Cato Institute

Cato Institute

Background

The Cato Institute is a libertarian think tank based in Washington, D.C. founded in January 1977 by Charles Koch, chairman of the “board and chief executive officer of Koch Industries, Inc., along with Edward H. Crane and Murray Rothbard. [1]

According to its website, “The mission of the Cato Institute is to originate, disseminate, and increase understanding of public policies based on the principles of individual liberty, limited government, free markets, and peace. Our vision is to create free, open, and civil societies founded on libertarian principles.” [2]

In addition to millions of dollars in support from its co-founders, the Koch Brothers, the Cato Institute has also received $125,000 from ExxonMobil since 1998. The Cato Institute has also been listed as one of Philip Morris’s “National Allies.” Cato’s corporate supporters have included both Philip Morris and R.J. Reynolds[13]

Other notable funders include Scaife Family Foundations, and the secretive DonorsTrust, a group that has been described as the “Dark Money ATM of the conservative movement.” [19]

History

The Cato Institute was originally incorporated (PDF) on December 19, 1974, under the name “Charles Koch Foundation,” with the original directors listed as Charles Koch, George Pearson, and Roger MacBride.  It shared the same address as Koch Industries in Wichita, Kansas. [3]

At the same time, George Pearson filed the organization’s application for nonprofit status with the IRS (PDF), anticipating initial contributions of $40,000 in funds from Charles Koch, the Fred C. Koch Trust, and potentially the Fred C. Koch Foundation, as well as 10,000 to 15,000 shares of non-voting common stock of Koch Industries, as well as potentially non-voting preferred stock. [4]

The Cato Institute took on its current name in 1977. It began with headquarters in San Francisco, a staff of three, and $500,000 in financial backing provided via Charles G. Koch, according to the Washington Post. [5]

Internal Conflict

In 2012, the Koch Brothers and Ed Crane of the Cato Institute had a “bitter falling-out over management and philosophical differences.” The Koch Brothers, who controlled roughly half of the Cato Institute through “shareholder seats,” had decided to sue the Cato Institute to gain control over an additional seat of a shareholder who had died, which would give Koch majority control of the group. [6]

Ed Crain released a written statement when the lawsuits were first filed:

“Charles G. Koch has filed a lawsuit as part of an effort to gain control of the Cato Institute, which he co-founded with me in 1977. While Mr. Koch and entities controlled by him have supported the Cato Institute financially since that time, Mr. Koch and his affiliates have exercised no significant influence over the direction or management of the Cato Institute, or the work done here.” [7]

The New York Times reported the Koch Brothers had long attempted to install their own people on the Cato Institute’s 16-member board, to establish a “more direct pipeline between Cato and the family’s Republican political outlets, including groups that Democrats complain have mounted a multimillion-dollar assault on President Obama.” This had caused tensions inside the governing structure, as Cato officials said this threatened their reputation for independent research. [8]

The Kochs eventually relented on the condition that Ed Crane retire, who was later replaced by John Allison, reported the New Yorker. It also resulted in a revamp of the Cato’s organizational structure, which had based ownership on a share structure. David Koch would remain on the board, but not his brother Charles. Bruce Bartlett, conservative economist and historian, said that the Kochs are ”[P]utting in place a structure that will gradually erode Cato’s independence and move it closer to the American Enterprise Institute and Heritage Foundation.” [9]

Greenpeace reported that before the attempted Koch takeover, Cato was seen as a “Relatively independent think tank, willing to criticize both democrat and republican administrations,” but that the Kochs had wanted “the power to fold Cato into their suite of other front groups, making it another Koch-controlled cog in the republican political machine.” [10]

Global Science Report

Paul C. “Chip” Knappenberger and Patrick J. Michaels are regular contributors to the “Global Science Report,” described as a “a weekly feature from the Center for the Study of Science, where we highlight one or two important new items in the scientific literature or the popular media.” [40]

Climate Change is a regular topic at the Cato Institute’s Global Science report. Some sample articles below:

Stance on Climate Change

2013 – Present

The Cato Institute’s public statement on global warming claims they accept global warming is real, however subtly alludes to the group’s stance against climate policy, and suggests, contrary to the majority scientific view, that “there is ample time” to develop technology to combat it:

“Global warming is indeed real, and human activity has been a contributor since 1975. But global warming is also a very complicated and difficult issue that can provoke very unwise policy in response to political pressure. Although there are many different legislative proposals for substantial reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, there is no operational or tested suite of technologies that can accomplish the goals of such legislation. Fortunately, and contrary to much of the rhetoric surrounding climate change, there is ample time to develop such technologies, which will require substantial capital investment by individuals.” [11]

The Cato Institute’s “Global Warming” page, with the above claims, has been saved by the Internet Archive as early as 2013

December 15, 2015

Patrick J. Michaels and Chip Knappenberger wrote a Cato Institute “working paper” making the “case for lukewarming”: [56]

“[W]e conclude that future global warming will occur at a pace substantially lower than that upon which US federal and international actions to restrict greenhouse gas emissions are founded.

“It is high time to rethink those efforts,” they wrote.

October 17, 2016

According to an issue of Cato’s “Policy Analysis,” by Robert P. Murphy, Patrick J. Michaels, and Paul C. Knappenberger, in an article entitled “The Case Against a U.S. Carbon Tax”: [55]

“Future economic damages from carbon dioxide emissions can only be estimated in conjunction with forecasts of climate change. But recent history shows those forecasts are in flux, with an increasing number of forecasts of less warming appearing in the scientific literature in the last four years.”

[…]

“If the case for emission cutbacks is weaker than the public has been led to believe, the claim of a double dividend is on even shakier ground. There really is a consensus in this literature, and it is that carbon taxes cause more economic damage than generic taxes do on labor or capital, so that in general even a revenue-neutral carbon tax swap would probably reduce economic growth.”

December 23, 2008

Patrick J. Michaels, with the Cato Institute, submitted comments to the EPA claiming that it should “EPA should not rely on the IPCC AR4 reports” in its proposal to regulate carbon dioxide emissions under the Clean Air Act: [57]

Under Michaels’ general comments, he claims: [57]

“As hurricanes are one of the leading causes of weather related damages in the U.S., and will likely remain so in the future, it is essential that any endangerment finding must recognize the complexity of this issue and that our best science currently suggests that our vulnerabilities largely arise from our climate and our behavior, rather than from human-induced climate change.” [57]

He also claims that new findings regarding sea level rise somehow invalidate those used previously by the IPCC: [57]

“Another major topic in which post-AR4 findings have had a major impact on our level of scientific understanding is on the rate of observed and future sea level rise […] All of these findings invalidate conclusions of the Endangerment Technical Support Document [TSD].” [57]

According to Michaels, the endangerment finding report ignores increases in quality of life: [57]

“The Endangerment TSD completely neglects constant advancement in fossil-fuel powered societies in the quality and length of life,” he wrote. “Whatever challenges that climate change—be it natural variations, or those borne from our own activities— may present us, our resourcefulness and quest for a better life will surely overcome them.” [57]

2001

In 2001, the Cato Institute released a “Handbook for Congress” that suggested that global warming cannot be stopped in the near-term: 

“No known mechanism can stop global warming in the near term. International agreements, such as the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, would have no detectable effect on average temperature within any reasonable policy time frame of 50 years or so, even with full compliance.” [12]

1998

The Cato Institute includes early speeches on climate change by its former vice president Jerry Taylor on its website. For example, in a January 16, 1998 speech, Taylor declared: [54]

“As Cato Institute chairman William Niskanen has noted, for any international action to merit support, all of the following propositions must be proven true: [54]

  • A continued increase in the emission of greenhouse gases will increase global temperature.
  • An increase in average temperature will generate more costs than benefits.
  • Emissions controls are the most efficient means to prevent an increase in global temperature.
  • Early measures to control emissions are superior to later measures.
  • Emissions controls can be effectively monitored and enforced.
  • Governments of the treaty countries will approve the necessary control measures.
  • Controlling emissions is compatible with a modern economy.

“The case for any one of those statements is surprisingly weak. The case for a global warming treaty, which depends on the accuracy of all those statements, is shockingly weak.”

Taylor claims later in the speech that the costs of global warming would be low (emphasis added): [54]

“For what it’s worth, I tend to agree with the IPCC’s summary statement that the ‘balance of the evidence suggests’ that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions explain some of the detected warming observed thus far over the past 100 years. But as noted earlier, that warming has been extremely moderate, has been largely confined to the northern latitudes during winter nights, and has exhibited no real detrimental effects thus far. I expect those trends to continue and that’s the main reason why I doubt that the costs of warming will be particularly consequential.“ [54]

Referring to a warming scenario proposed by Patrick Michaels, who has advocated for inaction on climate change, he suggests global warming may be a good thing: [54]

“[This warming scenario predicts benign, not deleterious, effects on both the environment and the economy,” Taylor said of Michaels’ proposed scenario which refers to the supposed ”’fertilizer’ effect of CO2.”

Taylor claims that even 2.5 degrees Celsius of warming would be not “much reason for alarm”: [54]

“There have been six particularly comprehensive or prominent serious studies undertaken to estimate the macroeconomic consequences of such a warming. None of them gives us much reason for alarm,” Taylor claimed.

Studies he points to include work by economists including Thomas Gale MooreRobert Mendelsohn, and William Nordhaus[54]

Electric Vehicles/Alternative Fuels

2016

“The real reason for all the scandalous regulations and subsidies designed to shove us into underpowered mini-cars has nothing to do with ‘saving the planet.’  It’s all about doling out lucrative gifts (emissions credits, grants and subsides) to politically-favored companies who try to sell us unwanted electric cars or biofuels while the government punishes taxpayers and companies that produce vehicles American consumers really want” — Alan Reynolds, Cato Institute senior fellow. [41]

Funding

The following data has been compiled by the Conservative Transparency project. Note that not all funding values have been confirmed by DeSmogBlog. [38]

View the attached spreadsheet for additional information on the Cato Institute’s funding and donations by year (.xlsx).

*Note that Koch-controlled foundation values prior to 1998 cannot be independently verified by DeSmog, as original 990 forms are not available. Koch totals for 1997 and prior values via Conservative Transparency.

Cato Institute as Recipient

DonorTotal
Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation$10,217,350
Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation$8,341,968
Dunn’s Foundation for the Advancement of Right Thinking$7,105,000
David H. Koch Charitable Foundation$4,043,240
Schwab Charitable Fund$2,540,775
Sarah Scaife Foundation$2,457,500
Searle Freedom Trust$2,425,000
Claws Foundation$2,400,000
The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation$2,097,500
Donors Capital Fund$1,855,384
E L Craig Foundation$1,675,500
DonorsTrust$1,586,751
Mercer Family Foundation$1,200,000
The Rodney Fund$1,112,877
John M. Olin Foundation$832,500
Earhart Foundation$779,625
The Opportunity Foundation$657,690
Holman Foundation$630,708
Adolph Coors Foundation$600,000
George Edward Durell Foundation$590,000
Lowndes Foundation$589,950
Herrick Foundation$564,050
Center for Independent Thought$518,500
Reams Foundation$490,000
The Challenge Foundation$465,000
F.M. Kirby Foundation$457,500
Castle Rock Foundation$450,000
Barney Family Foundation$440,000
Barbara and Barre Seid Foundation$427,618
Pierre F. and Enid Goodrich Foundation$425,000
Bradley Impact Fund$420,000
The TWS Foundation$410,000
Chase Foundation of Virginia$401,840
The Gordon and Mary Cain Foundation$400,000
Gilder Foundation$375,000
John Templeton Foundation$352,200
Walton Family Foundation$342,000
William H. Donner Foundation$320,000
Robert P. Rotella Foundation$290,000
Richard F. Aster Jr. Foundation$285,000
Ravenel and Elizabeth Curry Foundation$268,000
Charles Koch Institute$240,450
John William Pope Foundation$232,000
Robert and Marie Hansen Foundation$225,000
The Carthage Foundation$225,000
John Dawson Foundation$200,000
National Philanthropic Trust$194,900
JM Foundation$150,000
Jaquelin Hume Foundation$150,000
Robert W. Wilson Charitable Trust$149,000
Kulakala Point Foundation$143,000
Charles Maxfield Parrish and Gloria F Parrish Foundation$130,000
Armstrong Foundation$129,500
Jewish Communal Fund$125,951
Exxon Mobil$125,400
Atlas Economic Research Foundation$121,545
The Vernon K. Krieble Foundation$101,500
John P and Kathryn G Evans Foundation$96,000
The Roe Foundation$95,000
Arthur N. Rupe Foundation$77,000
Lovett and Ruth Peters Foundation$70,000
Richard Seth Staley Educational Foundation$64,553
National Christian Charitable Foundation$62,450
The Randolph Foundation$58,200
The McWethy Foundation$50,000
Smith Richardson Foundation$50,000
Neal and Jane Freeman Foundation$40,000
Marcus Foundation$36,000
Chiaroscuro Foundation$35,000
Stiles-Nicholson Foundation$31,000
The Robertson-Finley Foundation$29,500
Friedman Foundation For Educational Choice$29,500
Peterson Family Foundation$28,500
The Weiler Foundation$25,000
Charles and Ann Johnson Foundation$25,000
Leadership Institute$21,218
Thomas W Smith Foundation$20,000
John Locke Foundation$20,000
Apex Foundation$20,000
The Whitcomb Charitable Foundation$15,000
The Hamlin Family Foundation$13,000
The Rauner Family Foundation$10,000
Dick and Betsy DeVos Family Foundation$10,000
CIGNA Foundation$10,000
Aequus Institute$9,500
Dodge Jones Foundation$9,000
PG Beil Foundation$7,200
The Shelby Cullom Davis Foundation$5,000
Eyas Foundation$5,000
Eric Javits Family Foundation$4,750
Chiavacci Family Foundation$4,000
Einhorn Family Foundation$4,000
Wodecroft Foundation$3,000
Legett Foundation$3,000
Betcher Family Foundation$2,150
Whatley Foundation$2,000
Americans for Tax Reform$2,000
Joyce and Donald Rumsfeld Foundation$1,000
Grand Total$65,587,793

Cato Institute as Donor

RecipientTotal
Free to Choose Network$355,000
Cascade Policy Institute$146,500
Texas Public Policy Foundation$100,000
Evergreen Freedom Foundation$100,000
James Madison Institute$100,000
South Carolina Policy Education$90,000
Children’s Scholarship Fund$88,998
Yankee Institute$68,000
Independent Institute$60,000
Oklahoma Council of Public Affairs$50,000
Ethan Allen Institute$50,000
Rio Grande Foundation$50,000
Show-Me Institute$50,000
Tennessee Center for Policy$50,000
Illinois Policy Institute$50,000
Nevada Policy Research Institute$50,000
Maine Heritage Policy Center$50,000
Bluegrass Institute$50,000
Agencia Interamericana$48,000
Duke University$45,000
Grassroot Institute of Hawaii$40,000
Sutherland Institute$40,000
Maryland Public Policy Institute$40,000
American Islamic Congress$27,500
Virginia Institute for Public Policy$25,000
Iowa State University$25,000
Pew Research Center$23,000
John Locke Foundation$20,000
Atlas Economic Research Foundation$20,000
Regents of the University of California$20,000
University of Maryland College Park Foundation$15,000
The Grand Theater Foundation$12,425
Goldwater Institute$10,000
American Enterprise Institute$10,000
George Mason University Foundation$10,000
Fund for American Studies$10,000
Manhattan Institute for Public Policy Research$7,000
Habitat for Humanity Marion County$6,380
Heritage Foundation$5,000
Bravo Concert Series$5,000
Philanthropy Roundtable$5,000
Oxford Hayek Society$3,850
Americans for Prosperity Foundation$2,500
Center for the Study of Public Choice$2,500
Institute for Humane Studies$2,000
Milton Rose D Friedman Foundation$2,000
Palmer R. Chitester Fund$2,000
Reason Foundation$2,000
Leadership Institute$2,000
Grand Total$2,046,653

Murray Energy Funding

Murray Energy bankruptcy filings in 2019 revealed the Cato Institute was among groups who received funding from the energy company owned by climate change denier Robert Murray. The filings revealed a wide range of creditors with deep ties to climate change denial including the Heartland Institute, the Competitive Enterprise Institute, Government Accountability and Oversight, and the International Climate Science Coalition. Robert Murray was known for being a major Trump donor, and giving officials a wish list of proposed actions to help the coal industry. See related reporting from The InterceptEnergy and Environment News, and The New York Times. [58], [59], [60]

Other groups funded by Murray Energy include FreedomWorks, the Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow, and Judicial Watch. As The New York Times noted, Murray continued to fund climate change denial even as his company was going bankrupt. 

ExxonMobil Funding

According to ExxonSecrets, the Cato Institute received a total of $125,000 from ExxonMobil since 1998. [13]

Koch Funding

According to data collected by Greenpeace USA, the Cato Institute has received $8,944,351 in combined donations from Koch-related foundations between 1997 and 2015.  [14]

*Original tax forms prior to 1997 are no longer available for verification. If you include these values, the grand total jumps to $17,287,591 in Koch funding from 1986 to 2015.[14]

YearCharles Koch FoundationCharles Koch InstituteClaude R. Lambe Charitable FoundationDavid H. Koch Charitable FoundationGrand Total
1986*  $800,000$34,000$834,000
1987*  $1,300,000$250,000$1,550,000
1988*  $800,000$250,000$1,050,000
1989*   $251,740$251,740
1990*  $1,300,000 $1,300,000
1991*  $800,000 $800,000
1992*  $600,000 $600,000
1993*  $700,000 $700,000
1995*   $500,000$500,000
1996*  $250,000$507,500$757,500
1997  $250,000$500,000$750,000
1998  $250,000 $250,000
1999  $250,000$500,000$750,000
2000  $250,000$750,000$1,000,000
2001  $250,000$500,000$750,000
2002  $250,000 $250,000
2003  $250,000 $250,000
2004  $250,000 $250,000
2005  $250,000 $250,000
2006$8,400 $250,000 $258,400
2007  $250,000 $250,000
2008$10,000 $260,000 $270,000
2009  $250,000 $250,000
2010  $7,350 $7,350
2012$10,000   $10,000
2014$1,144,390$13,832  $1,158,222
2015$2,218,670$21,709  $2,240,379
Grand Total$3,391,460$35,541$9,817,350$4,043,240$17,287,591

Corporate Donors

The following corporations have donated to the Cato Institute between 2004 and 2014, according to available annual reports.  

Amerisure Companies
Fedex Corporation
Verisign Inc.
Volkswagen Of America, Inc.
Consumer Electronics Association
R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company
Whole Foods Market
Altria Group, Inc.
Freedom Communications, Inc.
Google Inc.
Reynolds American Inc.
Toyota Motor Corporation
Wal-Mart Stores Inc.
Bb&T
Cme Group
Comcast Corporation
General Motors Corporation
Honda North America Inc.
Mazda North America Operations
Microsoft Corporation
Time Warner, Inc.
UST Inc.
Altria Corporate Services Inc.
Ebay Inc.
Facebook Inc.
Korea International Trade Association
National Association of Software & Service Companies
Verizon Communications
Visa USA, Inc.
Agusta Westland Inc.
American Petroleum Institute
Bond Market Association
C. V. Starr & Company Inc.
Exxonmobil Corporation
Fair Trade Center
Judson & Associates
Mazda North America
Mcgraw Hill Financial
Metlife Inc.
Mitsubishi Motors America Inc.
National Association Of Broadcasters
Overstock.Com
Procter & Gamble Company
The Economist Newspaper Limited
Caterpillar Foundation
Amgen Inc.
Assurant Health
Atlantic Trust Co.
Caterpillar Inc.
Chicago Mercantile Exchange
K12 Management Inc.
Novecon Corporation
Olcio International, Inc.
Pepco Holdings Inc.
Pmi Global Services Inc.
Property Casuality Insurer Association
SBC Communications Inc.
Seaworld Parks & Entertainment Inc.
Southern Company Services

990 Forms

Annual Reports

Research Documents

Key People

Board of Directors

Name2001200420062009201020112012201320142016[45],[15]201720182019
Howard S. RichYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Jeffrey S. Yass YYYYYYYYYYYY
Lewis E. Randall YYYYYYYYYYYY
Fred Young  YYYYYYYYYYY
Donald G. Smith   YYYYYYYYYY
Robert A. Levy   YYYYYYYYYY
Nancy M. Pfotenhauer     YYYYYYYY
Preston Marshall      YYYYYY 
John A. Allison       YYYYYY
Nestor R. Weigand Jr.       YYYYYY
Baron Bond        YYYYY
James M. Kilts        YYYYY
James M. Lapeyre, Jr.        YYYYY
Carl Barney         YYY 
Peter N. Goettler         YYYY
Robert Gelfond         YYYY
Ken Levy          YYY
Rebecca Dunn           YY
Ethelmae C. HumphreysYYYYYYYYYYY Y
K. Tucker AndersenYYYYYYYYYYY  
Richard J. DennisYYYYYYYYYYY  
David H. KochYYYYYYYYYY   
John C. MaloneYYYYYYYYY    
Frank BondYYYYYYYY    Y
William A. Dunn     YYY     
Edward H. CraneYYYYYYY      
Kevin Gentry     YY      
Andrew Napolitano      Y      
Charles G. Koch      Y      
Kathryn Washburn      Y      
Theodore B. Olson      Y      
David H. PaddenYYYYYY       
William A. NiskanenYYYYYY       
Frederick W. SmithYYYY         
Peter AckermanYY           
Theodore J. ForstmannYY           
John BlokkerY            
Rupert MurdochY            

Policy Scholars

Name200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015[16]2016[46]20172018
Alan ReynoldsYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Daniel J. IkensonYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
David BoazYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Edward H. CraneYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Ian VasquezYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
James A. DornYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
John SamplesYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Jose PineraYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Michael D. TannerYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Patrick J. MichaelsYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Peter Van DorenYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Robert A. LevyYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Roger PilonYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Ted Galen CarpenterYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Tom G. PalmerYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Gene Healy YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Christopher A. Preble  YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Michael F. Cannon   YYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Neal McCluskey   YYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Andrei Illarionov      YYYYYYYYYYYY
Johan Norberg      YYYYYYYYYYYY
Randal O’Toole      YYYYYYYYYYYY
Steve H. Hanke YYYY  YYYYYYYYYYY
Ilya Shapiro       YYYYYYYYYYY
Jason Kuznicki       YYYYYYYYYYY
Juan Carlos Hidalgo       YYYYYYYYYYY
Swaminathan S. Anklesaria Aiyar       YYYYYYYYYYY
Thomas A. Firey       YYYYYYYYYYY
Doug BandowYYYYY   YYYYYYYYYY
Gerald P. O’Driscoll Jr.        YYYYYYYYYY
William Poole        YYYYYYYYYY
Jeffrey A. Miron         YYYYYYYYY
Julian Sanchez         YYYYYYYYY
Walter Olson         YYYYYYYYY
Aaron Ross Powell          YYYYYYYY
Gabriela Calderon de Burgos          YYYYYYYY
Marian L. Tupy  YYYYYYYY YYYYYYY
Alex Nowrasteh           YYYYYYY
John Mueller           YYYYYYY
Simon Lester           YYYYYYY
Trevor Burrus           YYYYYYY
John A. Allison            YYYYYY
Nicholas Quinn Rosenkranz            YYYYYY
Matthew Feeney             YYYYY
Richard Lindzen             YYYYY
Emily Ekins          YY  YYYY
A. Trevor Thrall              YYYY
Emma Ashford              YYYY
Patrick G. Eddington              YYYY
Peter Goettler              YYYY
Thaya Brook Knight              YYYY
Chris Edwards               YYY
George Selgin               YYY
Ike Brannon               YYY
Clark Neily                YY
Corey A. DeAngelis                YY
David Bier                YY
Eric Gomez                YY
Erik Goepner                YY
Flemming Rose                YY
Jeffrey A. Singer                YY
John Glaser                YY
Ryan Bourne                YY
Tate Lacey                YY
Vanessa Brown Calder                YY
Aaron Yelowitz                 Y
Colin Grabow                 Y
Inu Manak                 Y
Jay Schweikert                 Y
Sahar Khan                 Y
Terence Kealey                 Y
Daniel J. Mitchell      YYYYYYYYYYY 
Daniel R. Pearson             YYYY 
Adam Bates              YYY 
Jim Harper    YYYYYYYYYYYY  
Benjamin H. Friedman       YYYYYYYYY  
Mark A. Calabria        YYYYYYYY  
Nat Hentoff        YYYYYYYY  
Tim Lynch         YYYYYYY  
K. William Watson           YYYYY  
Brink LindseyYYYYYYYYYY  YYYY  
Jason Bedrick            YYYY  
Paul C. “Chip” Knappenberger            YYYY  
Xia Yeliang             YYY  
Brad Stapleton              YY  
Chris R. EdwardsYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY   
Andrew J. Coulson     YYYYYYYYYY   
Justin Logan     YYYYYYYYYY   
Nicole Kaeding             YY   
George A. Selgin              Y   
Jagadeesh Gokhale   YYYYYYYYYYY    
Dalibor Rohac            YY    
Louise C. Bennetts            YY    
Jennifer Keister             Y    
Jerry TaylorYYYYYYYYYYYYY     
Sallie James     YYYYYYYY     
Malou Innocent       YYYYYY     
Tad DeHaven        YYYYY     
Adam B. Schaeffer       YYYYY      
David Rittgers        YYYY      
William A. NiskanenYYYYYYYYYYY       
Daniel GriswoldYYYYYYY YYY       
Will Wilkinson    YYYYYY        
Timothy LynchYYYYYYYYY         
Leon T. Hadar       YY         
Daniel T. Griswold       Y          
Jeff Patch       Y          
Tom FireyYYYYYYY           
Mark Moller   YYYY           
Stephen Slivinski   YYYY           
Adam Schaeffer      Y           
Sigrid Fry-Revere      Y           
Radley Balko   YYY            
Charles V. PenaYYYYY             
Jonathan ClarkeYYYYY             
Patrick BashamYYYYY             
David Salisbury YYYY             
Marie Gryphon YYYY             
Jenifer Zeigler   YY             
Adam D. ThiererYYYY              
Stephen Moore  YY              
Aaron LukasY  Y              
Clyde Wayne Crews Jr.YYY               
L. Jacobo RodriguezYYY               
Tom MillerYYY               
Veronique de RugyYYY               
Casey Lartigue YY               
James Swanson YY               
Andrew BiggsYY                
Ivan ElandYY                
Edward L. HudginsY                 
Gary DempseyY                 
Kimble F. AinslieY                 

Adjunct Scholars

ExxonSecrets notes that past Adjunct Scholars have included prominent climate change deniers such as Thomas Gale Moore, Patrick J. Michaels, and Steve Milloy. [13][17]

Name19992000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015[17]2016[47]20172018
Alvin RabushkaYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Bert ElyYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Enrique GhersiYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Henry G. Manne (1928-2015)YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
James D. GwartneyYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Jonathan R. MaceyYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Kate Xiao ZhouYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Kevin DowdYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Leland B. YeagerYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Michael CoxYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Pedro SchwartzYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Richard A. EpsteinYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Richard H. Timberlake Jr.YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Richard L. StroupYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Robert Corn-RevereYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Robert HiggsYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Robert J. MichaelsYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Robert L. Bradley Jr.YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Roberto Salinas-LeonYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Sam PeltzmanYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Tom W. BellYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Tyler CowenYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Walter E. WilliamsYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Lorenzo Bernaldo de Quirós   YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Charlotte Twight    YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
David A. Hyman     YYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
David G. Post     YYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Donald J. Boudreaux     YYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Scott E. Harrington     YYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Stan Liebowitz     YYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Veronique de Rugy      YYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Alberto Benegas Lynch, Jr.        YYYYYYYYYYYY
Bryan Caplan        YYYYYYYYYYYY
David E. Bernstein         YYYYYYYYYYY
Ilya Somin         YYYYYYYYYYY
Mark Moller         YYYYYYYYYYY
Michael J. New         YYYYYYYYYYY
Daniel A. Sumner          YYYYYYYYYY
Erik Luna          YYYYYYYYYY
Lanny Ebenstein          YYYYYYYYYY
Shirley Svorny          YYYYYYYYYY
Timothy Sandefur          YYYYYYYYYY
Anthony de Jasay           YYYYYYYYY
Chandran Kukathas           YYYYYYYYY
Glen Whitman           YYYYYYYYY
Jacob T. Levy           YYYYYYYYY
James Tooley           YYYYYYYYY
John H. Cochrane           YYYYYYYYY
Loren Lomasky           YYYYYYYYY
Louis Fisher           YYYYYYYYY
Michael Munger           YYYYYYYYY
Razeen Sally           YYYYYYYYY
Stuart Anderson           YYYYYYYYY
Robert McDonald            YYYYYYYY
Alberto Mingardi             YYYYYYY
Adam B. Schaeffer              YYYYYY
Edward J. Calabrese              YYYYYY
Malou Innocent              YYYYYY
Scott Lincicome              YYYYYY
Jerry L. JordanYYYYYYYYYYY    YYYYY
Andrew M. Grossman               YYYYY
Craig D. Idso               YYYYY
David Beckworth               YYYYY
Eugene Gholz               YYYYY
Gerald P. Dwyer               YYYYY
Tanja Porcnik               YYYYY
Todd Zywicki               YYYYY
Tyler Goodspeed               YYYYY
Vance Fried               YYYYY
William J. Luther               YYYYY
Ronald A. BaileyYYYYYYYYYYY     YYYY
Alex Epstein                YYYY
Christopher Layne                YYYY
Jeffrey Rogers Hummel                YYYY
Josh Blackman                YYYY
Ned Mamula                YYYY
Rajshree Agarwal                YYYY
Stephen J.K. Walters                YYYY
Walker F. Todd                YYYY
William Happer                YYYY
Jason Scott Johnston                 YYY
Ross McKitrick               YY YY
Harvey A. Silverglate                  YY
Jason Bedrick                  YY
Jason Sorens                  YY
Ryan Maue                  YY
Thomas L. Hogan                  YY
Daniel B. Klein   YYYYYYYYYYYYYYY Y
Arnold Kling       YYYYYYYYYYY Y
Martin Krause            YYYYYY Y
David Kirby                   Y
Peter Martin Jaworski                   Y
Tim Lynch                   Y
Kay H. JonesYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
Aaron Yelowitz          YYYYYYYYY 
Jeffrey A. Singer             YYYYYY 
Terence Kealey               YYYY 
Harvey Silverglate          YYYYYYYY  
Flemming Rose                YY  
Carlos A. Ball (1939-2014)YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY   
Richard L. Gordon (1934-2014)YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY   
Tibor R. Machan   YYYYYYYYYYYYYY   
A. Trevor Thrall               Y    
Lawrence H. WhiteYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY     
Patrick Basham        YYYYYYY     
Thomas SzaszYYYYYYYYYYYYYY      
David Isenberg YYYYYYYYYYYYY      
Marie Gryphon       YYYYYYY      
Timothy B. Lee        YYYYYY      
Benjamin ZycherYYYYYYYYYYY         
Cassandra Chrones MooreYYYYYYYYYYY         
Catherine EnglandYYYYYYYYYYY         
Charles W. BairdYYYYYYYYYYY         
David I. MeiselmanYYYYYYYYYYY         
Dwight R. LeeYYYYYYYYYYY         
Ellen Frankel PaulYYYYYYYYYYY         
George A. SelginYYYYYYYYYYY         
Jarett B. DeckerYYYYYYYYYYY         
Marilyn R. FlowersYYYYYYYYYYY         
Michael GoughYYYYYYYYYYY         
Reuven BrennerYYYYYYYYYYY         
Richard B. McKenzieYYYYYYYYYYY         
Terry L. AndersonYYYYYYYYYYY         
Thomas Gale MooreYYYYYYYYYYY         
Thomas M. MagstadtYYYYYYYYYYY         
Vernon L. SmithYYYYYYYYYYY         
Edward L. Hudgins   YYYYYYYY         
Clyde Wayne Crews Jr.      YYYYY         
Thomas W. Hazlett         YY         
Alan Ebenstein     YYYYY          
Dominick T. ArmentanoYYYYYYYYY           
Richard W. RahnYYYYYYYYY           
Thomas HazlettYYYYYYYYY           
Michael New   YYYYYY           
Deepak LalYYYYYYYY            
Randal O’TooleYYYYYYYY            
Bernard H. SieganYYYYYYY             
David SchoenbrodYYYYYYY             
Steven MilloyYYYYYYY             
Andrew Coulson      Y             
Randy E. BarnettYYYY                
Don LavoieYYY                 
Steve H. HankeYYY                 
Bradley A. SmithYY                  

Fellows

Name19992000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015[18]2016[48]20172018
Cathy YoungYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Jim PowellYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
P.J. O’RourkeYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Penn Jillette  Y YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
John Hasnas    YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Randy E. Barnett    YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
William Ruger     YYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Deepak Lal        YYYYYYYYYYYY
Jeffrey Milyo        YYYYYYYYYYYY
David B. Kopel         YYYYYYYYYYY
Vladimir Bukovsky          YYYYYYYYYY
Radley Balko           YYYYYYYYY
Vernon L. Smith           YYYYYYYYY
Guillermo Zuloaga            YYYYYYYY
Lawrence H. White               YYYYY
TellerYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY YYY
David Kirby              YYYYY 
Brad Stapleton                  Y 
Lawrence D. GasmanYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY  
James M. Buchanan (1919 – 2013)YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY   
F. A. Hayek (1899 – 1992)      YYYYYYYYYYY   
Richard W. Rahn         YYYYYYYY   
Tucker Carlson          YYYYYYY   
Raymond Teller                Y   
Christopher Layne    YYYYYYYYYYYY    
Ronald A. Bailey           YYYYY    
Emily McClintock Ekins              YY    
William G. Shipman          YYYYY     
George A. Selgin           YYYY     
Nicholas Quinn Rosenkranz             YY     
Vaclav Klaus              Y     
Earl C. RavenalYYYYYYYYYYYYYY      
Ronald Hamowy     YYYYYYYYY      
Diqing Jiang           YYY      
Stanley KoberYYYYYYYYYYYYY       
Leon T. HadarYYYYYYYYY  YY       
Jeffrey A. Miron          Y         
James BovardYYYYYYYYYY          
Gerald P. O’Driscoll Jr.    YYYYYY          
Ronald D. Rotunda    YYYYYY          
David KopelYYYYYYYYY           
David Schoenbrod       YY           
Steve H. Hanke       YY           
Swaminathan S. Anklesaria Aiyar        Y           
Jonathan ClarkeYYYYYYYY            
Barbara ConryYYYY                
Dean StanselYYYY                
Timothy J. PennyYYYY                
Stephen Moore  YY                

Actions

May 2019

E&E News reported that, following the departure of Patrick Michaels earlier in the year, the Cato Institute had quietly shut down its Center for the Study of Science. [61]

“While it is true that, with the departure of Pat Michaels, we have deactivated our Center for the Study of Science, we continue to work on science policy issues,” Khristine Brookes, the spokeswoman, wrote in an email to E&E News[61]

Ryan Maue, a meteorologist and former adjunct scholar, also left the center. Cato also said it was no longer affiliated with Richard Lindzen who was formerly a distinguished fellow. [61]

September 17, 2018

UK Treasury minister Liz Truss met with representatives from the Cato Institute during a visit to Washington DC, Greenpeace’s investigative unit, Unearthed, found. The taxpayer-funded trip also included meetings with the American Legislative Exchange Council, the American Enterprise Institute, Americans for Tax Reform, and the Heritage Foundation. [53]

February 8, 2018

Three former Cato Institute employees said that president emeritus Ed Crane had sexually harassed them while they worked at the think tank, Politico reported. Crane denied the reported incidents, or said he didn’t recall them. He also declined to comment on whether he was involved in a legal settlement for a sexual harassment claim by a former employee in 2012. The events described to Politico had not been publicly reported before, and included numerous reported instances of alleged sexual harassment. [52]

February 24, 2017

The Cato Institute was originally listed as an “Exhibitor” at the the 2017 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC). A revised sponsors list had removed Cato, as of March 2017. [50], [51]

June 20, 2016

Patrick J. Michaels, Cato Institute’s Director for Center for the Study of Science, debated at the Conservative Economic Quarterly Lecture series on the topic of climate change. Video below: [43]

Michaels also participated in the Conservative Economic Quarterly Lecture Series on the topic of “Luke Warming”: [44]

March 24, 2016

Paul C. “Chip” Knappenberger, Assistant Director of the Center for the Study of Science at the Cato Institute, suggests that President Obama should back out of the Paris Climate pledge: [39]

“Rather than pay the rest of the world to look the other way, the president should revise, or better yet, rescind that promise.

And now is the time to do that, before the grand signing ceremony of the Paris Climate Agreement that is scheduled for April 22, Earth Day, at the UN’s New York headquarters. Putting our name on a promise that we know we can’t keep would be a disingenuous act, painting the Paris Agreement not as a serious undertaking, but as a global publicity stunt.” [39]

October 1, 2015

The Cato Institute’s Walter Wilson published an article in Newsweek titled “Should Climate Change Deniers Be Prosecuted?” where he argues against calls for the government to investigate climate change skeptics under the federal racketeering law.  [20]

Media Matters reports that Newsweek failed to disclose that the Cato Institute had received funding from the oil industry including ExxonMobil. [21]

September 22, 2015

Patrick J. Michaels, the Cato Institute’s Director for Center for the Study of Science,” wrote an article in the Washington Examiner titled “What Should Pope Francis Say about Climate Change?

According to Michaels, free-market capitalism is the solution: 

“In the scientific community, there’s universal agreement that neither bad weather nor changing climate mean very much to rich societies. It’s the poor ones that can suffer greatly.  Consequently, the best way to deal with weather and climate is with economic development.” [22]

This is just one of several articles the Cato Institute has published regarding Pope Francis and his encyclical on the environment. Other examples include:

April 21, 2014

Richard W. Rahn, a senior fellow at the Cato Institute, wrote an article in the Washington Times titled “The global-warming apocalypses that didn’t happen.”

According to Rahn, “The good news is that mankind will probably adapt to climate change just fine, as we have been adapting since the end of the Ice Age. New studies show that to date, the benefits of global warming have been greater than the costs, and are likely to remain so for many more decades.” [23]

July 26, 2013

The Cato Institute released a report titled “The IPCC AR5 is in Real Trouble“ for their weekly Global Science Report.

The article was released three months before the commencement of COP 19 in Warsaw, Poland (November, 2013) and paints a picture of “internal inconsistency” within the IPCC’s consensus on climate change. Releasing AR5, in its “current form,” The Cato Institute states, “[would] be a major fiasco.” [24]

April, 2009

Cato published an advertisement in major newspapers including the Washington Post, the New York Times, the Washington Times, and the Los Angeles Times that questioned President Obama’s stance on climate change.  [25]

The list of signatories includes many well known climate change skeptics. [26]

The ad received critiques from numerous sources and the New York Times estimated the ad alone would cost at least $150,000.  PolitiFact also evaluated Cato’s claim that “There has been no global warming for a decade now,” and found it to be false. [27], [28], [29]

June 7, 2002

Senior Fellow Patrick Michaels signed a letter to President Bush, asking him to withdraw the “Climate Action Report 2002.”

The letter demands it be rewritten based on “sound science” and recommends Bush “dismiss or re-assign all administration employees who are not pursuing your agenda, just as you have done in several similar instances.” [30]

Cato Handbooks: 1998 – 2009

The Cato Institute has created “Cato Handbooks” they distributed to members of Congress, many which included a chapter on Climate Change that discouraged U.S. involvement in the Kyoto Protocol:

May 18, 2000

The Cato Institute held a “book forum” around the release of Patrick Michaels’ “The Satanic Gases: Clearing the Air about Global Warming.” 

According to the Cato Institute’s book summary, “Acknowledging that industrial emissions of greenhouse gasses have warmed the planet and will continue to do so over the next several decades, Michaels and Balling argue that future warming will be moderate, not catastrophic, and will have benign economic and ecological effects.” [31]

October 6, 1999

Senior Fellow Patrick Michaels testified (PDF) before the House Subcommittee on National Economic Growth, Natural Resources and Regulatory Affairs, arguing against the classification of carbon dioxide as a pollutant. [32]

April 9, 1997

Jerry Taylor, Cato Director of Natural Resource Studies, testified before the Senate Subcommittee on Energy Research, Development, Production and Regulation and the House Subcommittee on National Economic Growth, Natural Resources and Regulatory Affairs.

He argued that the Clinton administration budget requests for global climate change programs were not in compliance with the 1993 Government Performance and Results Act. [33]

Cato Institute and Philip Morris

The Cato Institute appears on lists of Philip Morris’s “national allies,” including a 1999 “Federal Government Affairs Tobacco Allies Notebook,” and in a  list of “National Allies” dated 2000. [34], [35]

In another document, R.J. Reynolds Names the Cato Institute as a group they could rely on to “shift the debate and framework under which cigarette-related issues are evaluated in the future.”

They say to “Work with CATO Institute … to empanel a group to debate legality and future management of cigarette industry. Open forum to media (pitch C- SPAN coverage); issue press release and transcript of remarks to media not in attendance.” [36]

Cato Institute Contact & Address

The Cato Institute lists contact & address as follows: [42]

Cato Institute
1000 Massachusetts Ave, NW
Washington, DC 20001-5403
Phone (202) 842 0200

Related Organizations

  • Mont Pelerin Society Member. (At least 12 of the think tanks and institutes appearing on the list of US members of the Mont Pelerin Society have accepted money from one ore more Koch family foundations). [37]

HumanProgress.org

According to its website, HumanProgress.org is a project of the Cato Institute with “major support” from the John Templeton Foundation, the Searle Freedom Trust, the Brinson Foundation and the Dian Graves Owen Foundation.” The website provides charts and data supporting “dramatic improvements in human well-being” over time. [49]

Social Media

Resources

  1. “25 years at the Cato Institute: The 2001 Annual Report” (PDF), The Cato Institute. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
  2. Cato’s Mission,” Cato Institute. Archived October 4, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/qApUB
  3. Charles Koch Foundation (later Cato Institute), Certificate of Incorporation, organizational founding document, originally filed December 19, 1974. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
  4. Application for Recognition of Exemption,” November, 1972.  Retrieved from the New Mexico Charitable Organizations Registrar. Archived .pdf on File at DesmogBlog.
  5. Richard Morin. “Free Radical; Libertarian — and Contrarian — Ed Crane Has Run the Cato Institute for 25 Years. His Way,” Washington Post, May 9, 2002. Republished by the Cato Institute. Archived October 4, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/RgpkE
  6. Eric Lichtblau. “Cato Institute and Koch Brothers Reach Agreement,” The Caucus , June 25, 2012. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/B3G2e
  7. Allen McDuffee and T.W. Farnam. “Koch Brothers sue Cato Institute, president,” The Washington Post, March 1, 2012. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/Ygjk9
  8. Eric Lichtblau. “Cato Institute Is Caught in a Rift Over Its Direction,” The New York Times, March 6, 2012. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/QuHVd
  9. Jane Mayer. “The Kochs v. Cato: Winners and Losers,” The New Yorker, June 27, 2012. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/u11yD
  10. Why the Koch brothers are cannibalizing the Cato Institute,” Greenpeace USA, March 20, 2012. Archived October 4, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/CXtIk
  11. Global Warming,” Cato Institute. Archived January 19, 2018. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/WrWU1
  12. “Cato Handbook for Congress: Policy Recommendations for the 107th Congress (2001) — Chapter 47” (PDF), Cato Institute. Archived January 24, 2001. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
  13. ExxonSecrets Factsheet: The Cato Institute. Accessed January 2018.
  14. Cato Institute: Koch Industries Climate Denial Front Group,” Greenpeace USA. Archived March 13, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/PdHDX
  15. Board of Directors,” Cato Institute. Archived October 7, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/ILnPv
  16. Policy Scholars,” Cato Institute. Archived October 7, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/BTXCD
  17. Adjunct Scholars,” Cato Institute. Archived October 7, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/fZ4n4
  18. Fellows,” Cato Institute. Archived October 7, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/pn1uj
  19. Farron Cousins. “The Dark Money Funding Climate Change Denial,” DeSmogBlog, June 20, 2015.
  20. Walter Olson. “Chould Climate Change Deniers be Proscuted?“ Newsweek, October 1, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/mwucm
  21. Denise Robbins. “Newsweek Once Again Fails To Disclose An Op-Ed Writer’s Oil Industry Ties,” Media Matters for America, October 2, 2015.  Archived October 8, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/GDMtT
  22. Patrick J. Michaels. “What Should Pope Francis Say about Climate Change?” The Washington Examiner, September 22, 2015. Republished by the Cato Institute. Archived October 8, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/wW6ji
  23. Richard W. Rahn. “RAHN: The global-warming apocalypses that didn’t happen,” The Washington Times, April 21, 2014. Archived October 9, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/oi49o
  24. The IPCC AR5 is in Real Trouble,” Cato Institute, July 26, 2013. Archived October 8, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/GDMtT
  25. With all due respect…” RealClimate, March 24, 2009. Archived October 8, 2015. Archive.is URL:
  26. Fiscal Reality Central,” Cato Institute. Archived January 12, 2012. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/uy3dy
  27. Jonathan Hiskes. “Cato’s skeptic ads draw a flurry of responses,” Grist, April 3, 2009. Archived October 9, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/86mQY
  28. Pricey ads signed by scientists slam Obama’s climate change talk,” CBC News, March 30, 2009. Archived October 8, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/QLFwt
  29. Robert Farley. “Cato Institutes claim on global warming disputed by most experts,” PolitiFact, April 1, 2009. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/TTEyy
  30. Joint Letter To President Bush On The EPA’s Climate Action Report,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, June 7, 2002. Archived October 9, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/yqYbY
  31. Politics Tilts Global Warming Debate, Book Says,” Cato Policy Report, Vol. 22, No. 3 (May/June 2000). Archived October 8, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/CBCeK
  32. “Is Co2 a Pollutant and Does EPA Have the Power to Regulate It?” (PDF), Joint Hearing Before the Subcommittee on National Economic Growth, National Resources, and Regulatory Affairs. October 6, 1999. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
  33. Testimony of Jerry Taylor before the Subcommittee on Energy And Environment Committee On Science, The United States House of Representatives. Published by the Cato Institute, April 9, 1997. Archived January 11, 2011. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/kgUUf
  34. Philip Morris Federal Government Affairs Tobacco Allies Notebook Index List. Legacy Tobacco Documents, October 19, 1999.
  35. Philip Morris National Allies List. February, 2000. 2 pp. Legacy Tobacco Documents.
  36. R.J. Reynolds Reframing the Debate Communications Plan Report/email. September 26, 2000. Legacy Tobacco Documents.
  37. Graham Readfearn. “Mont Pelerin Society A Window Into Ideological Heart Of Kochtopus Climate Denial,” DeSmogBlog, January 27, 2014.
  38. Cato Institute,“ Conservative Transparency. Data retrieved January 2018.
  39. Paul C. “Chip” Knappenberger. “Time to Fess Up and Walk Back Our Paris Pledge,” The Hill (Online), March 24, 2016. Republished at the Cato Institute. Archived April 12, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/9xzIX
  40. Tag: Global Science Report,” Cato Institute. Accessed April 12, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/dIdLJ 
  41. Alan Reynolds. “Climate Change Can’t Excuse Electric Car Subsidies,” The Daily Caller, April 6, 2016. Archived April 12, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/gxtJs
  42. Contact Us,” Cato Institute. Accessed January 23, 2017. Archived .png image on file at DeSmogBlog. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/a1rBD
  43. Patrick J. Michaels debates at the Conservative Economic Quarterly Lecture Series on the topic of climate change hosted by the INSTITUTEsk in Bratislava,” Cato Institute, June 20, 2016. Archived .mp4 on file at . DeSmog.
  44. Patrick J. Michaels participates in the Conservative Economic Quarterly Lecture Series on the topic of ‘Luke Warming’ hosted by the INSTITUTEsk in Bratislava,” Cato Institute, June 20, 2016. Archived .mp4 on file at . DeSmog.
  45. Board of Directors,” Cato Institute. Archived July 7, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/7l3ea
  46. Policy Scholars,” Cato Institute. Archived July 7, 2016.  Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/0uC1i
  47. Adjunct Scholars,” Cato Institute. Archived July 7, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/EAJMJ
  48. Fellows,” Cato Institute. Archived July 7, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/A91Gi
  49. About HumanProgress.org,” HumanProgress.org. Archived July 14, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/qmDHG
  50. CPAC 2017 Sponsors,” cpac.conservative.org. Archived February 17, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/cgv0J
  51. CPAC 2017 Sponsors,” cpac.conservative.org. Archived March 6, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/SKFRU
  52. Daniel Lippman and Maggie Severns. “Former Cato employees describe years of harassment,” Politico, February 8, 2018. Archived February 13, 2018. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/uXma9
  53. Lawrence Carter. “Liz Truss met with ‘dark money’ think tanks during taxpayer funded trip to Washington DC,” Unearthed, December 19, 2018. Archived December 22, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/onRDJ
  54. Jerry Taylor. “Global Warming: The Anatomy of a Debate,” Cato Institute, January 16, 1998. Archived August 9, 2019. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/Xcj3r
  55. Robert P. Murphy, Patrick J. Michaels, and Paul C. Knappenberger. “The Case Against a U.S. Carbon Tax” (PDF), Policy Analysis No. 801 (October 17, 2016). Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.
  56. Climate Models and Climate Reality: A Closer Look at a Lukewarming World” (PDF), Cato Institute, December 15, 2015. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.
  57. “SHAKY SCIENCE: INCONVENIENT TRUTHS IGNORED BY EPA IN ITS PROPOSAL TO REGULATE CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS” (PDF), Cato Institute, December 23, 2008. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.
  58. Lee Fang. “COAL GIANT PROVIDED SECRET FINANCING TO GROUP CHALLENGING CLIMATE LAWSUITS,”The Intercept, December 17, 2019. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/hUjRt
  59. Scott Waldman. “Murray Energy a major funder of climate denial groups,” E&E News, December 17, 2019. Archived December 20, 2019. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/wip/WrDuT
  60. Lisa Friedman. “A Coal Baron Funded Climate Denial as His Company Spiraled Into Bankruptcy,” The New York Times, December 17, 2019. Archived December 20, 2019. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/ujTS6
  61. Cato closes its climate shop; Pat Michaels is out,” E&E News, May 29, 2019. Archived May 30, 2019. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/IovhK

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