55 Tufton Street

55 Tufton Street

Photo: Wikimedia Commons

Background

The Westminster building located at 55 Tufton Street is home to a small but influential network of libertarian, pro-Brexit thinktanks and lobby groups, including the UK‘s principal climate science denial group, the Global Warming Policy Foundation. Information on the building’s residents can be found below.1Mapped: The Cosy Climate-Euro Sceptic Bubble Pushing for Brexit and Less Climate Action,” DeSmog UK, June 13, 2016. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/S4h4b

The building itself is owned by Richard Smith, a businessman who runs an aerospace company called HR Smith Group and a former trustee of the pro-Brexit Politics and Economics Research Trust founded by former Vote Leave and Taxpayers’ Alliance CEO Matthew Elliott. It was purchased in 2009 by Specmat, one of Smith’s technology manufacturing companies. While he keeps a low profile, Smith is perhaps best known for flying former Prime Minister David Cameron to his home in Shobdon, Herefordshire, in 2007.2Tom Bawden. “The address where Eurosceptics and climate change sceptics rub shoulders,” The Independent, February 10, 2016. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/PSL5U Smith is associated with several of the organisations at 55 Tufton Street and also donated to the official Vote Leave campaign, previously located at the same Tufton Street address.3Trustees,” The Politics and Economics Research Trust. Archived January 25, 2016. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/JaWaM

Many of the groups meet monthly to discuss “strategy and tactics”, according to an openDemocracy investigation,4Adam Ramsay, Peter Geoghegan. “Revealed: how the UK’s powerful right-wing think tanks and Conservative MPs work together,” openDemocracy, July 31, 2018. Archived October 23, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/z0CJU while Brexit campaign whistleblower Shahmir Sanni has accused nine of the organisations of running a coordinated campaign for a “hard Brexit” by agreeing on a “single set of right-wing talking points.”5Chloe Farand. “Mapped: Whistleblower Accuses Nine Organisations of Colluding over Hard Brexit,” DeSmog, July 23, 2018.

Stance on Climate Change

The building is home to several groups that either spread misinformation about climate science or lobby against government action to reduce emissions.6Tom Bawden. “The address where Eurosceptics and climate change sceptics rub shoulders,” The Independent, February 10, 2016. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/PSL5U

Key People

Building Residents

The Global Warming Policy Foundation (GWPF) exists to combat what it describes as “extremely damaging and harmful policies” designed to mitigate climate change and regularly publishes reports rejecting the scientific consensus on the issue. It was founded in the run-up to the Copenhagen climate summit in 2009 by former Conservative Chancellor Lord Nigel Lawson.7Mapped: The Cosy Climate-Euro Sceptic Bubble Pushing for Brexit and Less Climate Action,” DeSmog UK, June 13, 2016. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/S4h4b Several of the GWPF‘s members and funders are affiliated with other groups located at 55 Tufton Street.8Cahal Milmo. “Multi-millionaire backers of climate change denial think-tank revealed,” The Independent, September 2, 2014. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/NFG6q

Civitas is an educational charity and publisher specializing in health, education, welfare, and economics.9About Us,” Civitas. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/LB8x8 The thinktank has published reports arguing against policies to tackle climate change, including a 2013 report by current Energy Editor of the GWPF John Constable.10Tom Bawden. “Britain’s leading private university ‘becoming a mouthpiece for fossil-fuel industry’,” Independent, March 30, 2015. Archived October 23, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/mtpMj It claimed a shift to renewable energy would mean “more people would be working for lower wages in the energy sector, energy costs would rise, the economy would stagnate, and there would be a significant decline in the standard of living.” Sir Alan Rudge, an advisor to the GWPF,11Academic Advisory Council,” Global Warming Policy Foundation. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/JNL70 and Lord Nigel Vinson, a GWPF funder,12Cahal Milmo. “Multi-millionaire backers of climate change denial think-tank revealed,” The Independent, September 2, 2014. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/NFG6q are both trustees.13CIVITAS LIMITED: People,” Companies House. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/wQC7H The group has been criticised by Transparify for its “opaque” operations.14Mat Hope. “‘Opaque’ and ‘Deceptive’ Think Tanks Spend Millions Pushing Brexit and Climate Science Misinformation – Report,” DeSmog UK, February 8, 2017. 15Tom Bawden. “Britain’s leading private university ‘becoming a mouthpiece for fossil-fuel industry’,” Independent, March 30, 2015. Archived October 23, 2019. Archive.fo URL:  http://archive.fo/mtpMj

The TaxPayers’ Alliance is a free-market pressure group and thinktank formed in 2004 by Matthew Elliott to campaign for a low tax society. It advocates the removal of various measures designed to reduce emissions, including the Climate Change Levy.16Brian Wheeler. “The campaign group: Taxpayers’ Alliance,” BBC News, March 3, 2008. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive. fo URL: http://archive.fo/ojkik In 2016 the TaxPayers’ Alliance, along with US climate science denying lobby groups the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI) and the Heritage Foundation, held a free trade event at the Conservative Party Conference.17Victoria Seabrook. “Climate Science Denying US Neocon Groups Promote ‘Simple’ and ‘Freer’ Trade with UK at Tory Party Conference,” DeSmog UK, October 5, 2016. The group was, as of November 2015, a member of the Cooler Heads Coalition,18Contributors,” Cooler Heads Coalition. Archived November 27, 2015. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/k9dXa a climate science denial umbrella group run by the CEI, but is no longer listed on its website. The Taxpayers’ Alliance belongs to an international coalition of anti-tax, free-market campaign groups called the World Taxpayers Associations. Other members include the Australian Taxpayers’ Alliance, Americans for Tax Reform, the Austrian Economics Center and the Canadian Taxpayers’ Federation.19About us,” World Taxpayers Associations. Archived May 20, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/kE28O

The New Culture Forum is a right-wing thinktank working to change cultural debates it believes are dominated by “the left.”20About the NCF,” New Culture Forum. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/B3e5s According to the ConservativeHome blog, Matthew Elliott serves as an advisor to the forum,21Matthew Elliott,” ConservativeHome. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/LrcbH while Michael Gove, former UK Environment Secretary, has spoken at its events. Its founder and Director is Peter Whittle, former UKIP leader in the London Assembly and former Culture and Communities Spokesperson (2014-2018) and Deputy Leader (2016-2017) for the party.22Michael Gove at the New Culture Forum,” New Culture Forum, January 23, 2007. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/NXI44

Past residents

Vote Leave was the official pro-Brexit campaign. The group was originally a resident of 55 Tufton Street but moved to a bigger office several months before the referendum.23Tom Bawden. “The address where Eurosceptics and climate change sceptics rub shoulders,” The Independent, February 10, 2016. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/PSL5U Members included Nigel Lawson,24Nigel Lawson named chairman of Vote Leave campaign,” The Guardian, February 3, 2016. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/aDFgV Matthew Elliott, Graham Stringer (also a GWPF trustee25Board of Trustees,” Global Warming Policy Foundation. Archived December 7, 2018. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.), Matt Ridley, along with prominent Conservative Party politicians Andrea Leadsom, Boris Johnson and Michael Gove.26About the campaign,” Vote leave, take control. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/PMq23 GWPF and Tory donor Michael Hintze also donated to Vote Leave.27Matt Ridley. “Voting to leave the EU looks like Britain’s best option,” MattRidley, October 15, 2015. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/2R3QZ 28Kyla Mandel. “Climate Denial Funder Michael Hintze Gave £100K to Vote Leave Campaign Day Before Brexit Vote,” DeSmog UK, July 11, 2016.

UK2020 was a right-wing thinktank set up by former Environment Secretary Owen Paterson in 2014 that drew comparisons with the American “Tea Party” movement.29MP Owen Paterson to launch US-style ‘Tea Party’,” Shropshire Star, November 4, 2014. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/uaVkZ Among the policy recommendations the group called for was “a robust, common sense energy policy that would encourage the market to choose affordable technologies to reduce emissions.”30Tom Bawden. “The address where Eurosceptics and climate change sceptics rub shoulders,” The Independent, February 10, 2016. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/PSL5U These technologies include shale gas and small modular nuclear reactors. It also aimed to strip back regulations and subsidies in the energy sector designed to combat climate change. Matt Ridley of the GWPF was a policy advisor for UK202031People,” UK2020. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/XnrEp and Tim Montgomerie, founder of the ConservativeHome website and a former senior fellow at the Legatum Institute, was their political adviser.32People,” UK2020. Archived May 20, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/ugqT7

Leave Means Leave was a pro-Brexit campaign group formed following the 2016 EU referendum to “ensure the UK makes a swift, clean exit from the EU.”33Our Campaign,” Leave Means Leave. Archived October 24, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/OSgms It backed a “hard” Brexit, with the UK leaving the European Single Market, the Customs Union and the European Court of Justice, and supported the UK reverting to World Trade Organisation rules.34Advisory Board,” Leave Means Leave. Archived October 24, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/Lz13E The group was co-founded by Richard Tice, a property developer and now Chair of the Brexit Party, and John Longworth, former Director-General of the British Chamber of Commerce and now Executive Director of the Centre for Brexit Policy.35Richard Tice. “Stop the betrayal of Brexit. Join us on the March to Leave.ConservativeHome, March 10, 2019. Archived May 3, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/D69H4 Its advisory board included MPs Sammy Wilson, Owen Paterson, Graham Stringer, Kate Hoey and Peter Bone. On a now-deleted page on the group’s website, Nigel Farage was listed as its Vice-Chair, along with Tice.36Who we are,” Leave Means Leave. Archived February 4, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/7rihv The group ceased to operate on January 31, 2020, the day Britain left the EU, with its website stating that it had “achieved its aims.”37Homepage,” Leave Means Leave. Archived August 26, 2020. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/HvizB A telephone number previously used by the group is in use as the contact number for the Economists for Free Trade (EFT) and the Centre for Brexit Policy (CBP)38Media,” Leave Means Leave. Archived March 14, 2018. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog. and has been linked39Contact,” Economists for Free Trade. Archived August 26, 2020. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/JRAcf to the office of Media Intelligence Partners.40Contact Us,” Centre for Brexit Policy. Archived August 26, 2020. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/f1Qg1 41Homepage,” Victoria Borwick – Conservative Campaigner and Activist (personal website.) Archived August 26, 2020. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/tIVdF

Business for Britain was a pro-Brexit campaign group for business leaders founded in 2013 by Matthew Elliott to push for a referendum on the UK’s membership of the EU.42Business for Britain Limited: Filing History,” Companies House. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/Shctk In 2014, it released a briefing paper on ‘Energy Policy and the EU, claiming that EU regulations and policy had driven up the cost of energy in the UK and recommending that the government should consider opting out of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme. Matt Ridley, an advisor to the GWPF, launched the Business for Britain North East branch,43Graeme Whitfield. “Anti-EU business campaign Business for Britain launches in County Durham,” Chronicle Live, January 5, 2016. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/6puhX and Lord Vinson acted as an advisor to the group. Founder Matthew Elliott44Matthew Elliott,” Brexit Central. Archived December 7, 2018. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog. announced the group’s closure in September 2016. 45Mike Kelly. “EU referendum: Viscount Ridley on why leaving Europe is best for the North East,” Chronicle Live, January 5, 2016. Archived May 20, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/5a1Hh 46Matthew Elliott. “How Business for Britain helped change the course of history in three short years,” Brexit Central, September 27, 2016. Archived August 26, 2020. Archive.fo: https://archive.fo/w0PIr

The European Foundation was a high-profile Eurosceptic thinktank47About,” European Foundation. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/reW2J formed in 1993 to oppose the Maastricht Treaty and chaired by Conservative MP Bill Cash. The group published a report in 2009 during the Copenhagen climate summit entitled “100 reasons why global warming is natural” which denied there is any proof that human influence has anything to do with climate change.48Martyn Brown. “100 reasons why global warming is natural,” The Express, December 15, 2009. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/XgJjS. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog. Members of the group’s advisory board included Matthew Elliott, Richard Smith, owner of 55 Tufton Street, the former UKIP MEP Roger Helmer, and Conservative MPs David Davis, Oliver Letwin, Bernard Jenkin, John Whittingdale, Graham Brady and Iain Duncan-Smith.49Personnel,” European Foundation. Archived October 23, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/syzEG Owen Paterson, former environment secretary and Chairman of UK2020, another organisation based at 55 Tufton Street,50Contact,” UK2020. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/SsRFi was also on the advisory board. As of August 2020, the European Foundation had not issued any new publications since July 201951Pamphlets, reports and working papers,” The European Foundation. Archived August 26, 2020. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/nVzWJ and its Twitter account had been suspended for violating the media platform’s rules.52@euro-freedom,” Twitter homepage. Archived August 26, 2020. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.

Global Vision was a Eurosceptic campaign group launched in 2007 by the Conservative peer Lord Blackwell, Chair of Lloyds Banking Group and a former Board Member of the Centre for Policy Studies, and Ruth Lea, Trustee of the Global Warming Policy Foundation and an advisor to the TaxPayers’ Alliance.53UK can shape new European relationship (Financial Times),” Centre for Policy Studies, January 7, 2013. Archived October 24, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/8c98Q According to its website, the group promoted “a constructive new relationship between the UK and Europe based on free trade and mutually beneficial cooperation, whilst opting out of the process of political and economic integration.”54Our Vision,” Global Vision. Archived October 24, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/hHPzC Its Economic Advisory Panel included Neil Record, Patrick Minford (Chair of Economists for Free Trade) and Eamonn Butler (Founder/Director of the Adam Smith Institute).55Economic Advisory Panel,” Global Vision. Archived October 24, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/bS4nr A now-deleted webpage listed MPs and peers belonging to the “Parliamentary Friends of Global Vision,” which included Bill Cash, Christopher Chope, Philip Davies, Peter Lilley and Lord Vinson.56Parliamentary Friends,” Global Vision. Archived February 7, 2012. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/w1gcz Its “Business Supporters” included oil and minerals businessman Algy Cluff, GWPF donor Michael Hintze, and Leader of the House of Commons Jacob Rees-Mogg.57Business Supporters,” Global Vision. Archived October 25, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/wT2W5 As of August 2020, the organisation was listed as active on Companies House however it has filed accounts as a “dormant company” on the website since 2016.58Global Vision for Britain Ltd – Overview,” Companies House. Archived August 26, 2020. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/21b4l 59Global Vision for Britain Ltd – Filing History,” Companies House. Archived August 26, 2020. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/trnGo In February 2020, a pro-Brexit media outlet named Global Vision was launched by Shanker Singham.60Shanker Singham, “It’s time to seize the opportunities of Brexit and embrace a Global Vision,” Global Vision UK, February 2, 2020. Archived August 18, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/Sj35A It is unclear whether the two organisations are otherwise related.61“Our Contributors,” Global Vision UK. Archived August 10, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/cqYjJ

55 Tufton Street Contact & Address

55 Tufton Street

Westminster

SW1P 3QL

57 Tufton Street

The building next door to 55 Tufton street also houses several other like-minded thinktanks.62Tufton Street,” Endole. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/tGbwO. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.

The Centre for Policy Studies is a free market thinktank, co-founded by Margaret Thatcher in 1974, five years before she was elected Prime Minister.63Who we are,” Centre for Policy Studies. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/tOFkr Lord Vinson was another co-founder of the organisation and subsequently served as Director.64Lord Vinson,” Parliament. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/VeAGP It regularly publishes work by climate science denier and anti-renewables advocate Rupert Darwall65Search Results for “darwall,” Centre for Policy Studies. Archived November 22, 2019. Archive URL: https://archive.ph/8fqO5 and runs the CapX news and comment website, which has published numerous articles by GWPF members criticising clean energy. Ahead of the UK‘s adoption of the Climate Change Act in 2008, it published a report casting doubt on climate science and arguing that energy policy should be based on long-term energy security rather than emissions reduction.66Martin Livermore. “Climate Change: a guide to the scientific uncertainties,” Centre for Policy Studies, March 2007. Archived October 25, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/l8WiH The group is chaired by the billionaire financier and Conservative donor, Michael Spencer, with Sir Graham Brady, Chair of the 1922 Committee of backbench Conservative MPs, acting as Deputy Chair.67Our Board,” Centre for Policy Studies. Archived August 26, 2020. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/PtY6K More recently the group has published a series of essays from Conservative politicians which called on the party to show leadership in tackling climate change68New Blue: Ideas for a new generation,” Centre for Policy Studies. Archived August 26, 2020. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog. and argued in favour of a carbon border tax.69Carbon border tax would stop Britain hiding its true carbon emissions,” Centre for Policy Studies, March 13, 2020. Archived August 26, 2020. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/6z2qy

Past residents

The Initiative for Free Trade (IFT) is a pro-Brexit, free trade thinktank launched in September 2017 by Boris Johnson and Liam Fox inside the Foreign Office.70Mat Hope. “Introducing the Institute for Free Trade: A New Pro-Brexit Thinktank tied to the UK’s Climate Science Denier Network,” DeSmog UK, September 27, 2017. The group’s president is former Eurosceptic MEP Daniel Hannan, who has downplayed the threat of climate change, believing humanity can adapt to any impacts “with a fractional sum of money.” Originally called the “Institute for Free Trade” before being forced to rename by Companies House, owing to legal requirements around the use of the word “institute”, it published a “blueprint” for a deregulatory USUK free trade deal in 2018, in partnership with the US-based libertarian thinktank the Cato Institute.71Felicity Lawrence, David Pegg, Rob Evans. “Rightwing thinktanks unveil radical plan for US-UK Brexit trade deal,” Guardian, September 18, 2018. Archived October 23, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/Fttto A number of long-time opponents of climate action are closely involved in the group, including former Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott and Conservative peer Peter Lilley.72About”, Initiative for Free Trade. Archived January 23, 2020. Archive.md URL: http://archive.md/os9Sy The group was previously based at 57 Tufton Street, according to Companies House records. It then moved to 10 Buckingham Street and in February 2020 changed its address to the office of a Birmingham accountancy firm run by Saqib Bhatti, newly elected Conservative MP for the West Midlands constituency of Meriden.73IFT LTD,” Companies House. Archived February 19, 2020. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/wip/a3CQ2

11 Tufton Street

Public First is a PR firm which aims to help its clients “understand and influence public opinion through research and targeted communications campaigns”, crafting “policy ideas that Governments can realistically apply to difficult issues”, according to its website.74Homepage,” Public First. Archived July 11, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/w1fbA

The company was founded by James Frayne,75Our people,” Public First. Archived July 11, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/77QIz a Conservative political strategist who has held roles at other PR companies such as Westbourne Communications and Portland Communications,76David Singleton. “Department for Education hires James Frayne as comms chief,” PR Week, February 24, 2011. Archived July 11, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/t1JW8 as well as having worked as Campaign Director at the Tufton-based Taxpayers’ Alliance77James Frayne,” Harriman House. Archived July 11, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/daUvj and as Director of Policy and Strategy at the right-leaning thinktank Policy Exchange.78James Frayne,” Policy Exchange. Archived July 11, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/DyaQ0

Natascha Engel, former Labour MP known for her strong pro-fracking stance, became a Partner at the firm in July 2019, leading the company’s “infrastructure and regulation” division.79Stephen Delahunty. “Public First hires former House of Commons deputy speaker,” PR Week, July 2, 2019. Archived July 11, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/uDxDH

2 Lord North Street 

Around the corner from Tufton Street is Lord North Street, which is home to the Institute of Economic Affairs.80Contact us,” Institute of Economic Affairs. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/C2m9X

The Institute of Economic Affairs is a free-market think-tank and “educational charity” founded in 1955 by the late Sir Anthony Fisher and Lord Harris with the mission “to improve understanding of the fundamental institutions of a free society by analysing and expounding the role of markets in solving economic and social problems.”81About us,” Institute of Economic Affairs. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/Mqkgc Trustees linked to 55 Tufton Street organisations include Lord Vinson, Neil Record, and Michael Hintze.82Trustees,” Institute of Economic Affairs. Archived December 7, 2018. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/7HGYF The IEA has received significant amounts of funding from anonymous donors through DonorsTrust, as well as yearly donations from oil giant BP, as revealed by Unearthed in 2018.83Lawrence Carter, Alice Ross. “Revealed: BP and gambling interests fund secretive free market think tank,” Unearthed, July 30, 2018. Archived May 3, 2019. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog. It has also taken donations from tobacco companies.84Health groups dismayed by news ‘big tobacco’ funded rightwing thinktanks.” The Observer, June 1, 2013. Archived September 29, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/TRdJz

23 Great Smith Street

The Adam Smith Institute is a libertarian thinktank founded in 1977 to promote free-market ideas. It has published numerous articles and reports casting doubt on climate science and downplaying the potential of alternatives to fossil fuels, calling solar power in Britain an “impossible dream.” The group has also taken donations from tobacco companies. Co-founder and Director Eamonn Butler sits on the Economic Advisory Board of now dormant Tufton Street organisation Global Vision.85Health groups dismayed by news ‘big tobacco’ funded rightwing thinktanks.” The Observer, June 1, 2013. Archived September 29, 2015. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/TRdJz 86Alex Singleton. “Parliament goes hostile on climate change,” Adam Smith Institute, September 11, 2013. Archived April 30, 2019. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog. 87SOLAR POWER IN BRITAIN: THE IMPOSSIBLE DREAM,” Adam Smith Institute, October 14, 2016. Archived January 10, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/sCktv

40 Great Smith Street

Open Europe is a Eurosceptic thinktank that has been accused of stoking anti-EU sentiment in the UK media. In 2010, the Economist described it as a “political campaign outfit” made up of a team of young researchers who “translate and link to stories that show the EU in a bad light, in a daily press summary that has very wide circulation among political reporters.”88Open Europe: the Eurosceptic group that controls British coverage of the EU,” Economist, March 31, 2010. Archived April 17, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/AbUEc In 2014, it published a report criticisng EU renewable energy targets which it said should be dropped “immediately”, recommending that the EU should “suspend its micromanaging energy policy-prescriptions.”89Rotten Foundations: Time to reassess the Europe 2020 climate change targets,” Open Europe, October 23, 2014. Archived October 23, 2019. Archive.fo URL: http://archive.fo/T0tRn In February 2020, it became part of the thinktank Policy Exchange, where its team will lead a new “Britain in the World Unit.”90Open Europe joins Policy Exchange,” Policy Exchange, February 7, 2020. Archived August 26, 2020. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/RvMbW

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