Institute of Economic Affairs

Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA)

Background

The Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA) is a London-based free-market thinktank and educational charity founded in 1955 by the late Sir Antony Fisher and Lord Harris with the mission “to improve understanding of the fundamental institutions of a free society by analysing and expounding the role of markets in solving economic and social problems.” [1]

According to an archived 2010 version of its website, “Since 1974 the IEA has played an active role in developing similar institutions across the globe. Today there exists a world-wide network of over one hundred institutions in nearly eighty countries. All are independent but share in the IEA‘s mission.” [2]

The IEA became very influential in the UK, with Nobel Prize-winning economist Milton Friedman believing its influence to be so strong that “the U-turn in British policy executed by Margaret Thatcher owes more to him (i.e., Fisher) than any other individual.” [3]

The IEA played a significant role in advocating a “hard” Brexit and was named by whistleblower Shahmir Sanni as one of nine organisations based in and around Westminster’s 55 Tufton Street that coordinated a campaign for a “hard” exit from the EU. In 2018, it received a legal warning from the Charity Commission for publishing a report that the Commission said constituted “political activity” in breach of its status as an educational charity. [54], [55], [56]

The IEA is a member of the Atlas Economic Research Foundation, a Washington-based umbrella organization supporting over 450 “free market” groups around the world. Both the IEA and Atlas were founded by Anthony Fisher. Fisher’s daughter, Linda Whetstone, is Chair of the Atlas Network as well as a director of the IEA. [40], [33]

The IEA provides administrative support for the “Free Enterprise Group” of MPs founded in 2011 by International Trade Secretary Liz Truss. The group has been described as the “parliamentary wing” of the IEA, and campaigned on issues of relevance to the IEA and their known funders. [57], [58]

FREER

In March 2018, the IEA launched the “FREER” program, directed by Rebecca Lowe. [23]

FREER will be distinctive in its embrace of both social and economic liberalism: we have a packed range of upcoming events and papers on topics ranging from no-platforming to Blockchain. We also have a great group of Conservative MPs signed up as parliamentary supporters, and we have Liz Truss and James Forsyth giving speeches at the launch tonight,” Lowe wrote in an article introducing FEER at ConservativeHome.  

According to its website, “FREER will refocus the political debate, shifting attention towards free enterprise and social freedom. Britain’s upcoming departure from the EU provides a once-in-a lifetime opportunity to reassess and reform our country across the whole range of policy areas. The ideas we will champion are those that coalesce around an enduring agenda of unleashing the enterprise, imagination, and inspiration of individual men and women. We are energetic and hopeful for a country that is open, dynamic, enterprising, and thriving.” [24]

For its first year, FREER would “avoid enormous overhead costs by being run administratively through the IEA” and would “benefit from the IEA’s staff’s expertise and experience in different areas” while being separate within IEA‘s overall budget. [24]

Stance on Climate Change

May 3, 2019

In an article for City A.M. criticising recent “Extinction Rebellion” climate protests, entitled “Of course we must protect the planet, but not by taking Britain back to the dark ages,” the IEA‘s associate director, Kate Andrews, wrote: [27]

“Making this planet greener and cleaner is a goal shared by people across the political spectrum.”

Andrews called fracking a “successful intermediary between extremely dirty fuel and the greener energy revolution to come,” claiming that shale gas “extracted from our shores produces half the pre-combustion emissions as the gas which we import.”

She also claimed: “currently to extract the same amount of energy you’d get from one shale gas well, you’d need 750 times the amount of land for onshore wind.” [27]

November 17, 2004

According to an IEA publication by Robert L. Bradley Jr. entitled “Climate Alarmism Reconsidered”:

“Government intervention in the name of energy sustainability is the major threat to real energy sustainability and the provision of affordable, reliable energy to growing economies worldwide. Free-market structures and the wealth generated by markets help communities to best adapt to climate change.” [5]

December 1, 1997

An IEA report entitled “Climate Change: Challenging the Conventional Wisdom” said: [28]

“The world’s climate is in constant flux: on time-scales from days to millennia, global and regional temperature, wind and rainfall patterns are changing. Over periods of decades and centuries, the most significant factor affecting climate appears to be changes in the output of the sun.”

IPCC [UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change] lead authors have exaggerated the likely impacts of climate change in order to heighten public perception of the issue and thereby encourage governments to spend more on climate research.” [28]

Funding

The IEA is an educational charity (No CC 235 351) and “independent research institute limited by guarantee.” According to their website, “The Institute is entirely independent of any political party or group, and is entirely funded by voluntary donations from individuals, companies and foundations who want to support its work, plus income from book sales and conferences. It does no contract work and accepts no money from government.” [1]

The IEA was revealed to have received funding from oil giant BP in a 2018 undercover investigation by Unearthed. IEA director Mark Littlewood told an undercover reporter that the oil company uses access facilitated by the think tank to press ministers on issues ranging from environmental and safety standards to British tax rates. When contacted for comment, the IEA admitted it had received funding from BP every year since 1967. [29]

According to the IEA website, the “American Friends of the Institute of Economic Affairs” is an incorporated 501(C)(3) charity that allows those in the United States to show their support for IEA. It operates under EIN#54-1899539. [6]

The following is based on data the Conservative Transparency project collected from publicly-available tax forms on the Institute of Economic Affairs as well as American Friends of the Institute of Economic Affairs. Note that not all individual values have been verified by DeSmog. [7], [8]

See the attached spreadsheet for details on the Institute of Economic Affairs’s funding by year (.xlsx).

Donor & YearAmerican Friends of the Institute of Economic AffairsInstitute of Economic AffairsInstitute for Economic AffairsGrand Total
Earhart Foundation $1,074,952 $1,074,952
John Templeton Foundation$200$879,516 $879,716
DonorsTrust$284,900  $284,900
Pierre F. and Enid Goodrich Foundation $270,000 $270,000
Chase Foundation of Virginia$215,140  $215,140
Lovett and Ruth Peters Foundation$99,000 $10,000$109,000
Exxon Mobil$50,000  $50,000
The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation $22,400 $22,400
The Roe Foundation $20,000 $20,000
George E Coleman Jr Foundation$15,100  $15,100
Aequus Institute$12,000  $12,000
Atlas Economic Research Foundation$7,500  $7,500
Schwab Charitable Fund$1,500  $1,500
Grand Total$685,340$2,266,868$10,000$2,962,208

Institute of Economic Affairs Charity Forms

American Friends of the Institute of Economic Affairs 990 Forms

Key People

Staff

Name1998200020012002200320042005200620112012[11]201320142015[10]20162017201820192020Description
Adam Bartha              YYYYDirector of Epicenter
Adam Myers YYYYYYY          Director of Marketing & Subscriptions
Alan Court YY               Postroom Manager
Alex Lee                YYStakeholder Outreach
Alexander C. R. Hammond                 YPolicy Advisor to the Director General
Alice Calder             Y    Operations Officer
Alicia Barrett            YY    Executive Assistant to Mark Littlewood and American Outreach Officer
Amelia Abplanalp          Y       Executive Assistant to Director General
Amy Horscroft              YYYYHead of Stakeholder Relations
Andy Mayer                YYChief Operating Officer
Angela Harbutt              YYYYDevelopment Director
Anna Malinowska      YY          Website Administrator
Annabel Denham                 YDirector of Communications
Anne Colyer YYYY             Editorial Assistant
Bob Layson YYYYYYY          Sales Manager
Brian Hindley  Y               Trade and Development
Brittany Davis                 YOperations Coordinator
Camilla Goodwin           YY     Communications Officer
Caroline Rollag        Y YYYY    Head of Development
Catherine McBride               YY Head of the Financial Services Unit
Chad Wilcox            YY    Chief Operating Officer
Chloe Mingay            YYY   Communications Officer, Public Affairs
Christian Killoughery             YYYY Operations Officer
Christiana Hambro          YYY     Head of External Relations
Christiana Stewart-Lockhart             YYY YDirector of Education, Outreach, and Programmes / Chief Executive of EPICENTER
Christine Blundell YYYYYYY          Operations Director
Christopher Snowdon         YYYYYYYYYHead of Lifestyle Economics
Claire Talbot               YYYExecutive Assistant to the Director General
Clare Batty YYYYYYY          Executive Assistant to the Director General and Company Secretary
Clare Rusbridge        YYYYYYYYYYFinance Manager and Company Secretary
Colin RobinsonYYYY               
Darren Grimes               YY Digital Manager
David GreenYY                Director, Health and Welfare Unit
Declan Pang            YYY   Development Manager
Diego Zuluaga           YYYY   Financial Services Research Fellow and Head of Research, EPICENTER
Edward Hughes                YYHead of Strategic Partnerships
Eileen Graham YY               Accounts/Administration
Ellie Weston             YY   Graphic Designer
Emily Carver                 YMedia Manager
Emma Revell                YYHead of Communications
Gabriel Sahlgren         YYY      Research Fellow
Gerry Frost YY               Trade and Development
Giovanni Caccavello              Y   EPICENTER Research Fellow
Glynn Brailsford        YYYYYYYYYYManaging Director
Grant Tucker           YY     Student Outreach Officer
Greta Gietz             Y    Programmes Assistant
Gustav Blix             Y    Director of EPICENTER
Isha Kacker        Y         Operations Officer
James TooleyYYYYYYY            
Jamie Legg               YYYOperations and Technology Manager
Jamie Whyte              YY  Research Director
John BlundellYYYYYYYY          IEA Distinguished Senior Fellow
John Meadowcroft     YY            
Julian Jessop              YY  IEA Economics Fellow
Julian MorrisYYYYY              
Kate Andrews             YYYY Associate Director
Kimberley Painter         Y        Executive Assistant to the Director General
Kristian Niemietz        YYYYYYYYYYIEA Poverty Research Fellow
Leigh Blount    Y             Facilities Manager
Len Shackleton            YYYYYYEditorial and Research Fellow
Lisa Madigan YYY              Reception
Madeline Grant             YYY  Editorial Manager
Mark Littlewood        YYYYYYYYYYDirector General
Melissa Davis   YYY            Director of Communications(and press office)
Morgan Schondelmeier              YY  Development Officer
Nerissa Chesterfield             YYY  Communications Officer, Media
Nicholas Keech YYYYYYY          Accounts Manager
Nick Hayns        Y         Communications Officer
Nick Silver       Y          IEA Pensions Fellow
Patricia MorganY                 Senior Research Fellow, Health and Welfare Unit
Philip Booth    YYYYYYYYYYYYYYSenior Academic Fellow
Radomir Tylecote               YY IEA Fellow
Ralph Buckle           YYY  Y Acting Director of Education, Outreach, and Programmes / Acting Chief Executive of EPICENTER
Rebecca Connorton YYYYYYYYYYY      Senior Consultant to the Chief Operating Officer
Rebecca Lowe               Y  Director of FREER
Richard D North   YYYY           IEA Media Fellow
Richard Wellings       YYYYYYYYYYYDeputy Research Director and Head of Transport
Robert WhelanYY                Health and Welfare Unit
Roger BateYYYYY              
Ruth Porter        YYY       Communications Director
Ryan Bourne           YYY    Head of Public Policy and Director, Paragon Initiative
Sam Collins            YYYY  Policy Advisor to Mark Littlewood
Shanker Singham               YY Fellow of International Trade and Competition
Shirley Cozens Y                Administrative Assistant
Sophie Sandor             YY   Programmes Manager
Stephanie Lis          YYYYY   Director of Communications
Stephen Davies        YYYYYYYYYYHead of Education
Syed Kamall                 YAcademic and Research Director
Terry Barnes             YYYY Lifestyle Economics Fellow
Tom Miers YYY              Development Director
Tom Papworth         Y        Development Manager
Tom Steinberg YY               IT/Research
Victoria Hewson               YYYHead of Regulatory Affairs and Research Associate
Yvonne Rigby Y                Web Administrator

Trustees

Name1998200020012002200320042005200620112012201320142015 [10]20162017201820192020Description
Arthur Seldon YY               Honorary Trustee
Bruno Prior            YYYYYY 
Carolyn Fairbairn   YYY             
D R MyddeltonYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
Edwin NixonYYY               Honorary Trustee
Geoffrey E WoodYYY                
Harold B. RoseY                 Chairman
J R Shackleton      YY           
Kevin Bell   YYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
Linda Edwards                 Y 
Linda WhetstoneYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
Lord Harris of High CrossYYY               Honorary Trustee
Lord Nigel VinsonYYYYY        YYYYYLife Vice President and former Chair of the IEA Board of Trustees
Malcolm McAlpineYYYYYYYYY          
Mark Pennington        YYYYYYYY  IEA Political Economy Fellow
Martin RickettsYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYChairman
Michael BeesleyY                  
Michael FisherYYYYYYYYYYYYYY     
Michael Hintze      YYYYYYYYYYYY 
Michael RichardsonYYY                
Neil Record        YYYYYYYYYYChairman
Patrick Minford   YYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
Peter WaltersYYYYYYYY           
Robert BoydYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
Robin Edwards              YYYY 
Tim Congdon   YY              

Fellows

Name20062011

2012[13]

201320142015[12]20162017201820192020Description
Amarendra Swarup   YYYYYYYYIEA Finance Fellow
Andrew Lilico  YYYYYYYYY 
Armin J Kammel   YYYYYYYYIEA Law and Economics Fellow
Benedikt Koehler          YEconomics of Religion Fellow
Cento VeljanovskiYYYYYYYYYYY 
Dalibor Rohac  YYYYYYYYYIEA Economics Fellow
Dennis O’KeeffeYYYYY      IEA Education and Welfare Fellow
Elaine SternbergYYYYYYYYYYY 
J R Shackleton YYYYYYYYYY 
James BartholomewYYYYYYYYYYYIEA Social Policy Fellow
James Croft  YYYYYYYYYIEA Education Research Fellow
Jamie Whyte   YYYY    Research Director
Jeffrey Peel      YY   IEA Media Fellow
John Blundell YYYY      IEA Distinguished Senior Fellow
John Bourn YYYYYYYYYYIEA Economics Fellow
John SpiersY          IEA Health Policy Fellow
Julian Jessop         YYIEA Economics Fellow
Keith BoyfieldYYYYYYYYYYYIEA Regulation Fellow
Kristian Niemietz YYYYYYYYYYIEA Poverty Research Fellow
Mark Pennington YYYYYYYYYYIEA Political Economy Fellow
Nick Silver  YYYYYYYY IEA Pensions Fellow
Radomir Tylecote          YIEA Fellow
Richard D NorthYYYYYYYYYYYIEA Media Fellow
Robert L BradleyYYYYYYYYYYYIEA Energy and Climate Change Fellow
Ruth Lea YYYYYYYYYYIEA Regulation Fellow
Shanker Singham        YYYFellow of International Trade and Competition
Terry ArthurYYYYYYYYYYYIEA Pensions and Financial Regulation Fellow
Tim CongdonYYYYYYYYYYY 
Vladimir Krulj       YYYYIEA Economics Fellow

Honorary Fellows 

Name1998200020012002200320042005200620112012 [13]20132014

2015[12]

20162017201820192020
Alan PeacockYYYYYYYYYYYY      
Alan WaltersYYYYYYYY          
Anna J Schwartz YYYYYYYYY        
Armen A Alchian YYYYYYYYY        
Basil S YameyYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Ben Roberts YYYYYYYY         
Chiaki Nishiyama YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
David Laidler     YYYYYYYYYYYYY
Deirdre McCloskey            YYYYYY
Dennis S LeesYYYYYYYY          
Gordon Tullock YYYYYYYYYYY      
Ivor PearceYYY               
James M BuchananYYYYYYYYYY        
Michael Beenstock     YYYYYYYYYYYYY
R M Hartwell   YYYYY          
Richard A Epstein           YYYYYYY
Ronald H CoaseYYYYYYYYYYY       
Samuel Brittan YYYYYYYYY YYYYYYY
Terence W HutchisonYYYYYYYY          
Vernon L Smith     YYYYYYYYYYYYY
Victor MorganY                 

Academic Advisory Council

Name19982000200120022003200520062011

2012[13]

20132014

2015[12]

20162017201820192020Description
Alan Morrison       YYYYYYYYYY 
Alberto Benegas-Lynch, Jr       YYYYYYYYYY 
Andrew Lilico           YYYYYY 
Anja Kluever   YYYY           
Anja Merz       YYYYYYYYYY 
Anna J SchwartzY                 
Antonio MartinoYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
Armen A AlchianY                 
Cento Veljanovski       YYYYYYYYYY 
Chandran Kukathas       YYYYYYYYYY 
Charles K RowleyYYYYYYYYYY        
Chiaki NishiyamaY                 
Christian Bjornskov           YYYYYY 
Christopher Coyne           YYYYYY 
Colin Robinson     YYYYYYYYYYYY 
D R Myddelton           YYYYYY 
Daniel B Klein YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
David de MezaYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
David GreenawayYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
David Henderson     YYYYYYYYYY   
David LaidlerYYYYY             
David Parker YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
David SimpsonYYY               
David Starkie         Y        
Donald J Boudreaux   YYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
Edwin G WestYYY               
Eileen Marshall     YYYYYYYYYYYY 
Elaine Sternberg     YYYYYYYYYYYY 
Forrest Capie   YYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
Gabriel Roth         Y        
Gabriel Sahlgren         Y       Research Fellow
Geoffrey E Wood    YYYYYYYYYYYYY 
Gordon TullockY                 
Graham BannockYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
Ingrid A Gregg     YYYYYYYYYYYY 
Ingrid A Merikoski   YY             
J R Shackleton YYYY  YYYYYYYYYY 
James Tooley     YYYYYYYYYYYY 
Jane S ShawYYYYY  YYYYYYYYYY 
Jane Shaw Stroup     YY           
Jerry L Jordan YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
John BurtonYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
John FlemmingYY YY             
John Meadowcroft       YYYYYYYYYY 
Julian Morris     YYYYYYYYYYYY 
Keith HartleyYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
Kevin Dowd     YYYYYYYYYYYY 
Lawrence H White YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
Lynne Kiesling     YYYYYYYYYYYY 
Mark Koyama           YYYYYY 
Mark Pennington     YY          IEA Political Economy Fellow
Martin RickettsYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYChairman
Michael BeenstockYYYYY             
N F R CraftsYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
Nicola Tynan   YYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
Nigel EssexYYYYYYYYYYY       
Norman BarryYYYYYYY           
Oliver Knipping         Y        
Pascal SalinYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
Patrick MinfordYYY               
Paul Ormerod     YYYYYYYYYYYY 
Paul Withrington         Y        
Pedro Schwartz YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
Peter DaviesYYY               
Peter M JacksonYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
R M HartwellYYY               
Razeen Sally     YYYYYYYYYYYY 
Richard A EpsteinYYYYYYYYYYY       
Richard Wellings         Y       Deputy Research Director and Head of Transport
Roger Bate     YYYYYYYYYYYY 
Roland VaubelYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
Samuel Gregg       YYYYYYYYYY 
Stephen C LittlechildYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
Steve H Hanke   YYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
Steven N S CheungYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
Theodore Roosevelt Malloch           YYYYYY 
Tim Congdon YY  YYYYYYYYYYYY 
Timothy Leunig       YY         
Vernon L SmithYYYYY             
Victoria Curzon-PriceYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
W Stanley Siebert   YYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
Walter E GrinderYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 
Walter E WilliamsYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 

Shadow Monetary Policy Committee

Name201120122013201420152016Description
Akos ValentinyiYYYYYY 
Andrew LilicoYYYYYY 
Anthony EvansYYYYYY 
David B SmithYYYYYY 
Gordon PepperYY     
Graeme Leach  YYYY 
Jamie DannhauserYYYYYY 
John GreenwoodYYYYYY 
Kent MatthewsYYYYYY 
Michael Wickens   YYY 
Patrick MinfordYYYYYY 
Peter WarburtonYYYYYY 
Philip BoothYYYYYYSenior Academic Fellow
Roger BootleYYYYYY 
Ruth LeaYY    IEA Regulation Fellow
Tim CongdonYYYYYY 
Trevor WilliamsYYYYYY 

Actions

April 21, 2021

According to Guido Fawkes, 40 Conservative MPs formed a Parliamentary branch of the Free Market Forum, an initiative launched by the IEA which promises “a freer economy and a freer society.” Among the MPs included were Secretary of State for International Trade Liz Truss, Home Secretary Priti Patel and Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy Kwasi Kwarteng. The group’s advisory council included former Taxpayers’ alliance CEO Matthew Elliott. [68]

March 1, 2021

The IEA published a report advocating for a tax-cutting programme in the aftermath of COVID-19. It stated that: “The Climate Change Levy and renewables obligations add economic distortion and complexity to the tax system,” adding: “These levies could be brought into a single, less distortionary, environmental taxation system – either through the Emissions Trading Scheme or a comprehensive carbon tax.” [67]

The report also proposed abolishing Air Passenger Duty, stating: “Emissions from aviation can instead be addressed by the government’s general environmental policies.”

October 20, 2020

The IEA hosted an event on the “future of UK free trade” with former Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott, who has frequently lobbied against the implementation of climate policies. In a discussion of his views, Abbott told IEA Director-General, Mark Littlewood:

I’m not a climate change zealot the way many people are, including in this country, but my government wanted to reduce emissions, it’s just that we wanted to reduce emissions in a way which didn’t impose unnecessary costs on Australians, which didn’t make our power system unaffordable and unreliable, which didn’t drive manufacturing industry offshore anymore than was already occurring, and frankly, I think all of that is self-evidently sensible.” [65]

October 16, 2020

The Government announced that the IEA’s Director General Mark Littlewood was one of four ‘experts’ appointed to the Strategic Trade Advisory Group (STAG), described as a “forum for high-level strategic discussions between government, and stakeholders representing a cross-section of interests from all parts of the UK on trade policy matters.” [66]

October 11, 2019

The IEA released a podcast on climate change and recent protest groups including Extinction Rebellion and the climate school strikes. The think tank’s Head of Political Economy Kristian Niemietz criticised protesters for not acknowleding past and present efforts to tackle climate change: [53]

“We are acting now and we have been acting for decades… It’s not the case that we’re doing nothing about it. This is a new generation of activists – they probably don’t have much of an active memory of that.”

He referred to Danish “lukewarmer” Bjørn Lomborg, saying:

“I think it was best summarised by Bjorn Lomborg, the Danish statistician, who said something like, ‘yes, climate change is a problem, yes it is man-made, yes we should do something about it. But is it the end of the world? No.’”

Niemietz said he supported a carbon tax or cap-and-trade scheme, arguing this was the most efficient and least harmful way to lower emissions. He said subsidies, by contrast, led to governments supporting potentially inefficient technologies. Victoria Hewson, the IEA‘s Head of Regulatory Affairs, also on the podcast, agreed that all other “piecemeal interventions” should be removed.

Hewson also said:

“They seem to think that developing countries can, in order to develop and industrialise and improve their standards of living, somehow leapfrog the phase of using fossil fuels that we in the West benefited from for our development and industrialisation. And that countries like Kenya should build wind farms and solar farms to progress. But quite frankly, that’s not going to work. It’s just not.”

She warned against imposing a carbon border tax, arguing this would hurt developing countries, and said the government was intervening too much in the UK‘s energy system, criticising “contracts for difference”, a scheme used for awarding contracts to the cheapest providers of renewable energy. She also said there wasn’t enough “joined-up thinking” happening around electric vehicles.

“Electric vehicles are good in the sense that they don’t themselves produce emissions, but they do rely on electricity being generated in order to power them. And i’m just not sure that there’s much joined up thinking going on in this area.” [53]

August 20, 2019

IEA Associate Director, Kate Andrews, appeared on Sky News during a discussion on Prince Harry and Meghan Markle’s concern about climate change while using private jets. She wrongly claimed they had been “preaching to everyone else that they needed to have fewer children and that they needed to be extremely cautious about their carbon output”. [51]

July 3, 2019

The IEA‘s Digital Manager, Darren Grimes, wrote an article for the online magazine Spiked, criticising the recent adoption of a “net zero” emissions by the UK. Grimes said that the target was “ almost certain to impose huge costs on the poorest households and have a detrimental impact on our living standards”. While accepting that there is “certainly a need to take action against climate change”, he claimed that the “Net Zero target won’t do anything to reduce emissions from the US, China and India”, calling it “green virtue-signalling”. [50]

In 2018, DeSmog revealed that Spiked had received $300,000 from the US-based climate science denial funders, the Koch brothers, over the previous three years.

June 25, 2019

The IEA‘s Head of Lifestyle Economics, Christopher Snowdon, wrote an opinion piece for The Telegraph in which he said that the UK‘s “net zero” emissions target could “most charitably be described as a leap of faith” and that the amendment was only proposed to “boost the ego of one of Britain’s worst prime ministers”. Snowdon admitted that there were “certainly benefits to be had from weaning ourselves off fossil fuels” but claimed Britain was only responsible for 1% of global emissions so “any benefits to the climate depend almost entirely on the big economies – China, India, the USA – following our lead”. [39]

June 13, 2019

The IEA hosted a podcast with former Labour MP Natascha Engel on the issue of fracking in the UK, during which she “argues that an urge to ‘do something’ about climate change will hustle politicians into bad decisions — and almost certainly make things worse,” according to the podcast description. Engel served as the government’s Commissioner for Shale Gas between October 2018 and April 2019 and was criticized for working as a consultant for the chemicals and fracking company INEOS after losing her North East Derbyshire seat in 2017. [35], [37]

The podcast was hosted by the IEA‘s Digital Manager, Darren Grimes, a pro-Brexit student activist who founded the youth campaign group BeLeave and was subsequently fined £20,000 by the Electoral Commission for breaching spending rules during the EU referendum campaign. In July, Grimes won an appeal against the fine. [36], [48]

June 7, 2019

IEA director-general Mark Littlewood appeared on BBC Radio 4, responding to a letter sent by Chancellor Philip Hammond to the Prime Minister, claiming a “net zero” emissions target by 2050 would cost the UK $1 trillion. Littlewood said: [31]

“You can do quite a lot with a trillion pounds. Let’s even say the treasury has exaggerated it and it’s only half a trillion pounds. You can do an awful lot with half a trillion pounds… Now that’s not say there aren’t any fringe benefits if you’re in the windmill-making business: this could be good news for you. But it is a real cost. You can’t just hand wave that away.” [31]

June 5, 2019

Linda Edwards, a member of the IEA‘s advisory council since 2016, was appointed a director of the organization, according to Companies House filings. The IEA website states that Edwards has had a “long relationship” with the Koch-funded, climate science denying Cato Institute, based in the US, and is a board member of the Atlas Network, a Washington-based umbrella organization supporting over 450 “free market” groups around the world. Both the Atlas Network and the IEA were founded by the late Sir Anthony Fisher. [32], [33]

Edwards also supports the Reason Foundation, another Koch- and Exxon-funded US libertarian group which claimed in 2016 that “global warming of up to 3 degrees Celsius above preindustrial levels could generate net benefits for humanity.” [33], [34]

June 3, 2019

IEA director-general Mark Littlewood wrote an article in The Times entitled “Green campaigners won’t save the planet, but capitalism may well do.” [38]

May 3, 2019

IEA associate director Kate Andrews wrote an article for City A.M. criticising recent “Extinction Rebellion” climate protests, entitled “Of course we must protect the planet, but not by taking Britain back to the dark ages.” [27]

Andrews acknowledged that “Making this planet greener and cleaner is a goal shared by people across the political spectrum” but said protesters were “campaigning for behaviour that would quite literally send us back to the dark ages.”

Andrews called fracking a “successful intermediary between extremely dirty fuel and the greener energy revolution to come,” claiming that shale gas “extracted from our shores produces half the pre-combustion emissions as the gas which we import.”

She also claimed: “currently to extract the same amount of energy you’d get from one shale gas well, you’d need 750 times the amount of land for onshore wind.” [27]

January 29, 2019

The IEA was one of 24 US and UK thinktanks and industry lobby groups to give evidence to a public hearing on “negotiating objectives” hosted by the US Trade Representative agency in Washington, DC. [59]

The IEA was represented by Peter Allgeier, a member of its International Trade and Competition Unit’s Advisory Council, who told the hearing that, in “areas such as food safety and automobile standards, rigid proscriptive EU standards have stifled innovation and impeded U.S. exports” and claimed that “the so-called precautionary principle…in particular has been a problem.” [59]

The precautionary principle is an EU approach to legislation that allows countries to place restrictions on substances where there is uncertainty over the impact on the environment and human health. The precautionary principle has been used to justify EU bans on substances including the bee-killing pesticides neonicotinoids and the organophosphate chlorpyrifos which research shows may harm the brain development of children. It gives regulators significantly more power to regulate substances than the US, which defends its approach as “science-based” or “risk-based.” [60], [61], [62][63]

November 28, 2018

An openDemocracy article reported that the IEA‘s magazine, Economic Affairs, which is distributed to every school in the UK teaching A-Level economics or business studies, had published articles promoting “tobacco tax cuts, climate change denial, tax havens, and privatising the NHS.” [30]

In autumn 2013, the magazine ran an article by Roger Bate, an economist and fellow at the libertarian US-based think tank the American Enterprise Institute, entitled “20 years denouncing eco-militants”, in which he argued that “evidence of climate impact is still hard to prove, and harm even more difficult to establish.”

The magazine does not disclose its funding sources to readers. [30]

September 24, 2018

The IEA helped to launch an ‘alternative’ plan for a post-Brexit UKUS trade deal, alongside US group the Cato Institute. It called on the UK government to cut EU environmental regulations to secure free-trade deals with the US, China and India after Brexit. Environmental NGOs said the plans were not credible if the UK was to fulfil its own environmental commitments, warning that the Brexit vote was not a mandate to lower standards. BBC Newsnight Policy Editor Chris Cook wrote an analysis piece challenging the report’s “dubious maths​”. [43], [44]

The following day Greenpeace’s Unearthed revealed details of a ‘lucrative’ tour of the US undertaken by IEA chief Mark Littlewood in advance of the report being published. [45]

A separate Guardian analysis revealed a related US-group, the American Friends of the IEA, had raised at least $1.69m in the last decade. The director of the American Friends of the IEA, Robert Boyd, revealed some of the money had been used to fund specific projects for the IEA, but said the US-arm was run independently of the UK thinktank. [46]

August, 2018

Continuing the revolving door betwen Tufton Street organisations and key Brexit departments in government, IEA Director of Communications Stephanie Lis took a post as a Special Adviser at the Department for Exiting the EU under Secretary of State Dominic Raab. [47]

July 2018

IEA chief Mark Littlewood was filmed by undercover reporters tellling a prospective donor they could discreetly influence a report in ways that could advance their business interests, in exchange for £42,500. [49]

July 29, 2018

An undercover reporter filmed Institute of Economic Affairs director Mark Littlewood offering access to government ministers and civil servants in exchange for funding, The Guardian reported.  Littlewood said IEA was in the “Brexit influencing game.” He said he could make introductions to ministers, and that the IEA knew Boris Johnson, Michael Gove, David Davis and Liam Fox well. [25]

He was also recorded suggesting donors could shape “substantial content” of research commissioned by IEA with findings that would support free-trade deals. [25]

“The disclosures are likely to raise fresh questions about the independence and status of the IEA, which is established as an educational charity. Charity Commission rules state that ‘an organisation will not be charitable if its purposes are political’,” The Guardian reported. [25]

In an exchange with The Guardian, IEA said there was “nothing untoward about thinktanks having a collaborative approach with politicians” and added that it had “no corporate view” on Brexit. [25]

The IEA also offered to broker access to senior politicians for foreign donors seeking to influence the course of Brexit, according to the investigation by Greenpeace’s Unearthed. [26]

April 28, 2016

The IEA published a report calling for the BBC to be privatised. One of its chapters, entitled “The problem of bias in the BBC” was written by Ryan Bourne, now Chair for the Public Understanding of Economics at the US-based libertarian Cato Institute. Fresh analysis for the chapter was commissioned from the anti-BBC research group News-watch, which regularly publishes articles rejecting the scientific consensus on climate change. Both the IEA and News-watch are either directly or indirectly funded by the Nigel Vinson Charitable Trust. [41], [42]

June, 2015

Philip Booth, Editorial and Programme Director at the IEA, was featured on Newsnight where he criticized some aspects of Pope Francis’s encyclical on the environment. [14]
 
According to the event description, “Pope Francis’s comments on how best to combat climate change however, are at risk of overstepping the mark when it comes to the role of the clergy.” [14]
 
Phillip Booth also wrote a corresponding blog post at the IEA titled “Property rights and the environment – a response to Pope Francis’ encyclical.[15]
“It is correct to say that pollution leads to premature deaths. Indeed, many would argue that climate change will do so and some that it already does so. But, there are trade-offs. And the underlying picture is one of huge increases in life expectancy and health because of the economic development that is taking place. Indeed, in many parts of the world, the environment is improving dramatically,” Booth writes.

September 20, 2013

IEA Director General Mark Littlewood gave a speech to the United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP)’s annual conference, in which he said: [52]

“I also think there are whole government departments that can be closed down. The Department for Culture, Media and Sport? Culture, Media and Sport should belong to the people, not the state bureaucracy. The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills – surely, the three things governments are worst at. That department can be abolished overnight.”

He added:

“We need to reverse the disastrous energy policies which make heating bills a huge burden on the average household. In the name of combatting global warming, we actually risk people being unable to heat their homes and dying of hypothermia.”

Littlewood said later in the speech:

“I’ve heard your leader Nigel Farage describe the other three major parties as being the social democratic parties. I think he may have a point.”

He ended by saying:

“My real plea to you today is to focus on the third word in your party’s name. If you can become the true party of independence, talking not just about the UK‘s independence from Europe, but about the need to fight for the independence of ordinary people against an over-taxing, over-spending, over-regulating state, then I think you can make an even greater contribution to modern political debate.” [52]

June, 2013

The Institute of Economic Affairs and the Adam Smith Institute “received tens of thousands of pounds in funding from cigarette firms,” which was revealed in The Observer‘s article, “Health groups dismayed by news ‘big tobacco’ funded rightwing thinktanks.” [16], [17]

British American Tobacco (BAT) confirmed in The Observer‘s article that in 2011 BAT “gave the IEA [Institute of Economic Affairs] £10,000, plus £1,000 in event sponsorship. Last year [2012] it [BAT] donated a further £20,000 to the institute.” [17]

September 5, 2011

The Institute of Economic Affairs hosted an event by climate change skeptic Fred Singer titled “The Big Global Warming Debate: Nature, Not Human Activity, Rules the Climate.”

According to the conference description, “If climate change is natural, if there is no appreciable Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW), then there is little we can do about it. We’d better just adapt – as humans have been doing for many millennia.” [18]

November 23, 2009

The Institute of Economic Affairs held an event titled “The Copenhagen Summit: Do Science and Economics Support Government Action on Climate Change?

Speakers included climate change skeptics Nigel Lawson and Fred Singer. The conference description suggests that policies to reduce carbon emissions will cause consumers to “face higher bills as businesses pass on the additional costs.” [19]

September, 2009

The Institute of Economic Affairs created a document titled “Climate Change Policy: Challenging the Activists.” The report includes sections written by numerous climate change skeptics. [20]
 
Here are some excerpts from the report:
 
“[T]he Stern Review […] exaggerates the costs that may be associated with emissions of greenhouse gases”
Russell Lewis:
“It is possible to accept aspects of the science of global warming without predicting a forthcoming apocalypse or highly coercive and centralising government action to deal with the consequences. […] the consequences of environmental and ecological change are regularly exaggerated.”
“The science of climate change is far from settled. Arguably, it will never be settled.”
 
“I have argued that the relationship between human emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and global warming remains uncertain. Plausibly, increased emissions of GHGs during the 21st century will lead to mild warming – of perhaps 1–3° Celsius. To the extent that this warming occurs gradually, the best strategy is likely to be adaptation.”
“[T]he IPCC process, viewed as a whole, is not professionally up to the mark.”
 
“[Governments] should no longer presume or aim at consensus. Rather, they should see to it that, both within the IPCC reporting process and more broadly, serious differences of professional opinion are aired.”

“Critics of the conventional view that science ‘proves’ that, given present policies, damaging global warming will occur as a consequence of human actions frequently warn that this view is leading towards adoption of a new secular religion, of a pronounced ascetic character. […] [S]upporters of the damaging climate change hypothesis fervently advocate stringent government measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which would have a serious impact on individual freedom.

“[W]e should be wary of the dangers to individual freedom inherent in the present consensus about prospective climate change and how to deal with it.”

Colin Robinson:
“In general, the authors of this volume take a far more sceptical view than is usual of the hypothesis that drastic action to combat severe climate change can be justified.”

March 6, 2007

The Institute of Economic Affair’s Russell Lewis published a report titled, “Global Warming False Alarms,” which constituted the “25th IEA Current Controversies Paper.” [21]

The report states that “claims about the future impact of global warming are alarmist and unwarranted,” and “also suspect as an excuse for mounting taxes and controls.” [21] The IEA‘s report goes on to say that “there is a strong case that the IPCC has overstated the effect of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on the climate and downplayed the influence of natural factors such as variations in solar output, El Niños and volcanic activity. The empirical evidence used to support the global warming hypothesis has often been misleading, with ‘scare stories’ promoted in the media that are distortions of scientific reality.” [21]

Publications

The Institute of Economic Affairs has issued a number of publications that challenge the science behind man-made climate change. These include:

In response to a Guardian article detailing the IEA’s history of publishing work that dismissed or downplayed climate science, the IEA said the newspaper had been unfairly selective in their choice of publications. However the IEA failed to identify any that presented an alternative position when asked. [64]

Institute of Economic Affairs Contact & Location

The Institute of Economic Affairs (IER) lists the following contact information on its website: [22]

Institute of Economic Affairs
2 Lord North Street (entrance on Great Peter Street)
Westminster
London
SW1P 3LB
Tel: 020 7799 8900

Related Organisations

Social Media

Resources

  1. About us,” Institute of Economic Affairs. Archived November 17, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/HvwRY

  2.  About the IEA,” Institute of Economic Affairs. Archived March 14, 2010. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/U370Z

  3. Martin Morse Wooster. “Liberty’s Quiet Champion,” The Philanthropy Roundtable, July/August 2003. Archived March 12, 2005. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/c56g8

  4. Institute of Economic Affairs,” SourceWatch. Accessed November 17, 2015. 

  5. Climate Alarmism Reconsidered,” Institute of Economic Affairs, November 17, 2004. Archived January 24, 2018. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/GT4Jg

  6. Donate Now,” Institute of Economic Affairs. Archived November 17, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/MyAEI

  7. Institute of Economic Affairs,” Conservative Transparency. Data retrieved June 29, 2016.

  8. American Friends of the Institute of Economic Affairs,” Conservative Transparency. Data retrieved June 29, 2016.

  9. ExxonSecrets Factsheet: American Friends of the Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA). Accessed March 7, 2019.

  10. People,” Institute of Economic Affairs. Archived November 17, 2015. 

  11. “People,” Institute of Economic Affairs. Archived November 22, 2012.

  12. Fellows and advisors,” Institute of Economic Affairs. Archived November 18, 2015. 

  13. Fellows and advisors,” Institute of Economic Affairs. Archived November 22, 2012.

  14. The pope should not overstep his remit,” Institute of Economic Affairs, June 15, 2015. Archived November 16, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/EXevv

  15. Philip Booth. “Property rights and the environment – a response to Pope Francis’ encyclical,” Institute of Economic Affairs, June 19, 2015. Archived November 16, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/hpd7x

  16. Institute of Economic Affairs,” Tobacco Tactics. Archived September 29, 2015.

  17. Health groups dismayed by news ‘big tobacco’ funded rightwing thinktanks.” The Observer, June 1, 2013. Archived September 29, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/TRdJz

  18. The Big Global Warming Debate: Nature, Not Human Activity, Rules the Climate,” Institute of Economic Affairs, September 5, 2011. Archived November 18, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/KaxyY

  19. The Copenhagen Summit: Do Science and Economics Support Government Action on Climate Change? Institute of Economic Affairs. November 23, 2009. Archived November 18, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/09QOq

  20. “Climate Change Policy: Challenging the Activists” (PDF), The Institute of Economic Affairs, 2008. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  21. Russell Lewis. Global Warming False Alarms,” Institute of Economic Affairs, March 6, 2007. Archived October 6, 2015.

  22. Contact Us,” Institute of Economic Affairs. Archived June 25, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/Ediza

  23. Rebecca Lowe: Introducing FREER. For social and economic freedom. And why I’m a part of it,” ConservativeHome, March 19, 2018. Archived March 22, 2018. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/wkZRA

  24. Objective,” FREER. Accessed March 22, 2018. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/VTnpv

  25. Rightwing UK thinktank ‘offered ministerial access’ to potential US donors,” The Guardian, July 29, 2018. Archived July 29, 2018. Archive.is URL: https://archive.fo/s7TXR

  26. Lawrence Carter and Alice Ross. “A leading think tank brokered access to ministers for US donors looking to influence Brexit,” Unearthed, July 29, 2018. Archived Feb 1, 2019. Archive.fo URLhttps://archive.fo/6Ffcz

  27. Kate Andrews. “Of course we must protect the planet, but not by taking Britain back to the dark ages,” City A.M., May 3, 2019. Archived May 3, 2019. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.

  28. Julian Morris. “Climate Change: Challenging the Conventional Wisdom,” Institute of Economic Affairs, December 1, 1997. Archived May 3, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/DopLq

  29. Lawrence Carter, Alice Ross. “Revealed: BP and gambling interests fund secretive free market think tank,” Unearthed, July 30, 2018. Archived May 3, 2019. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.

  30. Adam Ramsay, Peter Geoghegan. “Right-wing think tank accused of promoting tobacco and oil industry “propaganda” in schools,” openDemocracy, November 28, 2018. Archived May 3, 2019. Archive.fo URLhttp://archive.fo/2fHdu

  31. As Philip Hammond highlights the economic impact of achieving net zero carbon emissions by 2050, @MarkJLittlewood on @BBCr4today says the costs will be “colossal” and we must accept that, in tackling climate change, there are trade offs and money could be better spent elsewhere!” Tweet by @iealondon, June 7, 2019. Archived .png on file at DeSmog.

  32. Institute of Economic Affairs: Filing history,” Companies House. Archived June 19, 2019. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/tFnLX

  33. Advisory Council Members,” Institute of Economic Affairs. Archived June 19, 2019. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/Dkits

  34. Julian Morris. “Climate pact likely to do more harm than good,” The Orange County Register, April 22, 2016. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.

  35. Is fracking compatible with a fossil-free future?Institute of Economic Affairs, June 13, 2019. Archived June 19, 2019. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/rIb0l

  36. Jim Waterson. “Darren Grimes: the pro-Brexit student activist fined £20k,” The Guardian, July 17, 2018. Archived June 19, 2019. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/YTlCI

  37. Liam Norcliffe. “Decision by former MP to link up with fracking firm criticised,” Derbyshire Times, December 6, 2017. Archived June 19, 2019. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/f5orw

  38. Mark Littlewood. “Green campaigners won’t save the planet, but capitalism may well do,” The Times, June 3, 2019. Archived June 19, 2019. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/x6j36

  39. Christopher Snowdon. “These green targets waved through by MPs will make the cost of no deal look like small change,” The Telegraph, June 25, 2019. Archived June 26, 2019. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.

  40. John Blundell. “The life and work of Sir Antony Fisher,” IEA, July 10, 2013. Archived June 27, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/8GWok

  41. Philip Booth (ed). “In Focus: The Case for Privatising the BBC,” IEA, April 28, 2016. Archived July 18, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/qQSmD

  42. Ryan Bourne,” Cato Institute. Archived July 18, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/9yP2P

  43. Chloe Farand. “Hard-Brexit Lobbyists Demand UK Roll-Back Environmental Standards to Strike Free Trade Deals with India, China and US,” DeSmog, September 24, 2018.

  44. Chris Cook. “IEA Brexit report based on dubious maths,” BBC News, September 24, 2018. Archived September 25, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/BocN6

  45. Alice Ross, Lawrence Carter. “Think tank behind Brexiteers’ trade blueprint chased funds from US donors,” Unearthed, September 25, 2018. Archived September 25, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/tt7Ax

  46. Rob Evans, Felicity Lawrence, David Pegg. “US groups raise millions to support rightwing UK thinktanks,” Guardian, September 28, 2018. Archived September 25, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/FPOr8

  47. IEA Staff Changes,” Guido Fawkes, September 3, 2018. Archived September 3, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/iqhRN

  48. BeLeave: Pro-Brexit campaign group founder Darren Grimes wins appeal against £20k fine,” Sky News, July 19, 2019. Archived July 22, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/qQ4Vf

  49. Alice Ross, Lawrence Carter. “A hard Brexit think tank told a potential donor it could influence its research reports in exchange for funding,” Unearthed, July 29, 2018. Archived September 25, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/Y2VwB

  50. Darren Grimes. “No one voted for Net Zero,” Spiked, July 3, 2019. Archived August 20, 2019. Archive.fo URLhttp://archive.fo/pwucg

  51. “They shouldn’t be chastising other people, and frankly much poorer people, for their life choices!” the IEA‘s @KateAndrs on members of The Royal Family advising on climate change whilst using private jets Further reading: No one voted for Net Zero https://iea.org.uk/media/politici…,” Tweet by @iealondon, August 20, 2019. Archived .png on file at DeSmog.

  52. Mark Littlewood, Director General, Institute of Economic Affairs,” YouTube video uploaded by user UKIP Official Channel. Archived .mp4 on file at DeSmog.

  53. Rebels without a cause?Institute of Economic Affairs, October 11, 2019. Archived October 15, 2019. Archive.fo URLhttp://archive.fo/sKufO

  54.  “Leaving the single market: the free-market case for “hard Brexit,” Institute of Economic Affairs. Archived August 30, 2020. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/TkKSa

  55. Chloe Farand. “Mapped: Whistleblower accuses nine organisations of colluding over hard-Brexit,” DeSmog, July 23, 2018.

  56. Alice Ross and Lawrence Carter. “Charity watchdog issues legal warning to IEA over its Brexit report,” Unearthed, February 6. 2019. Archived August 30, 2020. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/lNlff

  57. Brendan Montague. “Democracy is being dismantled by a “cabinet of horrors” – an interview with Molly Scott Cato MEP,” OpenDemocracy, September 10, 2019. Archived August 30, 2020. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/GlQoL

  58. Free Enterprise Group,Tobacco Tactics. Archived August 30, 2020. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/zbG7x

  59. Transcript – Public Hearing on Negotiating Objectives for a USUK Trade Agreement (PDF),” Trade Policy Staff Committee, Office of the United States Trade Representative. January 29, 2019. Archived July 23, 2020. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.

  60. Natasha Foote, EU Commission set to vote on ban of controversial organophosphate pesticides,” Euractiv, December 4, 2019. Archived August 12, 2020. Archive.fo URLhttp://archive.fo/GjYaM

  61. Philip Case, “Bayer and NFU battling to overturn neonicotinoids ban,” Farmers Weekly, June 4, 2020. Archived August 12, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/RwhG9

  62. Staffan Dahllof and Stéphane Horel, “Pesticide chlorpyrifos banned by EU,” EU Observer, December 9, 2019. Archived August 13, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/O1fWu

  63. The Pesticide Action Network UK, Sustain and Dr Emily Lydgate, “Toxic Trade: How Trade Deals Threaten to Weaken UK Pesticide Standards,” Pesticide Action Network UK. Archived August 12, 2020. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.

  64. David Pegg and Robb Evans. “Revealed: top UK thinktank spent decades undermining climate science,” The Guardian, October 10, 2019. Archived August 30, 2020. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/KJuEl

  65. The Future of UK Free Trade with the Hon Tony Abbott,” YouTube video uploaded by user iealondon on November 6, 2020. Archived .mp4 on file at DeSmog.

  66. Strategic Trade Advisory Group, GOV.UK, October 16, 2020. Archived October 20, 2020. Archive.vn: https://archive.vn/p2Vyf 

  67. Sam Collins, Alexander C.R. Hammond. “20 taxes to scrap: How to grow the UK economy by simplifying the tax system,” IEA, March 1, 2021. Archived March 8, 2021. Archive.vn URL: https://archive.vn/CQDFP 

  68. 40 Tory MPs Join IEA Free Market Forum,” Guido Fawkes, April 21, 2021. Archived April 26, 2021. Archive.ph URL: https://archive.ph/cSiq9 

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