Guido Fawkes

Guido Fawkes

Background

Guido Fawkes is a libertarian political news blog founded by Paul Staines in 2004. Both its name and logo are inspired by Guy Fawkes, who it describes as “the only man to enter parliament with honest intentions”. Its staff “see themselves as campaigning journalists” against “sleaze, corruption and hypocrisy”. [1]

Guido, as it is often called, has a section dedicated to environmental issues called Gaia Fawkes which regularly criticises the green movement, including climate protest group Extinction Rebellion and 17-year-old Swedish activist Greta Thunberg. It also regularly promotes reports by the Global Warming Policy Foundation (GWPF), the UK’s most prominent climate science denial organisation. [2], [3], [4], [5]

The website is owned and published by Global and General Nominees, a company based in the Caribbean tax haven Nevis. In 2009, Staines told the Guardian that the site’s URL was German while the blog is hosted in the USA, so “it’s a jurisdictional nightmare” for anyone to take legal action. [6], [7]

In the same article, Conservative blogger Iain Dale claimed that “half of parliament looks at his [Staines’] blog most days… he has the largest audience of any UK blog on politics”. [7]

A number of Guido employees have gone on to work in the Conservative Party and have ties to groups that campaigned for the UK to leave the EU, including Vote Leave. Staines was also an early backer of Boris Johnson to be the prime minister of the United Kingdom having registered a website in 2012 called Boris2020. [8]

The blog has ties to 55 Tufton Street – home to a network of right-wing lobby groups – through Staines’ relations with TaxPayers’ Alliance founder and former Vote Leave CEO Matthew Elliott. [9]

Guido’s factual accuracy was rated as being “mixed” with a right-leaning bias by the website Media Bias Fact Check. [10]

Stance on Climate Change

October 13, 2019

On Twitter, Guido wrote:

We don’t dispute that climate changes, we dispute that we are on the verge of a climate catastrophy [sic].” [11]

Funding

Guido is funded through advertisements on its website, though it is unclear whether the blog receives financial support from any additional sources.

In 2006, Staines co-founded MessageSpace, with broadcaster Iain Dale and other political bloggers, a digital advertising company that hosts viral marketing campaigns and sells adverts across a range of political blogs. In 2011, the Guardian reported that Guido and MessageSpace turnover is believed to be about £150,000 a year. [7], [12][13]

Companies that have been advertised by MessageSpace include Gatwick Airport, Microsoft and Coca Cola, as well as campaign groups such as Shelter and Cancer Research UK. The site also lists six websites including Guido Fawkes, ConservativeHome and LabourList under the heading “Trusted by advertisers and readers alike”. [14]

Guido also regularly promotes reports and events on behalf of the free-market think tank the Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA), including an IEA-sponsored Guido newsletter. [15]

Key People

Current

Paul Staines is the founder and editor-in-chief of Guido. While at college, Staines was a member of the Federation of Conservative Students, writing that the group “spoke a language I could understand – Thatcher on drugs … anti-Communist, anti-Wet and mainly reactionary”. After helping to organise illegal raves and working as a hedge fund manager, Staines set up the political blog in his late thirties to “make mischief at the expense of politicians”. He is a “committed Brexiteer,” according to former Guardian correspondent Anne Perkins, and his politics are “right wing, free market”. [7], [16], [17]

Tom Harwood, who joined Guido in 2018, is the website’s senior reporter and has also written for ConservativeHome, the Spectator, and the Telegraph, among others. While studying politics at Durham University, Harwood was chairman of the national student arm of the official Vote Leave campaign in 2015-16, worked as a parliamentary assistant in the House of Commons during a summer 2016 internship, and was an intern at Students for Liberty in 2017 in Washington D.C. The group is funded by Charles Koch of Koch Industries, the largest private energy company in the United States. In 2019 LBC listed Harwood as one of the 100 most influential Conservatives in the UK. [18], [19], [20], [21]

Christian Calgie has been a reporter at Guido since 2019. He graduated with a degree in British Politics and Legislative Studies from the University of Hull in 2019 where he was editor of The Tab Hull student news site and worked as a parliamentary aide for Conservative MP and current Minister for International Trade Ranil Jayawardena. Before joining Guido, Calgie worked on the Rory For Leader campaign to elect Rory Stewart as Leader of the Conservative Party [22], [23], [59]

Former

Hugh Bennett was a news editor at Guido. Before joining the blog in 2018, Bennett was a correspondence officer at the Vote Leave campaign from 2015 to August 2016 after which he became deputy editor at BrexitCentral, a pro-Brexit news site co-founded by former CEO of Vote Leave Matthew Elliott. He left Guido in 2019 to work as a special advisor for the Conservative Leader of the House of Commons Jacob Rees-Mogg to help “get Brexit through the commons”, according to a post on the Guido website. In February 2020, Bennett moved to work at Number 10’s EU negotiating unit.  [24], [25], [26], [58]

Harry Cole was the Westminster bureau chief and second in command at Guido before moving to work at the Sun as Westminster correspondent in 2015, and then deputy political editor of the Mail on Sunday in 2018. He is currently the Sun’s political editor. [27], [28]

Ross Kempsell was former chief reporter at Guido and now a special correspondent at Times Radio. He also worked as a special advisor at Number 10 under Prime Minister Boris to focus on reform of Whitehall and the public sector. [29], [30]

Alex Wickham was a news editor at Guido before joining Buzzfeed UK in 2018 as a senior political correspondent. In June 2020, Politico revealed that Wickham would be taking over as editor of the site’s London Playbook political newsletter. [31], [32]

Jim Waterson was an intern at Guido Fawkes. He has since been BuzzFeed’s political editor and is now the media editor at the Guardian. [60], [61]

Actions

May 18, 2021

An article in Guido Fawkes disputed that working-class Britons were concerned about the impact of climate change, citing a poll from market research company Ipsos MORI which stated: “Those living in the south of England and Scotland are more likely to mention these issues than those in the Midlands and north of England.” [66]

The article also argued that: “the little rising concern that there is about the environment and climate change is being driven by specific demographic subgroups within the wider population,” later concluding: “Red Wall voters are primarily concerned about the pandemic, the economy, Brexit, and the NHS ahead of green issues. It is a small minority of mostly better-off Southern voters who will vote to put up their electricity bills and force people to buy expensive electric cars.”

September 8, 2020

Guido stated that the public “are not buying Extinction Rebellion’s nonsense a second time around”, characterising them as “eco-terrorists”.  [62]

July 7, 2020

An article in Guido criticised the government’s decision to reject Banks Mining’s planning application to mine coal at a temporary surface site at Highthorn, Northumberland, stating: “Obviously listening to voters risks upsetting climate activists who live in a pretend world where hydrogen technology is ready to replace coal in commercial steel production.” The article continued: “The MHCLG (Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government) is torn between Northern miners desperate for jobs and apocalyptic activists on Twitter.” [63]

The article’s content was sponsored and produced by fuel industry advisor Ian Gregory of the pro-fracking PR firm Abzed, whose clients include oil and gas exploration company Cuadrilla Resources. Gregory has criticised banning home coal fires in an article for The Express, writing: “Boris Johnson’s green policies make Leonardo DiCaprio seem virtuous.” [64], [65]

June 18, 2020

Guido covered a report by the Global Warming Policy Foundation (GWPF) which claimed there would be blackouts due to increasing struggles to balance the electricity grid due to the intermittency of wind and solar power. [5]

May 5, 2020

Guido tweeted:

Lots of #coronavirus talk about how science is a deliberative process, a hypothesis is tested, conjectures and refutations, many iterations before arriving at a working theory. Apart from non-falsifiable climate change theories – they are immutable and to say otherwise is heresy.” [33]

March 25, 2020

During the coronavirus pandemic, Guido claimed environmental protest group Extinction Rebellion (XR) was “in favour of extinction” after a Twitter account, claiming to be the East Midlands branch of the group, posted images of stickers which read: “Corona is the cure. Humans are the disease!” Guido wrote: [34], [35]

The trouble with having a terrorist-like cell structure is that when one group makes a PR faux par it’s hard to disavow them…

This is what Extinction Rebellion’s leaders believe, the East Midlands group is just following the logic of their messaging, which often pushes the discredited idea that there are somehow ‘too many people’ to sustain. A perfect world for Extinction Rebellion types would be one with no travel, no industry, no jobs, and no humans at all…” [34]

Extinction Rebellion were, however, quick to condemn what it called a “fake Twitter account” and an East Midlands group does not appear on XR’s current branch list. British fact checking charity Full Fact were also quick to explain the claims saying, “anyone can use Extinction Rebellion fonts and logos to make materials resembling the groups signature messaging”. [36], [37]

February 24, 2020

Guido published an article referring to a new report from the GWPF which claimed that it would cost the UK over £3 trillion to reach “net zero” emissions by 2050. [38]

Both the Guido and Gaia Fawkes Twitter accounts shared a link to the article with the words, “net zero emissions to cost over £100,000 per household”. [39], [40]

The article wrote: [38]

Guido would have thought the Government would take more care over this enormously expensive decarbonising project that is pushing ahead with next to no scrutiny…” [38]

Policy analysts at climate science website Carbon Brief strongly disputed the GWPF’s claims. [41]

September 20, 2019

Guido shared a school strike climate quiz from its “friends” at the GWPF. The interactive quiz was made up of 12 questions that emphasised positive changes that have happened since the start of the industrial revolution in regards to poverty, extreme weather events, and temperature change. [4]

May 21, 2019

Guido tweeted: [42]

The only zero emission economy is a pre-industrial economy. No steel, no concrete, no planes and no fertiliser. The latter means half the planet will starve. So we need to solve global warming through technology. Everything else is fantasy.” [42]

August 27, 2016

Guido tweeted: “His brother is a climate realist. I like Piers”, in apparent reference to the brother of former Labour Party leader Jeremy Corbyn. Piers Corbyn has repeatedly claimed carbon dioxide has no effect on global temperature change and that climate science is “fake”. [43]

February 2015

Guido launched an environmental section to its site, calling it Gaia Fawkes. Staines said: [44], [45]

It’ll cover energy and other issues, plus the Green party, which I think will be a big thing in the next few months… We want energy companies to be able to place their corporate responsibility advertising with us without fear. They know we have got that Westminster audience.” [44]

55 Tufton Street – Paul Staines, along with TaxPayers’ Alliance founder Matthew Elliott, digital strategist Jag Singh, and digital specialist Andrew Whitehurst, set up political data company WESS Digital in 2012. The TaxPayers’ Alliance is based at 55 Tufton Street. Tom Harwood and Hugh Bennett worked on the Vote Leave campaign, also previously based at the address. [18], [24], [46]

Conservative Party – a number of former and current Guido staff members are affiliated with the party including Hugh Bennett, a special advisor to Conservative MP Jacob Rees Mogg, and Ross Kempsell who was appointed a special advisor at Number 10 when Boris Johnson became prime minister in July 2019. Both Tom Harwood and Christian Calgie have previously worked as parliamentary aides, and Paul Staines campaigned for Johnson to be prime minister during the 2019 party leadership election. [19], [22][25], [30], [47], [48]

Vote Leave – Tom Harwood ran the national student arm of the Vote Leave campaign in 2015 and 2016, and Hugh Bennett worked as a correspondence officer at the campaign. [18], [24]

The Sun – the newspaper published a regular column by Guido for three years until the partnership ended in 2016. Harry Cole moved to the Sun from Guido to be Westminster correspondent, deputy political editor and most recently political editor. [28], [49]

BrexitCentral – Hugh Bennett was deputy editor at BrexitCentral from 2016 to 2018. [50], [51]

Boris on the Ballot – Paul Staines started Boris on the Ballot, a social media campaign to make Boris Johnson the next prime minister in the run up to the Conservative Party leadership elections in 2019. The campaign used a website he created in 2012.  [52]

Telegraph – Tom Harwood, Christian Calgie, and Hugh Bennett have all written for the newspaper. [53], [54], [55]

Turning Point – Tom Harwood appeared in a launch video for Turning Point UK, the British offshoot of the conservative youth activist organisation Turning Point USA, founded by Republican activist Charlie Kirk. [56]

Contact & Address

Guido is owned and published by Global and General Nominees Limited who are based in Nevis. [1], [6], [57]

Social Media

Resources

  1. About,” Guido Fawkes. Archived July 13, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/mjxjH
  2. Extinction Rebellion,” Guido Fawkes. Archived July 13, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/JmNTu
  3. £14,000 raised to repair green Great destroyed,” Gaia Fawkes, March 2, 2020. Archived July 13, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/gSr3j
  4. Are you ready to climate strike? Take the Quiz!Gaia Fawkes, September 20, 2019. Archived July 13, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/Lr7US
  5. £3 billion a year cost to prevent green energy blackouts,” Gaia Fawkes, June 18, 2020. Archived July 13, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/RnBrA
  6. Homepage,” Guido Fawkes. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/uWu93
  7. Andy Beckett. “Interview, Guido Fawkes: The blogger who knows the power of gossip,” Guardian, November 4, 2009. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/syr4j
  8. Sarah Manavis. “The blogger known as Guido Fawkes owns a pro-Boris website. But does it actually matter?New Statesman, May 29, 2019. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/BDF6c
  9. Chloe Farand. “How the Voices of Tufton Street Brexit Lobbyists and Climate Science Deniers Become Embedded in the Mainstream Press,” DeSmog, September 11, 2018.
  10. Guido Fawkes,” Media Bias Fact Check. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/R1xcW
  11. Gaia Fawkes. “We don’t dispute that climate changes, we dispute that we are on the verge of a climate catastrophy,” Tweet by @GaiaFawkes on October 13, 2019. Retrieved from Twitter.com. Archived July 15, 2020. Archived .png on file at DeSmog.
  12. Adam Payne. “There is a weird mystery surrounding the gold nuggets paid to UKIP’s Douglas Carswell,” Business Insider, September 2, 2016. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/ytVA1
  13. Adam Sherwin. “Interview, Paul Staines: ‘I pummel them until they beg for mercy’,” Guardian, January 31, 2011. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/PBID6
  14. Media Kit,” MessageSpace. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/lch3g
  15. Tag IEA,” Guido Fawkes. Archived July 15, 2020. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.
  16. Aida Edemariam. “Interview, Blogger Guido Fawkes, aka Paul Staines: ‘I still hate politicians’,” Guardian, February 15, 2013. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/cn1CD
  17. Anne Perkins. “Guido Fawkes: a cross between a comic and a propaganda machine,” Guardian, April 7, 2018. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/B9PPC
  18. About,” TomHarwood.co.uk. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/Ru1VF
  19. Tom Harwood,” LinkedIn. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/2Yi3i
  20. Mat Hope. “New Lobby Group Tied to Brexit Climate Science Deniers and Koch Industries Pushes for Deregulation in Europe,” DeSmog, July 20, 2017.
  21. The Top 100 Most Influential Conservatives of 2019,” LBC, September 30, 2019. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/mbp7L
  22. Christian Calgie,” LinkedIn. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/r8E7z
  23. Christian Calgie,” The Tab. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/GJVhh
  24. Hugh Bennett,” LinkedIn. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.
  25. Charlotte Tobitt. “Guido Fawkes news editor made special adviser to Jacob Rees-Mogg,” Press Gazette, August 27, 2019. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/DrGYt
  26. Guido’s loss is Mogg’s gain,” Guido Fawkes. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/3OXka
  27. Jasper Jackson. “Guido Fawkes’ Harry Cole joins Sun as Westminster correspondent,” Sun, June 24, 2015. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/USc5U
  28. Harry Cole appointed as The Sun’s Political Editor,” News UK, May 14, 2020. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/Uzt1y
  29. Ross Kempsell to return to Wireless as Special Correspondent for Times Radio,” News UK, June 16, 2020. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/GQDBO
  30. James Walker. “Talkradio’s Ross Kempsell becomes second ex-chicken to enter Downing Street,” Press Gazette, July 31, 2019. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/en3eJ
  31. Charlotte Tobitt. “Guido Fawkes news editor Alex Wickham to join Buzzfeed UK politics team,” Press Gazette, July 3, 2018. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/fzb23
  32. Jake Sherman, Anna Palmer. “POLITICO Playbook: Unpacking Bolton, and where the Republicans are spending this fall,” Politico, June 18, 2020. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/rMo61
  33. Gaia Fawkes. “Lots of #coronavirus talk about how science is a deliberative process, a hypothesis is tested, conjectures and refutations, many iterations before arriving at a working theory. Apart from non-falsifiable climate change theories – they are immutable and to,” Tweet by @GaiaFawkes on May 5, 2020. Retrieved from Twitter.com. Archived July 15, 2020. Archived .png on file at DeSmog.
  34. Extinction Rebellion in favour of extinction,” Gaia Fawkes, March 25, 2020. Archived July 15, 2020. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.
  35. Coronavirus: Extinction Rebellion distances itself from ‘fake posters’,” BBC News, March 25, 2020. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/k3sHM
  36. XR United Kingdom,” Extinction Rebellion. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/4vmkj
  37. Rachael Krishna. “Anyone can make an Extinction Rebellion sticker,” Full Fact, March 26, 2020. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/txeAX
  38. Net Zero Emissions to Cost Over £100,000 Per Household,” Guido Fawkes, February 24, 2020. Archived July 15, 2020.
  39. Gaia Fawkes. “Net Zero Emissions to Cost Over £100,000 per Household,” Tweet by @GaiaFawkes on February 24, 2020. Retrieved from Twitter.com. Archived July 15, 2020. Archived .png on file at DeSmog.
  40. Guido Fawkes. “Net Zero Emissions to Cost Over £100,000 per Household,” Tweet by @GuidoFawkes on February 24, 2020. Retrieved from Twitter.com. Archived July 15, 2020. Archived .png on file at DeSmog.
  41. Simon Evans. “The UK is aiming for net-zero emissions by 2050 Because climate change is “the greatest and most pressing challenge facing the modern world” (UK govt Jan20) But what will it cost to get there? Let’s take an “honest” look at the evidence, shall we? (source,” Tweet by @DrSimEvans on February 25, 2020. Retrieved from Twitter.com. Archived July 15, 2020. Archived .png on file at DeSmog.
  42. Gaia Fawkes. “The only zero emission economy is a pre-industrial economy. No steel, no concrete, no planes and no fertiliser. The latter means half the planet will starve. So we need to solve global warming through technology. Everything else is fantasy,” Tweet by @GaiaFawkes on May 21, 2019. Retrieved from Twitter.com. Archived July 15, 2020. Archived .png on file at DeSmog.
  43. Guido Fawkes. “His brother is a climate realist. I like Piers,” Tweet by @GuidoFawkes on August 27, 2016. Retrieved from Twitter.com. Archived July 15, 2020. Archived .png on file at DeSmog.
  44. Kevin Rawlinson, Dugald Baird. “Guido Fawkes website adds environment section in redesign,” Guardian, February 12, 2015. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/aQhfU
  45. Gaia Fawkes. “It’s not easy being green,” Tweet by @GaiaFawkes on February 16, 2015. Retrieved from Twitter.com. Archived July 15, 2020. Archived .png on file at DeSmog.
  46. Chloe Farand, Mat Hope. “Matthew and Sarah Elliott: How a UK Power Couple Links US Libertarians and Fossil Fuel Lobbyists to Brexit,” DeSmog, November 19, 2018.
  47. Mat Hope. “Revealed: The Super Wealthy Tory Donors with Ties to Climate Science Denial and Fossil Fuels,” DeSmog, November 25, 2019.
  48. Jim Waterson. “Pro-Boris Johnson campaign launched by Guido Fawkes blogger,” Guardian, May 28, 2019. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/9BBvo
  49. Jasper Jackson. “Guido Fawkes’ Sun on Sunday column comes to an end,” Sun, February 2, 2016. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/rkQHb
  50. Rebecca Cafe. “Does the public want the death penalty brought back?BBC News, August 4, 2011. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/HV8sZ
  51. Restore Justice Limited Filing History,” Companies House. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/2NmGR
  52. Rob Merrick. “Boris2020: Online campaign to make Boris Johnson prime minister is being run by owner of Guido Fawkes political website,” Independent, May 28, 2019. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/6FhFh
  53. Tom Harwood Author,” Telegraph. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/l0tLk
  54. Christian Calgie Author,” Telegraph. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/ow0EH
  55. Hugh Bennett Author,” Telegraph. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/HJMbj
  56. Tom Whyman. “How a New Conservative Student Activism Group Became a Joke Before it Started,” Vice, February 5, 2019. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/hvla6
  57. Gordon Rayner. “Guido Fawkes: the colourful life of the man who brought down Damian McBride,” Telegraph, April 17, 2009. Archived July 15, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/evPWE
  58. Hugh Bennett & Steph Lis Move to Number 10,” Guido Fawkes, February 27, 2020. Archived July 30, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/TrTGQ
  59. Christian Calgie. “I literally worked on Rory Stewart’s leadership campaign. To get called a Boris arselicker is pretty hilarious,” Tweet by @christiancalgie on November 20, 2019. Retrieved from Twitter.com. Archived .png on file at DeSmog.
  60. Buzzfeed sign Jim Waterson as first political editor,” Guido Fawkes, October 4, 2013. Archived July 30, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/2tAMx
  61. Jim Waterson,” Guardian. Archived July 30, 2020. Archive.vn URL: http://archive.vn/D9SY8
  62.  Polling reveals environmental concerns massively down, Guido Fawkes, September 8 2020. Archived September 21, 2020. Archive URL: https://web.archive.org/save/https://order-order.com/2020/09/08/polling-…
  63. Does Robert Jenrick work for Boris Johnson? Guido Fawkes, July 7, 2020. Archived February 1, 2021. Archive.vn URL: https://archive.vn/4MO9C
  64. Fracking,” Abzed. Archived February 1, 2021. Archive.vn URL: https://archive.vn/WTOjr 
  65. Ian Gregory. “How the ban on home coal fires will affect rural Britain, says IAN GREGORY,” The Daily Express, February 22, 2020. Archived February 1, 2021. Archive.vn URL: https://archive.vn/jaEEg 
  66. Working Classes most worried about day-to-day issues, not ‘climate crisis,’Guido Fawkes, May 18, 2021. Archived May 24, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/g9njy 

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