People Act, an electoral reform bill intended to expand voting rights and limit the influence of money in politics, and included Heather Lauer, executive director of People United for Privacy (a project of the State Policy Network). [45]

The article claimed that Republicans admitted the popularity of the bills’ provisions limiting campaign spending, stating: “In private, they (Republicans) concede their own polling shows that no message they can devise effectively counters the argument that billionaires should be prevented from buying elections.” [45]

April 6, 2020

Americans for Tax Reform, represented by Grover Norquist, was signatory to an American Energy Alliance letter to President Donald Trump supporting the Safer Affordable Fuel-Efficient (SAFE) Vehicles Rule which would scrap federal fuel economy mandates under the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) program. [44]

Describing CAFE, the letter contends: “Those families and individuals who prefer or need trucks, SUVs, and crossovers pay more to subsidize those who buy smaller vehicles or electric vehicles under the existing mandate. This significant, needless, and unjust cost is a very real regressive tax on American families that has made our country worse off.” [44]

September 19, 2018

UK Treasury minister Liz Truss met with representatives from ATR during a visit to Washington DC, Greenpeace’s investigative unit, Unearthed, found. The taxpayer-funded trip also included meetings with the Cato Institute, the American Enterprise Institute, the American Legislative Exchange Council, and the Heritage Foundation. [43]

July 18, 2018

Americans for Tax Reform, represented by Grover Norquist, was among signatories of a letter supporting an anti-carbon tax resolution from House Majority Whip Steve Scalise (R-La.) and Rep. David McKinley (R-W.Va. [40]

“We oppose any carbon tax. We oppose a carbon tax because it would lead to less income and fewer jobs for American families,” the letter read. “We support the House Concurrent Resolution in opposition to a job-killing carbon tax and urge members to co-sponsor and support this effort.” [40]

The resolution would call a carbon tax “detrimental to the United States economy.”E&E News reported it was similar to a measure that passed the House in 2016. Rep. Carlos Curbelo of Florida, co-chairman of the Climate Solutions Caucus, said he would not vote for the resolution. [41]

“Protecting our environment and economic growth are not mutually exclusive,” he said in a statement. “The resolution presents a false choice.” [41]

The Citizens’ Climate Lobby (CCL) issued a point-by-point rebuttal of the measure when it was first introduced. [42]

February 12, 2018

ATR was one of several organizations to join Americans for Prosperity (AfP) in a coalition opposing a federal gas tax increase. [38]

“Raising the gas tax is a bad idea. It will make the burden of government on families and businesses heavier,” the coalition’s open letter read. [38]

Signatories include: [39]

Brent Wm. GardnerChief Government Affairs OfficerAmer
Michael A. NeedhamCEOHeritage Action for America
Grover NorquistPresidentAmericans for Tax Reform
David McIntoshPresidentClub for Growth
Nathan NascimentoExecutive Vice PresidentFreedom Partners Chamber of Commerce
Mark ScribnerSenior FellowCompetitive Enterprise Institute
Jason PyeVice President of Legislative AffairsFreedomWorks
Tom SchatzPresidentCitizens Against Government Waste
Pete SeppPresidentNational Taxpayers Union
Phil KerpenPresidentAmerican Commitment
Mario H. LopezPresidentHispanic Leadership Fund
Daniel GarzaPresidentThe Libre Initiative
Carrie L. LukasPresidentIndependent Women’s Forum
Heather R. HigginsPresident and CEOIndependent Women’s Voice
Harry C. AlfordPresident and CEONational Black Chamber of Commerce
Jeffrey MazellaPresidentCenter for Individual Freedom
Donald BrysonPresidentCivitas Action
David BarnesPolicy DirectorGeneration Opportunity
Norm SingletonPresidentCampaign for Liberty
Judson PhillipsFounderTea Party Nation
Seton MotleyPresidentLess Government
Kim Crockett, Esq.Vice President, Senior Fellow and General CounselCenter of the American Experiment
Tom Brinkman, Jr.ChairmanCoalition Opposed to Additional Spending and Taxes (COAST)
Matthew KandrachPresidentConsumer Action for a Strong Economy (CASE)
Katie McAulliffeExecutive DirectorDigital Liberty
Brett HealyPresidentJohn K. MacIver Institute
Sean NoblePresidentAmerican Encore
Annette MeeksCEOFreedom Foundation of Minnesota
Andrew F. QuinlanPresidentCenter for Freedom and Prosperity

May 8, 2017

Americans for Tax Reform, represented by Grover G. Norquist, is listed on an open letter to President Donald J. Trump urging him “to withdraw fully from the Paris Climate Treaty and to stop all taxpayer funding of UN global warming programs.” [35]

DeSmog reported that the 40 groups represented in the letter, including the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI), The Heartland Institute, and the Heritage Foundation, have received a combined total of millions of dollars from the Koch Brothers, ExxonMobil, and other industry groups. [36]

Analysis also showed that the groups accepted about $80 million through Donors Capital Fund and Donors Trust, two groups that have been confirmed is a key financial source for key U.S-based climate change denial groups. [37]

January 12, 2017

ATR‘s Grover Norquist was a signatory to a January 12, 2017 official letter of support (PDF) for Scott Pruitt, in which numerous groups, including The Heartland InstituteAmerican Energy Alliance (AEA), and others, declared that the Senate should “swiftly approve his nomination” for Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

 Other signatories of the letter included: [34]

November 24, 2015

Americans for Tax Reform (ATR) sent a letter to members of Congress, urging them to push back the date that new tobacco products including electronic cigarettes must meet FDA standards, which ATR describes as “expensive and unnecessary.[30]

Currently, the FDA will require that products to hit the market since February 2007 undergo a Pre-Market Tobacco Applications (PMTA) Process. ATR‘s argues that as these products are being used for smoking cessation, they should not be subject to this process given that they “stand to save millions of lives and billions of tax dollars.”

However, other sources have questioned the safety of e-cigarettes. That includes the the American Lung Association, which has said it is “concerned about the potential health consequences of e-cigarettes” because there are currently no safety checks on what can go into e-cigarettes, and they are entirely unregulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). [31]

November 2, 2015

Grover Norquist, on behalf of Americans for Tax Reform, sent a letter to members of Congress urging them to lift the crude oil export ban. ATR has also previously supported H.R. 702, sponsored by Representative Joe Barton of Texas, which would effectively lift the ban. [32]

“Considering the widespread economic benefits lifting the export ban would have on the U.S. economy, as well as the growing bipartisan support, there has never been a better time for Congress to act,” Norquist writes. [32]

January 16, 2015

Americans for Tax Reform (ATR) criticized polls conducted by the Centre for American Progress and Yale University that showed widespread support for President Obama’s environmental plan (which ATR describes as “job-killing and downright dangerous”). [15]

Americans for Tax Reform promotes an alternate poll by the conservative group 60 Plus Association (a group that has received over $42 million from organizations used by the Koch Brothers to elect Republican candidates to federal office). 

May 21 – 23, 2012

Americans for Tax Reform was a Co-Sponsor (PDF) of the Heartland Institute’s Seventh International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC7). [16]

DeSmogBlog found that co-sponsors of the conference had collectively received over $67 million from ExxonMobil, Koch Foundations, and Scaife Family Foundations. [17]

June 30 – July 1, 2011

Americans for Tax Reform was a Co-Sponsor (PDF) of the Heartland Institute’s Sixth International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC6). [18]

October 1, 2010

Together, the Heartland InstituteAmericans for Tax Reform, the Property Rights Alliance, and the Institute of Public Affairs sponsored the Heartland Institute’s Fifth International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC5) in Sydney, Australia. [19]

May 16-18, 2010

Americans for Tax Reform was a sponsor (PDF) of the Heartland Institute’s Fourth International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC4) in Chicago, IL. [20]

June, 2009

ATR opposed the Renewable Portfolio Standard in the American Clean Energy and Security Act, also known as the Waxman-Markey plan which called for measures to reduce CO2 emissions. [21]

March 8-10, 2009

Americans for Tax Reform was a Co-Sponsor of the Heartland Institute’s Second International Conference on Climate Change (ICC2) in New York. [22]

November 10, 2009

Grover Norquist represented Americans for Tax Reform when he testified on “Climate Change Legislation: Considerations for Future Jobs.”

According to Norquist, “The Cap and Trade legislation this Committee is considering is being sold as an attempt to control the climate; however there is no conclusive proof that it will have any effect. There is, however, considerable evidence that this legislation will have a disastrous economic effect on the country.” As proof he cites information provided by the Institute for Energy Research (IER), an organization that has received significant funding from the oil industry.

Norquist strongly opposes tax increases on the oil industry, stating that “Raising taxes on oil companies by increasing the amortization period of geological and geophysical (G&G) expenditures makes U.S. oil and natural gas exploration projects less competitive globally […]”

With reference to green jobs, Norquist argues that “not only are these jobs costly, they are also unsustainable.” [23]

July, 2008

Americans for Tax Reform released a “cost of Government Day” 2008 Report (PDF) that criticizes increases in government spending and regulation. In a section critical of the EPA, ATR describes regulation costs as “threatening to explode due to costly and unnecessary global warming regulation.” [24]

According to ATR, cap and trade and other regulatory measures to combat global warming should not be implemented because “there is still no scientific consensus on the nature, origins, or there has been no warming for at least 10 years, and extent of the global climate change we may be experiencing. Indeed, some point to studies showing even the U.N. has recently projected there will be no warming for at least another 10 years as well. In fact, the global temperature data has shown a slight cooling trend over the last 5 years which may well continue.”

To support this last statement, ATR cites an Fox News story written by climate change skeptic Steve Milloy.

March 2 – 4, 2008

ATR was a co-sponsor of the Heartland Institute’s First International Conference on Climate Change. [25]

October 12, 2006

ATR was one of five conservative nonprofit organizations that “appear to have perpetrated a fraud” on taxpayers by selling their influence to lobbyist Jack Abramoff, according to Senate investigators. 

According to the report, and the summary article in The Washington Post, ATR “probably violated their tax-exempt status ‘by laundering payments and then disbursing funds at Mr. Abramoff’s direction; taking payments in exchange for writing newspaper columns or press releases that put Mr. Abramoff’s clients in a favorable light; introducing Mr. Abramoff’s clients to government officials in exchange for payment; and agreeing to act as a front organization for congressional trips paid for by Mr. Abramoff’s clients.’” [26]

This included a $25,000 payment to Abramoff in 2001, as reported in The New York Times. [27]

June 7, 2002

ATR President Grover Norquist signed a letter to President Bush, asking him to withdraw the “Climate Action Report 2002” and demand that it be rewritten based on “sound science”. The letter also recommends that Bush “dismiss or re-assign all administration employees who are not pursuing your agenda, just as you have done in several similar instances.” [28]

Americans for Tax Reform Contact & Location

As of June 2016, Americans for Tax Reform (ATR) listed the following contact information on its website: [33]

Americans for Tax Reform
722 12th ST NW
Suite 400
Washington DC 20005
202.785.0266 (P)
202.785.0261 (F)
[email protected]

Related Organizations

Social Media


  1. About,” Americans for Tax Reform. Accessed October 16, 2015. WebCite URL
  2. Philip Shenon, “$25,000 to Lobby Group Is Tied to Access to Bush,” New York Times, March 10, 2006. Archived October 16, 2015. WebCite URL
  3. Susan Page. “Norquist’s power high, profile low,” USA Today, June 1, 2001. Archived October 16, 2015. WebCite URL
  4. About the Taxpayer Protection Pledge,” Americans for Tax Reform. Accessed October 16, 2015. WebCite URL
  5. Americans for Tax Reform,” SourceWatch Profile.
  6. About,” Property Rights Alliance. Archived October 16, 2015. WebCite URL:
  7. About,” Centre for Worker Freedom. Archived October 16, 2015. WebCite URL
  8. Stephen Lacey. “Grover Norquist Abruptly Changes Position On Carbon Tax After Facing Criticism From Koch-Backed Group,” ThinkProgress, November 13, 2012. WebCite URL
  9. Todd Hollenbeck. “Global Warming Has Brought on A New Ice Age!” Americans for Tax Reform, November 10, 2009. Archived October 16, 2015. WebCite URL
  10. Todd Hollenbeck. ”Not Evil Just Wrong exposing the costs of Global Warming Hysteria,” Americans for Tax Reform, August 25, 2009. Archived October 16, 2015. WebCite URL
  11. Americans for Tax Reform” (seach), Conservative Transparency. Data retrieved June 30, 2016.
  12. Americans for Tax Reform (ATR): Koch Industries Climate Denial Front Group,” Greenpeace USA. Accessed June 30, 2016. Most recent data on file at DeSmogBlog.
  13. “Form 990 Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax: Americans for Tax Reform” (PDF), retrieved from Conservative Transparency. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
  14. Form 990 Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax: Americans for Tax Reform Foundation” (PDF), retrieved from Conservative Transparency. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
  15. Chris Prandoni. “The Environmental Lobby’s Ludicrous Polls,” Americans for Tax Reform, January 16, 2015. Archived October 16, 2015. WebCite URL
  16. “Seventh International Conference on Climate Change: Sponsored by the Heartland Institute” (PDF), the Heartland Institute. Archived August 15, 2015.
  17. Michael Fisher. “A Closer Look at Heartland’s ICCC7 Denial-a-Palooza Speakers and Sponsors,” DeSmogBlog, May 23, 2012.
  18. Sixth International Conference on Climate Change Conference Program (PDF), the Heartland Institute. Archived July 25, 2015.
  19. ICCC – 5,” Archived September 1, 2015.
  20. 4th International Conference on Climate Change Conference Program (PDF), The Heartland Institute.
  21. ATR Opposes the Renewable Electricity Standards in Waxman-Markey,” Americans for Tax Reform, June 25, 2009. Archived October 17, 2015. WebCite URL
  22. Co-Sponsors,” The 2009 International Conference on Climate Change. Archived April 28, 2011.
  23. ATR Testimony for Senate Hearing on Climate Change Legislation: Considerations for Future Jobs,” Americans for Tax Reform, November 10, 2009. Archived October 17, 2015. WebCite URL
  24. “Cost of Government Day 2008 Report” (PDF) Center for Fiscal Accountability and Americans for Tax Reform Foundation. Archived .pdf on file at DesmogBlog.
  25. Sponsorships,” the 2008 International Conference on Climate Change. Archived May 14, 2008.
  26. James V. Grimaldi and Susan Schmidt. “Report Says Nonprofits Sold Influence to Abramoff,” The Washington Post, October 13, 2006. WebCite URL
  27. Philip Shenon. “$25,000 to Lobby Group Is Tied to Access to Bush,” The New York Times, March 10, 2006. WebCite URL
  28. Fred L. Smith, Jr. “Joint Letter To President Bush On The EPA‘s Climate Action Report,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, June 7, 2002. WebCite URL
  29. About,” Accessed October 16, 2015. WebCite URL
  30. ATR Supports Change in Predicate Date for New Tobacco and Vapor Products,” Americans for Tax Reform, November 24, 2015. WebCite URL
  31. E-cigarettes and Lung Health,” American Lung Association. Archived November 26, 2015. WebCite URL
  32. Edwin Portugal. “ATR Supports Amendments Lifting the Crude Oil Export Ban,” Americans for Tax Reform, November 2, 2015. Archived November 26, 2015. WebCite URL
  33. ATR Homepage. Archived June 29, 2016. WebCite URL
  34. “Dear Senators,” (PDF)Competitive Enterprise Institute, January 12, 2017. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.
  35. “Dear Mr. President” (PDF), retrieved from Competitive Enterprise Institute. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.
  36. Graham Readfearn. “Conservative Groups Pushing Trump To Exit Paris Climate Deal Have Taken Millions From Koch Brothers, Exxon,” DeSmog, May 10, 2017.
  37. Susanne Goldberg. “Conservative groups spend up to $1bn a year to fight action on climate change,” The Guardian, December 20, 2013. Archived May 12, 2017. URL
  38. Americans For Prosperity Leads Coalition Against Gas Tax Hike,” Americans for Prosperity, February 12, 2018. Archived February 20, 2018. URL:
  39. “Dear Representative:” (PDF), Americans for Prosperity, February 12, 2018.
  40. 41 Conservative Groups Support Scalise/McKinley Anti-Carbon Tax Resolution,” Americans for Tax Reform, July 18, 2018. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.
  41. Nick Sobczyk. “House voting on anti-carbon-tax measure: ‘Pass the popcorn’,” E&E News, July 16, 2018. Archived Aug 2, 2018. URL:
  42. Teaching opportunities from House Concurrent Resolution 119 (H.Con.Res.119)” (PDF), Citizens’ Climate Lobby, April 30, 2018.
  43. Lawrence Carter. “Liz Truss met with ‘dark money’ think tanks during taxpayer funded trip to Washington DC,” Unearthed, December 19, 2018. Archived December 22, 2018. URL
  44. CAFE-Coaliton-to-Trump-April-2020-9 (PDF)American Energy Alliance.
  45. Jane Mayer. “Inside the Koch-Backed Effort to Block the Largest Election-Reform Bill in Half a Century,” The New Yorker, March 29, 2021. Archived April 27, 2021. URL:

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