Mont Pelerin Society

The Mont Pelerin Society (MPS)


The Mont Pelerin Society (MPS) was created in 1947 by the free market economist and philosopher Friedrich von Hayek and advocates “classical liberalism,” an ideology classified by small government and minimal regulation of business. It was named after the location of the group’s first meeting in Switerland, and the group’s subsequent annual meetings have spanned the globe including Galapagos Islands, Prague (former Czech president Vaclav Klaus is a member), New York, Morocco, Tokyo, Sydney, Buenos Aires, and Stockholm. American economist Milton Friedman was also one of the founding members of the Society. [1], [2]

The 1995 book by the Liberty Fund, A History of the Mont Pelerin Society, describes the group as having “no demonstrably proven role in world affairs.” According to a short history of the MPS written by the group’s Vice President Eamonn Butler, it has “no official views, formulates no policies, publishes no manifestos, aligns itself with no party, and accepts no political or public funding.” Butler adds that it engages primarily in what he describes as the “battle of ideas,” and that it “has done more than just keep liberal ideas alive; it has expanded and deepened liberal philosophy and spread liberal thought across the globe.” The Road from Mont Pelerin (Harvard University Press, 2009) describes MPS as a “directory of organized neoliberalism.” [1], [3]

Given this abstract “battle of ideas,” it can be difficult to accurately gauge the precise influence of the Mont Pelerin Society on policy. However, the group’s influence can be seen by the overlap between many of its members and their affiliation with some of the largest conservative think tank across the United States, and around the world. DeSmog research found that Mont Pelerin Society members are affiliated with over 100 organizations that also appear on the membership list of the Atlas Network, a group SourceWatch describes as “The Johnny Appleseed of antiregulation groups.” Antony Fisher, a former Mont Pelerin Society Member, established both the Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA) in Europe, and the Atlas Economic Research Foundation. IEA‘s other co-founder, Arthur Seldon, was formerly vice president of the MPS[4], [5], [6]

The Atlas Society, not to be confused with the Atlas Network, also includes individuals with affiliations to MPS. According to DeSmog research, Mont Pelerin members have ties to a wide range of conservative think tanks, many which have consistently denied the human influence on climate change. Some of the top groups tied to MPS through affiliations of its members include the Cato Institute, The Hoover Institution, the Heritage Foundation, the Reason Foundation, the Foundation for Economic Education, the American Enterprise Institute, the Centre for the New Europe, George Mason University, Fraser Institute, Mercatus Center (George Mason University), and the Heartland Institute.

Membership lists obtained by DeSmog dating to 2010 and, more recently, 2013 show that organizations represented by the MPS have deep ties to the Koch network. Charles Koch himself is a long-standing member of the Society. DeSmog dug into individual member affiliations, and found that Koch foundations have poured more than $100 million into at least 54 groups connected to individual MPS members. [7]

Stance on Climate Change

Some sources have connected the proliferation of climate change denial organizations and think tanks with neoliberalism. A 2013 issue of the not-for-profit magazine Overland put it as follows: [8]

“Neoliberalism is a coherent political movement embodied in the institutional history of the global network of think tanks: the American Enterprise Institute, the Cato Institute, the Institute of Economic Affairs, the Institute of Public Affairs (the key Australian node of the network) and their dedicated spin-off counter-science think tanks. All can be traced back to the Mont Pelerin Society, the central think tank of the neoliberal counter-revolution, founded in 1947 by Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman.” [8]

Overland also equates the tactics of climate science denialism with that of the tobacco industry. [8]

“Each component of the neoliberal response is firmly grounded in neoliberal economic doctrine and has its own special function. Similar to the strategies of tobacco companies, science denialism is intended to quash immediate impulses to respond to the crisis, thus buying time for commercial interests to find a way to profit. The think tanks behind the denial of climate change don’t seriously believe they will, in the long run, win the war of ideas within academic science. But bashing pointy-headed elites lends them a certain populist cachet, while protecting the commercial interests of the oil companies, coal miners and gas drillers.

The project to institute markets in emission permits is a neoliberal mid-range strategy, better attuned to appeal to centrist governments, NGOs and the educated segments of the populace, as well as to the financial sector. […]” [8]

Writing at DeSmog, Graham Readfearn has noted that the Mont Pelerin Society has long been home to some of the most ardent supporters of climate change denial. [9]

September 2008

Vaclav Klaus, a Mont Pelerin Society member and long-time climate change denier, described climate change as an important part of the Mont Pelerin Society’s “agenda” during a MPS general meeting speech in Tokyo: [10]

“We should explain that the current world-wide dispute is not about temperature or C02. It is another variant of the old, well-known debate: freedom and free markets vs. dirigism, political control and regulation, or in other words, spontaneous evolution vs. the masterminding of human activity from above,” Klaus said. “It is again the old Misesian and Hayekian dilemma asking what is and what should be dominant: human action or human design.”

“ I consider environmentalism and its currently strongest version – climate alarmism – to be, at the beginning of the 21st century, the most effective and, therefore, the most dangerous vehicle for advocating, drafting and implementing large scale government intervention and for an unprecedented suppression of human freedom,” he added. [10]


While the Mont Pelerin Society itself claims that it “accepts no political or public funding,” organizations that its members are affiliated with have accepted large donations from conservative organizations including Koch family foundations – the Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation, the Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation and the David H. Koch Charitable Foundation. [1]

Data from publicly available 990s and the Conservative Transparency Database reveal a number of the Mont Pelerin Society’s donors. Note that not all individual values have been verified by DeSmog. [11]

View the attached spreadsheet for details on the Mont Pelerin Society’s direct funding by year (.xlsx).

Donor Total
Pierre F. and Enid Goodrich Foundation $580,000
Earhart Foundation $485,642
The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation $261,500
Aequus Institute $208,924
The Roe Foundation $155,000
Sarah Scaife Foundation $100,000
John M. Olin Foundation $83,000
The Carthage Foundation $35,000
Chase Foundation of Virginia $15,500
John Templeton Foundation $5,000
Neal and Jane Freeman Foundation $5,000
The Rodney Fund $5,000
DonorsTrust $3,000
Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation $1,000
William E. Simon Foundation $1,000
Grand Total $1,944,566

DonorsTrust Funding

George Monbiot, writing atThe Guardian in 2013, noted that the Mont Pelerin Society was on the list of recipients from Donors Trust/Donors Capital Fund, two sister organizations that had financed 102 organizations either dismissing climate change or downplaying the need to take action. [12]

Key People

Board of Directors


  2014-2016 2016-2018
Pedro Schwartz Giron  Y  
Peter J. Boettke    Y


  2014-2016 2016-2018
Eamonn Butler  Y  Y


  2014-2016 2016-2018
J.R. Clark (Jeff)  Y  Y

Vice President

  2014-2016 2016-2018
Gerhard Schwarz  Y  
Pedro Schwartz Giron    Y


  2014-2016 2016-2018
Allan Meltzer  Y  Y
Gabriel Calzada  Y  Y
Jeff Bennett  Y  Y
Jiri Schwarz  Y  
Johan Norberg  Y  
John Taylor  Y  Y
Kevin Murphy  Y  
Linda Whetstone  Y  
Margaret Tse  Y  Y
Nils Karlson    Y
Richard Wong  Y  
Ruth Richardson    Y
Yuko Arayama  Y  Y

Executive Committee

  2014-2016 2016-2018
Eamonn Butler  Y  Y
J.R. Clark (Jeff)  Y  Y
Pedro Schwartz Giron  Y  Y
Peter J. Boettke    Y

Past Presidents [34]

Name Location Year
F. A. von Hayek United Kingdom 1947-61
Herbert Giersch Germany 1986-88
Wilhelm Ropke Switzerland 1961-62
Antonio Martino Italy 1988-90
John Jewkes United Kingdom 1962-64
Gary Becker United States 1990-92
Friedrich Lutz Germany 1964-67
Max Hartwell United Kingdom 1992-94
Bruno Leoni Italy 1967-68
Pascal Salin France 1994-96
Günter Schmölders Germany 1968-70
Edwin J. Feulner United States 1996-98
Milton Friedman United States 1970-72
Ramon P. Diaz Uruguay 1998-00
Arthur Shenfield United Kingdom 1972-74
Christian Watrin Germany 2000-02
Gaston Leduc France 1974-76
Leonard P. Liggio United States 2002-04
George Stigler United States 1976-78
Victoria Curzon-Price Switzerland 2004-06
Manuel Ayau Guatemala 1978-80
Greg Lindsay Australia 2006-08
Chiaki Nishiyama Japan 1980-82
Deepak Lal United States 2008-10
Lord Harris of High Cross United Kingdom 1982-84
Kenneth Minogue United Kingdom 2010-12
James Buchanan United States 1984-86
Allen H. Meltzer United States 2012-14
Pedro Schwartz Girón Spain 2014-16
Peter J. Boettke United States 2016-18

Membership Documents

2013 Membership Listing

View the most recent MPS membership list, dated 2013, obtained by DeSmog here. This list includes members listed in 2010 documents below, plus new members and with recently deceased members removed. Identifying information has been redacted to protect individual members’ privacy. [13]

2010 Membership List

In 2014, DeSmog obtained and analyzed a 2010 membership list including nearly 500 people from 52 countries, including notable names like Charles Koch who has been a member since 1970. That list also included a range of people representing think tanks pushing for climate change skepticism. At the time, at least 12 of the groups represented on the MPS list had accepted funding from one of the three Koch family foundations – the Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation, the Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation and the David H. Koch Charitable Foundation. [9], [14]

In Australia, Mont Pelerin Society members include John Roskam, executive director of the Institute of Public Affairs; Greg Lindsay, executive director of the Centre for Independent Studies; and mining magnate Ron Manners, executive director of the pro-mining think tank the Mannkal Economic Education Foundation. [9]

In addition to Charles Koch, U.S. representatives included representatives from groups his family foundations have helped to fund such as the Cato Institute, Heritage Foundation, the Acton Institute, the Reason Foundation and the American Enterprise Institute. [9]

Other members include Wall Street Journal editor and columnist Mary O’Grady and John O’Sullivan, a columnist with the conservative National Review[9]

In the UK, MPS representatives included people from The Adam Smith Institute, CIVITAS and the Institute of Economic Affairs have also gained membership with the Mont Pelerin Society. Noted climate change denier Julian Morris is also listed as a member. [9]

Another UK member is Linda Whetstone, the daughter of Antony Fisher who founded the influential UK neo-liberal think tank, the Institute of Economic Affairs. Antony Fisher established the Atlas Economic Research Foundation – a vast network of about 400 think tanks around the world that share the ideals of limiting the power of government. Alejandro Chafuen, the current president of Atlas, is also listed as a 2010 Mont Pelerin Society member. [9]

Mont Pelerin Society Members

Below is the listing of members from the 2010 directory, and new names as of 2013 membership documents:

1Lifetime Member
2Former President

Name Directory 2010 New in 2013 Directory Membership Year
A. James Meigs1 Y   1971
A. Lawrence Chickering Y   1984
Adolfo Gutierrez   Y 2011
Adrian Moore Y   2007
Adrian Ravier   Y 2011
Agustin Navarro Y   1976
Alain Mathieu   Y 2011
Alan Charles Kors   Y 2011
Alan L. Olmstead Y   2002
Alan Moran   Y 2011
Alan Reynolds Y   1974
Alan Rufus Waters1 Y   1976
Alan T. Gibbs Y   1990
Alberto Benegas – Lynch, Jr. Y   1978
Alberto del Corral, Sr.1 Y   1965
Alberto Mingardi   Y 2011
Alejandro A. Chafuen Y   1980
Alex Robson   Y 2010
Alfred Bosch1 Y   1962
Alfredo Bullard   Y 2011
Allan H. Meltzer (1928-2017)1 Y   1990
Alvin Rabushka Y   1974
Alvino-Mario Fantin   Y 2012
Amir Khan   Y 2011
Amity Shlaes Y   2008
Amy Sturgis   Y 2011
Amy Willis   Y 2011
Andre Azevedo Alves   Y 2011
Andrei Illarionov Y   2004
Andres Mejia Vergnaud   Y 2011
Andrew Haldenby   Y 2011
Andrew J Rettenmaier Y   2004
Andrew Morriss Y   2008
Andrew Norton Y   2004
Andrzej Brzeski1 Y   1974
Angel Soto   Y 2011
Angelo M. Petroni1 Y   1988
Angelo Santagostino   Y 2012
Anja Kluever-Merz Y   2000
Annelise Anderson Y   1980
Annette Godartvan der Kroon Y   1996
Anthony (Terry) Easton Y   2007
Anthony de Jasay1 Y   1988
Anthony Randazzo   Y 2012
Antonio Argandona Y   1984
Antonio Martino2 Y   1976
Armeane Choksi   Y 2010
Armen A. Alchian (1914-2013) Y   1957
Arnold C. Harberger Y   1994
Artur Woll1 Y   1971
Ashok V Desai Y   2004
Atilla Yayla Y   1998
Barbara Dluhosch Y   2002
Barbara Kolm Y   2004
Barbara Lal   Y 2010
Barry Bracewell-Milnes1 Y   1973
Barry Russell Maley Y   2000
Barun S. Mitra Y   2002
Ben Rast Y   2008
Benedikt Koehler Y   2007
Benito Solis Mendoza   Y 2012
Benjamin Klein1 Y   1972
Benjamin Powell Y   2007
Benjamin Zycher Y   2004
Bernhard Felderer Y   1988
Bertrand Jacquillat Y   1986
Bertrand Lemennicier Y   1992
Beryl W. Sprinkel (1923-2009)1 Y   1978
Beverly Danielson Y   2007
Bibek Debroy Y   2004
Blazej Moder   Y 2011
Bob Day   Y 2012
Boudewijn R.A. Bouckaert Y   1984
Brad Lips   Y 2011
Bradley K. Hobbs   Y 2010
Brett Schaefer   Y 2012
Brian Benfield Y   2004
Brian Lee Crowley Y   2002
Brian Wesbury Y   2008
Bridgett Wagner Y   2002
Bruce Benson Y   2007
Bruce Caldwell   Y 2010
Bruce N. Ames1 Y   1990
Bryce Derek Wilkinson Y   2000
Burkhard Koch Y   2002
Byeong-­Ho Gong Y   1998
C. Bradley Thompson   Y 2012
C. K. Rowley Y   1971
C. Marcel Guarnizo   Y 2010
Candido Jose Mendes Prunes Y   2004
Carl-Johan Westholm Y   1980
Carlos A. Ball Y   1986
Carlos F. Caceres Y   1981
Carlos Rodriguez Braun Y   1996
Carlos Sabino Y   2000
Carlos Zuloaga   Y 2012
Carolina de Bolivar Y   1987
Caroline Muhlfenzl Y   1998
Carroll Rodriguez   Y 2010
Casper Hunnerup Dahl   Y 2012
Catherine M. Blight1 Y   1988
Cecile Philippe   Y 2012
Charles Blankart Y   1990
Charles C. Cox Y   1984
Charles G. Koch Y   1970
Charles H. Brunie (1930-2017) Y   1978
Charles Moore   Y 2011
Charles Murray Y   2000
Charles Plott Y   1986
Charles W. Baird Y   1986
Chen Sun Y   1988
Chiaki Nishiyama1,2 Y   1965
Chien-Sheng Shih1 Y   1964
Chris Berg   Y 2011
Chris L. Talley Y   2004
Christian Larroulet Vignau Y   1996
Christian Sandstrom   Y 2012
Christian Watrin1,2 Y   1967
Christine Henderson Y   2008
Christof Zellenberg   Y 2012
Christoph Kraus Y   1994
Christoph Watrin Y   1998
Christopher Lingle Y   2000
Clark Judge   Y 2012
Claudia Rosett Y   1988
Colin D. Campbell1 Y   1971
Colleen Dyble Y   2008
Colleen Haight   Y 2011
Cotton Lindsay (1940-2015) Y   1969
D. Bruce Johnsen Y   1996
Dalibor Rohac   Y 2011
Dan Grossman Y   2008
Daniel Cordova Y   2007
Daniel Doron Y   1994
Daniel Green   Y 2012
Daniel Klein Y   2008
Daniel Mitchell Y   2002
Daniel Oliver Y   1986
Daniel S. Peters Y   1998
Daniel Wagniere   Y 2010
Danny J. Boggs Y   1971
Darryn Jensen   Y 2012
David Addington   Y 2012
David Archibald   Y 2011
David B. Kennedy1 Y   1994
David Boaz Y   1998
David C. Rose Y   2004
David Coltart MP   Y 2011
David E. Gay Y   1984
David Friedman Y   1974
David G. Green Y   1992
David I. Fand Y   1988
David I. Meiselman (1924-2014)1 Y   1968
David Keyston (1925-2016)1 Y   1971
David Levy   Y 2012
David Macpherson   Y 2010
David Morrison Y   2004
David Nott Y   2004
David O’Mahony1 Y   1976
David R. Henderson Y   1980
David Sanz Bas   Y 2012
David Tuerck   Y 2011
Debi Ghate   Y 2012
Deepak Lal Y   1986
Deirdre Mccloskey   Y 2011
Dennis E. Logue Y   1984
Dennis L. Bark Y   1972
Derwood S. Chase Jr. Y   2004
Detmar Doering Y   1996
Diana Denman   Y 2012
Dick Larry1 Y   1976
Digby Anderson Y   1982
Dominique Lazanski   Y 2012
Donald House Sr.   Y 2010
Donald J. Devine Y   1976
Dora de Ampuero Y   2000
Douglas B. Rasmussen Y   2007
Douglas H. Ginsburg Y   1996
Douglas J. Den Uyl Y   2004
Douglas K. Adie Y   1976
Douglas L. Bandow1 Y   2004
Dragan Lakicevic Y   2002
Dusan Triska   Y 2012
Dwight R. Lee Y   1984
E. Heuss1 Y   1965
Eamonn Butler Y   1984
Eduard J. Bomhoff Y   1990
Eduardo A. Mayora Y   1996
Eduardo Abril   Y 2012
Eduardo Helguera Y   1988
Eduardo Marty Y   2004
Eduardo Stordeur   Y 2012
Edward H. Crane Y   1986
Edward Lopez   Y 2011
Edward Rule   Y 2010
Edward Stringham Y   2007
Edwin J. Feulner2 Y   1972
Edwin Meese, III1 Y   1980
Edwin Van De Haar   Y 2011
Ekkehard Wenger Y   1990
Elena Leontjeva Y   2004
Emilio Pacheco Y   1998
EmilXMaria Claassen Y   1990
Emmanuel Martin   Y 2011
Enrique AltamiranoMadriz Y   1968
Enrique Ghersi Y   1994
Enrique S. Sanchez Y   1968
Ephraim Gildor   Y 2012
Eric Crampton   Y 2010
Erich Weede Y   1992
ErnstJoachim Mestmaecker1 Y   1962
Esserrhini Farissi   Y 2011
Esteban F. Thomsen Y   1988
Eustace G. Davie1 Y   1984
F. William Ballou1 Y   1969
Federico Salazar   Y 2011
Felix R. Montes1 Y   1976
Fernando Linares Beltranena Y   1976
Fernando Monterroso Y   1994
Flavia Santinoni Vera   Y 2012
Florin Aftalion Y   1990
Francisco Cabrillo Y   1990
Francisco Garces G.1 Y   1998
Francisco Perez de Anton Y   1980
Frank H. Easterbrook Y   1986
Frank van Dun Y   1984
Franz Schellhorn   Y 2012
Fred Aftalion1 Y   1971
Fred Mcmahon   Y 2011
Fred R. Glahe1 Y   1976
Fred S. McChesney Y   1996
Fred Smith Jr.   Y 2012
Fred Young Y   2007
Frederic Fransen Y   2007
Fredrik Bergstrom Y   2004
Fritz Thomas Y   2007
Gabriel Calzada   Y 2012
Gabriel Roth Y   2002
Gabriel Stein Y   2004
Gareth Malcolm Bloor   Y 2011
Gary D. Libecap Y   1992
Gary S. Becker (1930-2014)2 Y   1969
Gary Sturgess Y   1996
Geld Haberman Y   2000
Geoffrey Brennan Y   1987
Geoffrey Hogbin   Y 2011
George H. Pearson Y   1971
George Koether (1907-2006)1 Y   1959
George L. Priest Y   1994
George Reisman1 Y   1986
George Shultz Y   1978
George Szasz1 Y   1972
George W. Hilton1 Y   1962
Gerald Dwyer   Y 2010
Gerald H. Fickenscher Y   2004
Gerald P. O’Driscoll, Jr. Y   1976
Gerard Bramoulle Y   1998
Gerardo Bongiovanni Y   2007
Gerhard Schwarz Y   1986
German Concha   Y 2011
Gerrit Meijer Y   1988
Gerry Ohrstrom Y   2007
Giancarlo Ibarguen S. (1963-2016) Y   1998
Gilles Saint-paul   Y 2011
Giuseppe Marzano   Y 2011
Gonzalo Melian Marrero   Y 2012
Gordon L. Brady Y   1994
Gordon St. Angelo (1927-2011) Y   1980
Gordon Tullock (1922-2014) Y   1962
Greg Lindsay AO2 Y   1982
Gregory Christainsen Y   1988
Guido Pincione   Y 2012
Guillermo Cabieses   Y 2011
Guillermo Lousteau   Y 2012
Guillermo M. Yeatts Y   1998
Guity Nashat Y   1988
Gustav E. Grisard1 Y   1990
Gustav Von Hertzen (1930-2013)   Y 2012
Guy Plunier1 Y   1982
H. C. Erich Hoppmann (1923-2007)1 Y   1969
H. Joachim Maitre1 Y   1980
H.G. Monissen Y   1980
Hakan G. Gergils Y   1998
Hanne Janes Y   1990
Hannes H. Gissurarson Y   1984
Hans Otto Lenel (1917-2016)1 Y   1964
Hans Willgerodt1 Y   1959
Hardy Bouillon Y   1992
Harold Demsetz1 Y   1965
Harry Teasley, Jr.1 Y   1998
Hartmut Kliemt Y   1990
Hector Siracusano1 Y   1994
Heinrich Treichl Y   1996
Heinrich W. Ursprung Y   1990
Hendrik Heinze   Y 2011
Henri Chazan Y   2008
Henri Lepage Y   1978
Henrik Jordahl   Y 2010
Henry Gailliot Y   2002
Henry Maksoud (1929-2014)1 Y   1978
Henry Manne (1928-2015)1 Y   1968
Henry N. Butler Y   1996
Herbert Grubel1 Y   1988
Herman J. Obermayer (1924-2016) Y   2000
Hermann May1 Y   1994
Hilton Root Y   2000
Hisashi Yamada Y   2000
Holger Schmieding Y   1992
Hubertus von Welck Y   2007
Hugo J. van Reijen Y   2007
Ian Vasquez Y   2000
Ignacio Ibanez Ferrandiz   Y 2012
Inchul Kim   Y 2010
Ingrid Gregg Y   2002
Isaac Ehrlich Y   1998
Isabel Muehlfenzl1 Y   1982
Israel M. Kirzner1 Y   1967
Itaru Shimazu Y   1996
Ivan Alonso Y   2008
Ivan Svejna Y   2002
J. Clayburn LaForce Y   1976
Jacques Garello Y   1982
Jacques Raiman Y   1990
Jagadeesh Gokhale   Y 2010
James A. Dorn Y   1990
James A. Sadowsk1 Y   1984
James Allan   Y 2010
James Cox PSM   Y 2011
James Gwartney Y   1986
James Lawson   Y 2011
James M. Buchanan1,2 Y   1957
James Otteson Y   2008
James Piereson Y   2000
James Q. Whitaker Y   2005
James R. Lothian Y   1982
James Shikwati Y   2005
James T. Bennett Y   1982
James Tooley Y   2002
Jameson Campaigne, Jr. Y   1971
Jan Brzeski Y   2007
Jan Lombard1 Y   1978
Jan Pavlik   Y 2010
Jan Winiecki (1938-2016) Y   1992
Janet Albrechttsen   Y 2011
Jargalsaikhan Dambadarjaa Y   2008
Jason Potts   Y 2011
JeanLuc Migue Y   2000
JeanPierre Centi Y   1992
JeanXJacques Rosa Y   1992
Jeff Bennett Y   2008
Jeff R. Clark Y   1996
Jeff Sandefer Y   2004
Jeffrey Rogers Hummel Y   2007
Jennifer Roback Morse Y   1988
Jenny Lindsay   Y 2010
Jerry L. Jordan Y   1988
Jesus Huerta de Soto Y   1982
Jiri Schwarz Y   1994
Jiri Weigl   Y 2012
Jo Ann Kwong Y   1996
Joachim Starbatty Y   2004
Joaquin P. Trigo Y   1992
Joel M. Stern Y   1996
Johan Norberg Y   2002
John A. Baden Y   1988
John B. Egger Y   1976
John Barry Y   2008
John Blundell (1952-2014) Y   1990
John Chisholm   Y 2012
John Exter (1910-2006)1 Y   1974
John G. Greenwood Y   1978
John Garen   Y 2010
John Goodman Y   1988
John H. Haring Y   2002
John H. Moore Y   1969
John Howard   Y 2010
John Humphreys   Y 2011
John L. McCormack Y   2004
John Lee   Y 2010
John Malek Y   2008
John O’Sullivan Y   1971
John Raisian Y   1992
John Roskam Y   2008
John Stone Y   2008
John Sullivan   Y 2012
John Taylor Y   2008
John Van Huyck   Y 2010
Jonathan Crowe   Y 2011
Jonathan H. Adler Y   2004
Jonathan R. Macey Y   1998
Jorge Selume Zaror Y   2004
Jose L. Carvalho Y   2000
Jose Luis Sardon Y   2008
Jose Manuel Moreira Y   1996
Jose Osvaldo de Meira Penna1 Y   1994
Jose Rene Scull Y   1998
Jose T. Raga Y   1984
Joseph Aschheim1 Y   1959
Joshua Hall   Y 2011
Juan Couyoumdjian Y   2008
Juan Garrido   Y 2011
Juan Hidalgo   Y 2012
Juan Rosell Y   2002
Juan Torras Y   1990
Juel Briggs   Y 2011
Julian Morris Y   2002
Juliane Bernholz Cavalli Y   1996
Julie Novak   Y 2011
Julio Pascual Y   1974
Karen Horn Y   2000
Karl Peter Schwarz Y   2002
Ken Schoolland Y   2008
Kenji Komatsu1 Y   1978
Kenneth Lehn Y   1986
Kenneth Minogue (1930-2013)1 Y   1998
Kenneth Sheffer   Y 2012
Kenneth W. Clarkson Y   1982
Kevin Murphy Y   2008
Khalil Ahmad   Y 2011
Krassen Stanchev S.   Y 2010
Larry P. Arnn Y   1996
Lars Christensen   Y 2012
Lars Nordbakken   Y 2011
Lars P. Feld Y   2008
Lawrence H. White Y   2004
Lawrence Mone   Y 2011
Lawrence Reed   Y 2011
Leland B. Yeager1 Y   1957
Lenore Hawkins   Y 2011
Leon Gomez Rivas M.   Y 2011
Leon M. Louw Y   1978
Leonard P. Liggio (1933-2014)1,2 Y   1984
Leonid Nikonov   Y 2011
Leonidas Zelmanovitz Y   2004
Linda Whetstone Y   1976
Ljubo Sirc (1920-2016)1 Y   1965
Lorenzo Bernaldo De Quiros   Y 2011
Louis De Alessi1 Y   1984
Lovett C. Peters1 Y   1984
Lowell C. Smith (1921-2016)1 Y   1988
Luis A. Pazoz de la Torre Y   1982
Luis Larraín Arroyo Y   2004
Luis Reig Y   1965
Lydia Ortega Y   2004
Lynne Kiesling   Y 2012
M.A.G Van Meerhaeghe1 Y   1988
Madsen Pirie Y   1976
Mahesh P. Bhatt1 Y   1980
Maja Drakic Grgur   Y 2012
Mamadou Koulibaly   Y 2010
Manfred E. Streit Y   1986
Manuel Sanchez Y   2002
Marc Cools   Y 2012
Marc Sidwell   Y 2012
Márcio Chalegre Coimbra Y   2007
Margaret Tse Y   2008
Maria de Los Angeles Murillo Penaranda Y   2004
Maria Gabriela Mrad Y   2002
Marian Tupy   Y 2012
Marilyn Flowers Y   1984
Mario Villarreal   Y 2012
Marjorie Seldon1 Y   1990
Mark A. Skousen Y   2002
Mark Littlewood   Y 2011
Mark Pennington Y   2008
Markus Rothkopf Y   2004
Marsha Ard Y   1990
Mart Laar Y   2007
Martin Anderson (1936-2015) Y   1965
Martin Janssen Y   1987
Martin Krause Y   2000
Martin Simonetta   Y 2011
Martin Wassell Y   1978
Marty Zupan Y   2008
Mary Bennett Peterson1 Y   1968
Mary O’Grady Y   2008
Massimiliano Neri   Y 2012
Mathieu Laine   Y 2012
Mats Johansson (1951-2017) Y   1990
Matt Kibbe   Y 2010
Maurice L. Newman AC Y   1976
Meinolf Dierkes Y   1980
Meir Zylberberg1 Y   1969
Mercedes Pizarro Santos   Y 2011
Micah Frankel Y   2007
Michael Boeheim   Y 2012
Michael Darling Y   2007
Michael De Alessi Y   2000
Michael Folie   Y 2011
Michael J. Novak, Jr. (1933-2017)1 Y   1992
Michael Parkin Y   1986
Michael R. Darby Y   1976
Michael Walker Y   1982
Michael Wohlgemuth Y   2007
Michael Zoeller Y   1992
Michel Kelly Gagnon Y   2004
Michelle Vachris   Y 2012
Milica Vukotic   Y 2010
Milorad Katnic   Y 2011
Mohit Satyanand   Y 2011
Montgomery Brown   Y 2010
Morton C. Blackwell Y   2007
Motoo Kaji1 Y   1976
N. Raymond Evans Y   1988
Nand Kishore Singh   Y 2011
Naomi Moldofsky1 Y   1976
Neera Badhwar   Y 2010
Neville Kennard Y   2007
Niall Ferguson   Y 2011
Niclas Berggren Y   2004
Nicolas Herrera Y   2007
Nicolas Marques   Y 2012
Nigel Ashford   Y 2010
Nikolai Wenzel   Y 2011
Nils Karlson Y   1998
NilsXEric Sandberg Y   1988
Nobuyuki Nakahara Y   1970
Nouh Harmouzi   Y 2011
Oliver Knipping   Y 2012
Oliver Marc Hartwich   Y 2010
Orlando de Sola Y   1982
Oscar E. Schnell Y   1992
Otto BronsPetersen Y   1996
Otto von Habsburg (1912-2011)1 Y   1960
Owen R. Smith Y   2000
Pablo Martinez Y   2004
Parth Shah Y   2000
Pascal Salin2 Y   1980
Patrick J. Parker1 Y   1971
Patrick Welter Y   1998
Paul A. Hatry1 Y   1969
Paul Aligica Dragos   Y 2012
Paul Belien Y   1996
Paul de Valensart Schoenmaeckers Y   1984
Paul H. Rubin Y   2004
Paul L. Poirot1 Y   1966
Paul Oslington   Y 2011
Paul W. McCracken Y   1968
Pauline Dixon   Y 2011
Pawel Lisiewicz   Y 2012
Pedro Schwartz Giron Y   1979
Petar Ivanovic Y   2007
Peter Bernholz1 Y   1976
Peter Holle Y   2007
Peter J. Boettke Y   1996
Peter J. Boxall AO   Y 2011
Peter J. Duignan (1926-2012) Y   1982
Peter J. Hill Y   1992
Peter Jungen   Y 2010
Peter Kaznacheev Y   2004
Peter KurrildKlitgaard Y   1998
Peter Lewin Y   2007
Peter Mentzel   Y 2011
Peter Stein Y   1990
Peter Whybrow   Y 2011
Petri Kajander   Y 2011
Philip Booth Y   2008
Philippe Nemo   Y 2012
Phillip N. Truluck Y   1990
Phillipp Bagus   Y 2012
Pierre Bessard Y   2007
Pierre Garello Y   2000
Pramit Pal Chaudhuri Y   2004
Pythagoras Petratos   Y 2012
R. H. Coase1 Y   1948
Rakesh Wadhwa Y   2004
Ralph Raico (1936-2016) Y   1996
Ramiro Alfaro1 Y   1982
Ramon P. Diaz (1926-2017)1,2 Y   1969
Ramon Parellada   Y 2011
Randall Holcombe Y   2007
Randy E. Barnett Y   1998
Ray Ball Y   1986
Razeen Sally   Y 2011
Reed Larson1 Y   1978
Rhodes Boyson (1925-2012)1 Y   1974
Ricardo Zuloaga (1919-2011)1 Y   1976
Richard A. Bilas1 Y   1976
Richard A. Ware1 Y   1970
Richard Armey Y   1998
Richard B. Bleiberg Y   1988
Richard Ebeling Y   1998
Richard Epstein Y   1990
Richard L. Stroup Y   1986
Richard Lanham   Y 2011
Richard Shields Y   2008
Richard W. Duesenberg Y   1986
Richard W. Rahn Y   1984
Richard YueChim Wong Y   1992
Richard Zundritsch   Y 2012
Rita Ricardo-Campbell1 Y   1959
Riyad Hammad   Y 2011
Robert A. Lawson Y   2004
Robert A. Sirico Y   1990
Robert Carling   Y 2011
Robert E. Leu Y   1990
Robert Formaini Y   2004
Robert Ian Mcewin   Y 2010
Robert J. Barro Y   1990
Robert L. Schuettinger1 Y   1964
Robert M. Gaylord, Jr. (1916-2006)1 Y   1969
Robert Nef Nyffeler Y   2000
Robert Poole, Jr. Y   1988
Robert Reilly Y   1984
Robert Sauer Y   2007
Robert W. Vivian Y   2002
Roberto C. Rios1 Y   1976
Roberto Perez   Y 2011
Roberto Salinas-Leon Y   1992
Roberto Salinas­Price Y   1982
Rocio Guijarro   Y 2011
Roger Bate Y   2002
Roger Douglas1 Y   1998
Roger Fox Y   2007
Roger Garrison   Y 2011
Roger L. Kerr (1945-2011) Y   1986
Roger Ream   Y 2012
Roland Baader (1940-2012) Y   1996
Roland Tichy Y   2002
Roland Vaubel Y   1978
Romulo Lopez   Y 2011
Romulo Lopez-Sabando Y   2000
Ronald A. Cass Y   1992
Ronald Brown Manners1 Y   1998
Ronald Hamowy Y   1964
Ronald Jones Y   2000
Ronald Kitching1 Y   1978
Ronald L. Trowbridge1 Y   1980
Roszell Hunter Y   2000
Roy E. Cordato Y   2004
Roy Marden Y   1998
Russell S. Sobel Y   2007
Ruta Vainiene   Y 2012
Ruth Richardson Y   1996
Sally Pipes Y   1986
Sam Peltzman Y   1969
Saminathan S. Aiyar Y   2004
Samuel Gregg Y   2004
Samuel H. Husbands, Jr.1 Y   1969
Sandra Peart   Y 2012
Sayo Kaji1 Y   1974
Scott Beaulier   Y 2011
Sergio Ricossa (1927-2016)1 Y   1960
Serguey Braguinsky Y   2000
Seth G. Atwood Y   1972
Shinichi Ichimura Y   1971
Shoichi Ito Y   2007
Siegfried Herzog   Y 2011
Sinclair Davidson   Y 2011
Stan Liebowitz   Y 2011
Stefan Kolev   Y 2012
Stephen Davies   Y 2011
Stephen Kirchner   Y 2010
Stephen Klimczuk   Y 2012
Stephen Littlechild Y   1976
Steven Cheung Y   1977
Steven G. Horwitz Y   1996
Steven Kates   Y 2011
Steven Schwartz   Y 2010
Stuart Butler Y   1992
Sture Eskilsson (1930-2016)1 Y   1982
Suri Ratnapala Y   1998
Surjit Bhalla Y   2004
Surse Pierpoint   Y 2012
T. Alan Russell Y   1994
Tanveer Ahmed   Y 2011
Teizo Taya Y   1988
Temba Nolutshungu Y   2004
Terence Kealey   Y 2010
Terry Anderson Y   1988
Terry Anker   Y 2011
The Lord Howe Of Aberavon1 Y   1969
Theresa Kibbe   Y 2010
Thomas Borcherding (1939-2014) Y   1986
Thomas C. Stevens1 Y   1968
Thomas DiLorenzo Y   1990
Thomas Gale Moore Y   2007
Thomas Hazlett Y   1990
Thomas R. Saving1 Y   1972
Thomas Sowell Y   1982
Thor Bang1 Y   1982
Tibor R. Machan (1939-2016) Y   1980
Tim Congdon CBE   Y 2010
Tim Wilson   Y 2012
Timothy Browne Y   2002
Timothy Evans Y   2007
Timothy Goodman Y   2004
Ting-An Chen1 Y   1988
Tom G. Palmer Y   2002
Toshio Murata Y   1974
Ulrich Van Lith Y   1990
Uwe Johannen Y   2007
Vaclav Klaus Y   1990
Vernon L. Smith1 Y   1978
Veronique de Rugy Y   2002
Veselin Vukotic Y   2002
Victoria Curzon-Price2 Y   1980
Viktor Vanberg Y   1988
Vladimir Chelminski Y   1998
W. Duncan Reekie Y   1990
W. Lee Hoskins Y   1990
W. Michael Cox Y   2007
W. Russell Lewis1 Y   1971
W.C. Stubblebine1 Y   1970
Walter Block Y   1984
Walter Castro   Y 2011
Walter E. Williams1 Y   1980
Walter Hamm1 Y   1969
Walter R. Livingston1 Y   1966
Wan Saiful Wan Jan   Y 2011
Warren L. Coats Y   1976
Wayne K. Adams1 Y   1986
Wernhard Moeschel Y   1988
William Beach Y   2002
William Breit (1933-2011)1 Y   1968
William Easterly   Y 2011
William F. Campbell Y   1974
William H. Adams1 Y   1978
William H. Mellor, III Y   1996
William H. Peterson (1921-2012)1 Y   1968
William Niskanen (1933-2011)1 Y   1990
William Sumner Y   1998
William W. Caruth Y   2004
Wolfgang Kasper Y   1988
Wolfgang Muller1 Y   2008
Wolfram Fischer1 Y   1982
Yaron Brook   Y 2011
Yasushi Ogasawara Y   2007
Yevgeny Volk Y   2004
Yoichi Masuzoe Y   2002
Yoshinori Shimizu Y   1994
Yoshio Suzuki1 Y   1982
Yuan li Wu Y   1970
Yuji Shimanaka Y   1988
Yuko Arayama Y   2007
Zoran Djikanovic Y   2008

Representation by Organization

Methodology for Affiliations: Listed organization affiliations range from high ranking positions like “Director” or “President” of a group to lesser affiliations like fellowships and study authors. All information on affiliations has been retrieved from a combination of original Mont Pelerin Society membership documents, SourceWatch, ExxonSecrets, or easily verified web records. Note that not all SourceWatch or ExxonSecrets records have had original sources verified by DeSmog.

Organization # of Individuals with MPS Affiliations
Cato Institute 55
The Hoover Institution 24
The Independent Institute 23
Institute of Economic Affairs 22
Heritage Foundation 18
Reason Foundation 18
Foundation for Economic Education 17
American Enterprise Institute 16
Atlas Network 16
Centre for the New Europe 14
George Mason University 14
Fraser Institute 13
Mercatus Center 12
Heartland Institute 12
Institute of Public Affairs 12
Acton Institute 9
Reagan Administration 8
Institute for Humane Studies at George Mason University 8
Property and Environment Research Center 8
Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow 8
Cash for Comments Economists Network 8
Pacific Research Institute 7
Philadelphia Society 7
Competitive Enterprise Institute 7
Institute for Free Enterprise 6
Centre for Independent Studies 6
Ludwig von Mises Institute 6
Manhattan Institute 5
International Policy Network 5
Virginia Institute for Public Policy 5
American Council on Science and Health 4
State Policy Network 4
Frontier Centre for Public Policy 4
Centre for Policy Studies 4
The Free Market Foundation 4
Adam Smith Institute 4
National Center for Policy Analysis 4
Instituto Juan de Mariana 4
Institute for Justice 4
Social Affairs Unit 3
Capital Research Center 3
Tax Payers Alliance 3
Philanthropy Roundtable 3
Liberal Party of Australia 3
E.G. West Centre 3
Public Choice Society 3
The Adam Smith Institute 3
Liberty Institute 3
American Council for Capital Formation 3
The Rand Corporation 3
James Madison Institute 3
Samuel Griffith Society 3
Initiative for Public Policy Analysis 3
Consumer Alert 2
International Climate Science Coalition 2
European Institute for Climate and Energy 2
Locke Institute 2
Center for International Private Enterprise 2
Center for the Study of Public Choice 2
Council for National Policy 2
Mackinac Center for Public Policy 2
Instituto Liberdade 2
George Marshall Institute 2
American Friends of the Institute for Economic Affairs 2
Menzies Research Centre 2
Free Market Foundation 2
American Legislative Exchange Council 2
Institute for Research on the Economics of Taxation 2
National Bureau of Economic Research 2
America’s Future Foundation 2
Global Warming Policy Foundation 2
Texas Public Policy Foundation 2
Alexis de Tocqueville Institution 2
The Earhart Foundation 2
Australian Broadcasting Corporation 2
American Conservative Union 2
Claremont Institute 2
The Locke Institute 2
Australian Libertarian Society 2
Tobacco Institute 2
Committee on Taxation and Economic Growth 2
Buckeye Institute for Public Policy Solutions 2
Hudson Institute 2
Renewable Energy Foundation 1
Montreal Economic Institute 1
Underdog Ventures 1
Australian Taxpayers Alliance 1
Claude R. Lambe Foundation 1
Earhart Foundation 1
The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition 1
EdChoice 1
Aspen Institute Italia 1
Environmental Literacy Council 1
National Tax Limitation Committee 1
Eurasian Council on Foreign Affairs 1
Atlantic Partnership 1
Australians for Northern Development and Economic Vision 1
Students for Liberty 1
European Science and Environment Forum 1
Council on Foreign Relations 1
Federalist Society 1
Working Families for Wal-Mart 1
Ford Foundation 1
Media Research Center 1
Ford Motor Company 1
National Federation of Independent Business 1
Ayn Rand Institute 1
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 1
Foundation for Individual Rights in Education 1
Politeia 1
Foundation for the Future 1
RAND Corporation 1
Beacon Hill Institute 1
Search for Common Ground 1
Bechtel Group, Inc. 1
Tech Central Station 1
Free Africa Foundation 1
Council for Excellence in Government 1
Free Congress Foundation 1
The Ohrstrom Foundation 1
Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs 1
DonorsTrust 1
Freedom Association 1
Freedom Works 1
Associates for Research in the Science of Enjoyment (ARISE) 1
FreedomWorks 1
Charles Koch Foundation 1
Freeman-Spogli Institute 1
Citizens for a Sound Economy Foundation 1
Belle Haven Consultants 1
National Review 1
Frontiers of Freedom 1
New York City Partnership 1
Fund for American Studies 1
Atlantic Institute for Market Studies 1
Fundacion Libertad 1
Philip Morris 1
General Motors 1
Progress and Freedom Foundation 1
Berlin Manhattan Institute 1
Queensland Chamber of Commerce 1
Bluegrass Institute for Public Policy Solutions 1
Aequus Foundation 1
Georgia Public Policy Foundation 1
Committee on the Present Danger 1
Global Strategic Council 1
Common Good 1
Brookings Institution 1
Tax Foundation 1
Globalisation Institute 1
The Acton Institute 1
Grocery Manufacturers of America 1
Australian Climate Science Coalition 1
Hayek Society 1
Alliance for Retirement Prosperity 1
Bruges Group 1
The Leadership Institute 1
Helen Suzman Foundation 1
Discovery Institute 1
Alternate Solutions Institute 1
US Asia Pacific Council 1
Hispanic American Center for Economic Research 1
White House Writers Group 1
HR Nicholls Society 1
Center for the Study of Social and Political Change 1
World Growth 1
Ludwig von Mises Institute Europe 1
Business & Media Institute 1
Maine Heritage Policy Center 1
Media Institute 1
Independent Commission on Environmental Education 1
Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation 1
Independent Contractors of Australia 1
MISES Center 1
Individual Rights Foundation 1
National Association of Manufacturers 1
Business Roundtable 1
CIVITAS: The Institute for the Study of Civil Society 1
Institute for Contemporary Studies 1
National Policy Forum 1
Institute for Energy Research 1
National Security Council 1
California Institute for Integral Studies 1
Natl. Right to Work Committee 1
Institute for Humane Studies – Europe 1
New Zealand Climate Science Coalition 1
Campaign for New American Policy on Iran 1
Pacific Legal Foundation 1
American Foreign Policy Council 1
Pfizer, Inc. 1
Institute for New Economic Thinking 1
Clexit 1
Carbon Sense Coalition 1
Pioneer Institute for Public Policy Research 1
Institute for the Study of Earth and Man 1
Principia Scientific International 1
Africa Fighting Malaria 1
Commentary Magazine 1
Institute of Policy Innovation 1
Public Diplomacy Council 1
American Institutions of Democracy 1
Queensland Investment Corporation 1
Institute of World Politics 1
Committee for the Liberation of Iraq 1
Center for Dissemination of Economic Knowledge 1
Reform 1
Instituto Liberal 1
Royal Institute of International Affairs 1
Center for Global Economic Growth 1
Save Iraqi Christians 1
Inter Region Economic Network 1
Searle Freedom Trust 1
Intercollegiate Studies Institute 1
American Council for Kosovo 1
International Center for Economic Growth 1
Task Force on the United Nations 1
Center for Individual Rights 1
Confederation of British Industry 1
International Economic Alliance 1
Conference Board 1
International Freedom Center 1
Conservative Party 1
International Institute of Economic Research 1
The Atlantic Bridge 1
Africa Growth Initiative 1
The European Institute for Climate and Energy (EIKE) 1
International Republican Institute 1
The Great Australian Dream Project 1
Intl. Chamber of Commerce 1
The House of Lords 1
Istituto Bruno Leoni 1
The Institute of World Politics 1
James Lawson Institute 1
Crossroads 1
Center for Security Policy/National Security Advisory Council 1
The Pioneer Institute for Public Policy Research 1
John Locke Foundation 1
Donors Capital Fund 1
John M. Olin Center for Policy 1
University of Buckingham 1
John Templeton Foundation 1
US Chamber of Commerce 1
Lavoisier Group 1
Washington Legal Foundation 1
Center for the Study of Popular Culture 1
William E. Simon Foundation 1
Liberty Alliance 1
Dow Chemical Co. 1
Americans for Tax Reform 1
Human Rights Foundation 1

Annual Mont Pelerin Society Meetings

The Mont Pelerin Society holds annual meetings at a variety of locations worldwide. An inventory of MPS meetings from 1947 to 1998 is also available. [15]

The following past meetings are listed on the MPS website: [16]

Founding Meeting

  • Mont Pelerin, Switzerland, 1947

General Meetings

  • Seelisberg, Switzerland, 1949
  • Bloemendaal, Holland, 1950
  • Beauvallon, France, 1951
  • Seelisberg, Switzerland, 1953
  • Venice, Italy, 1954
  • Berlin, Germany, 1956
  • St. Moritz, Switzerland, 1957
  • Princeton, USA, 1958
  • Oxford, England, 1959
  • Kassel, Germany, 1960
  • Turin, Italy, 1961
  • Knokke, Belgium, 1962
  • Semmering, Austria, 1964
  • Stresa, Italy, 1965
  • Vichy, France, 1967
  • Aviemore, Scotland, 1968
  • Munich, Germany, 1970
  • Montreux, Switzerland, 1972
  • Brussels, Belgium, 1974
  • St. Andrews, Scotland, 1976
  • Hong Kong, 1978
  • Stanford, USA, 1980
  • Berlin, Germany, 1982
  • Cambridge, England, 1984
  • St. Vincent, Italy, 1986
  • Tokyo, Kyoto, Japan, 1988
  • Munich, Germany, 1990
  • Vancouver, Canada, 1992
  • Cannes, France, 1994
  • Vienna, Austria, 1996
  • Washington, D.C., USA, 1998
  • Santiago, Chile, 2000
  • London, England, 2002
  • Salt Lake City, USA, 2004
  • Guatemala City, Guatemala, 2006
  • Tokyo, Japan, 2008
  • Sydney, Australia, 2010
  • Prague, Czech Republic, 2012
  • Hong Kong, China, 2014
  • Miami, Florida, USA, 2016

Regional Meetings

  • Tokyo, Japan , 1966
  • Caracas, Venezuela, 1969
  • Rockford, USA, 1971
  • Salzburg, Austria, 1973
  • Guatemala City, Guatemala, 1973
  • Hillsdale, USA, 1975
  • Paris, France, 1977
  • Amsterdam, Holland, 1977
  • Madrid, Spain, 1979
  • Stockholm, Sweden, 1981
  • Vina del Mar, Chile, 1981
  • Vancouver, Canada, 1983
  • Paris, France, 1984
  • Sydney, Australia, 1985
  • Indianapolis, USA, 1987
  • Christchurch, New Zealand, 1989
  • Antigua, Guatemala, 1990
  • Big Sky, Montana, USA, 1991
  • Prague, Czechoslovakia, 1991
  • Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1993
  • Cape Town, South Africa, 1995
  • Cancun, Mexico, 1996
  • Barcelona, Spain, 1997
  • Vancouver, Canada, 1999
  • Potsdam, Germany, 1999
  • Bratislava, Slovakia, 2001
  • Chattanooga, USA, 2003
  • Hamburg, Germany, 2004
  • Reykjavik, Iceland, 2005
  • Stockholm, Sweden, 2009
  • Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2011
  • New Delhi, India, 2011
  • Lima, Peru, 2015
  • Seoul, Republic of Korea, 2017

Special Meetings

  • Taipei, Taiwan , 1978
  • Taipei, Taiwan, 1988
  • Mont Pelerin, Switzerland, 1997
  • Bali, Indonesia, 1999
  • Goa, India, 2002
  • Sri Lanka, 2004
  • Nairobi, Kenya, 2007
  • New York, USA, 2009
  • Istanbul, Turkey, 2011
  • Fez, Morocco, 2012
  • Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, 2013


November 2–5, 2017 (Upcoming)

The Mont Pelerin Society’s 2017 Special Meeting is schedueld for Stockholm Sweeden and titled “The Populist Threats to the Free Society and the Reconstruction of the Liberal Project.” Listed speakers, as of July 2017, included the following: [32], [33]

  • Leszek Balcerowicz
  • Peter Boettke
  • Diane Coyle
  • Lars P Feld
  • Karen Horn
  • Timur Kuran
  • Jacob T Levy
  • Amichai Magen
  • Deirdre McCloskey
  • Johan Norberg
  • Benjamin Powell
  • David Schmidtz
  • John Tomasi
  • Luigi Zingales
  • Anders Åslund

May 7–10, 2017

The MPS held a regional meeting in Seoul, Korea titled “Economic Freedom: Roads to Prosperity.” View speakers and papers below. [17]

Presidential Address:
“Economic Policy of a Free Society” by Prof. Peter J. Boettke

Keynote Speech:
“New Threats that the MPS Should Deal With” by Dr. Vaclav Klaus

Session 1:
“Thoughts for Tigers” by Prof. Pedro Schwartz Giron
“Regulations and Economic Freedom” by Prof. Herbert Grubel

Session 2:
“Go Beyond GDP: A Breakthrough in Macroeconomics” by Dr. Mark Skousen
“Statecraft and Liberal Reform in Western Democracies” by Dr. Nils Karlson
“How the Campaign Against Economic Inequality Undermines Political Equality” by Dr. Yaron Brook

Luncheon Speech:
“Advancing Freedom: Key To Ensuring South Korea’s Greater Future” by Dr. Edwin J. Feulner

Session 3:
“Freedom and Welfare: Taxation in the Liberal Tradition” by Prof. Robert Lawson
“Freedom & Welfare: Minimizing Taxation in a Minimal State” by Dr. Benjamin Powell

Dinner Speech:
“Laissez Evoluer” by Mr. Geoil Bok

Session 5:
“Remarks on central banking in times of change” by Dr. Jacob A. Frenkel
“Monetary Policy for a Post-Crisis World” by Prof. John B. Taylor
“Lessons in Managing Fiat Currencies” by Dr. Jerry Jordan

Session 6:
“Ethics of Pure Entrepreneurship : An Austrian Economics Perspective” by Prof. Israel Kirzner
“Uncertainty in Economic Analysis and the Economic Analysis of Uncertainty” by Prof. Lars Peter Hansen
“Adam Smith on Moral Sentiments and the Wealth of Nations: Trust Games; Emergence of Property; Wealth Creation” by Prof. Vernon Smith

Luncheon Speech:
“Entrepreneurial Inspiration” by Prof. Israel Kirzner

Session 7:
“South Korea’s National Security and Unification” by Gen. (Ret.) Hee Sang Kim

Session 8:
“Korea’s Economic Miracle: Government-led or Market-driven?” by Dr. Randall Jones
“Evaluating the Korean Growth Model: Implications for Developing Economies in the 21st Century” byProf. Deepak Lal
“Korea’s Trade Relations and FTA Policy” by Prof. Tae-Ho Bark

Session 9:
“Market Economy and Economic Democratization in Korea” by Dr. Jin Kwon Hyun
“Economic Growth and the Role of a National Leader” by Prof. Jae Wook Ahn
“Labor Reform in Korea” by Prof. Ki Seong Park

Young Scholar Session:
“Deposit Insurance and Growth” by Thomas L. Hogan
“Banning Bitcoin” by Prof. William J. Luther

The full speakers list was published on the 2017 Seoul meeting’s website and included the following: [18]

September 18–23, 2016

The Mont Pelerin Society’s 2016 General Meeting took place in Miami, Florida, and was titled “The Battle for Freedom: Where We Stand, Roads for Progress.” Speakers and available documents below. [19]

Session 1: Economic Freedom

Session 2: The Rule of Law

Session 3: Welfare State and Redistributive Factions

Session 4: Government Spending

Session 5: History as the Fulcrum of Liberty

Session 6: Moral Foundations of the Free Society

Session 7: The Security of the Free Society

Session 8: The Battle for the Free Society in the Academy and in the World of Think Tanks

The full speakers list was published on the 2016 general meeting’s website and included the following: [20]

August 31–September 5, 2014

The Mont Pelerin Society’s 2014 General Meeting took place in Hong Kong, China, and was titled “Emerging Asia and the Future of Liberty.” Speakers and available documents below. [21]

Session 1: Prospects Liberal Reforms in Asia
“Japan – Money Matters’ Reconfirmed: ‘Abenomics’ and Japan’s Experience in the Last Quarter Century” by Yoshinori Shimizu
“Korea: ROK’s Deregulation Policy Faces Numerous Obstacles” by Inchul Kim
“The Indian Economy: From Growth to Stagflation” by Deepak Lal

Luncheon Lecture
“Careless Opening Up of Countries (without Keeping the Anchor of the Nation-state) Leads either to Anarchy or to Global Governance: The Lessons of the European Experience” by Vaclav Klaus

Session 3: Prospects for Liberal Reforms in China
“The Power of Ideas and Leadership in China’s Transition to a Liberal Society” by Weiying Zhang

Session 4: Erosion of the Rule of Law and Corruption
“Why the Debate on Freedom in Development Fails to Happen” by William Easterly

Session 5: On Ronald Coase: His Work and Consequence
Coase on China: Property Rights and Transaction Costs Revisited” by Pedro Schwartz
“Ronald Coase, Firms and Markets” by George Priest

Session 6: Intergenerational Inequality and the Middle Class
“The Fate of America’s Middle-Class, 1975 to Present: Face and Fiction” by Donald Boudreaux

Session 7: The Coming Inflation Threat
“The Coming Inflation Threat” by Pascal Salin
“What would Milton Freidman Have Thought of Market Monetarism?” by Scott Summer
“The Future of Inflation” by Edward Lazear

Session 8: China and the World
“China: Some Strategic Considerations” by Edward Luttwak

Session 9: Social Engineering and Demography in China
“Demographics and Entrepreneurship” by James Jian-Zhang Liang
“The Impact of China’s On Child Policy and Prospects for Change in China” By Andrea Den Boer 

Session 10: The Past and Future of Liberalism
“The Slow and Hidden Road to Serfdom” by Peter Bernholz

The 2014 conference website lists a full list of speakers and a detailed conference program. The full speakers list was as follows: [22], [23]

Speaker Name Location Description
Timothy Beardson Hong Kong Chairman, Ilex Partners
Peter Bernholz Switzerland Retired Full Professor, Department of Economics and Business (WWZ), Universitaet Basel
Surjit Singh Bhalla India Chairman, Oxus Investments Pvt. Ltd.
Donald Boudreaux USA Professor of Economics, George Mason University
Zhiwu Chen USA Professor of Finance, Yale School of Management
Den Boer Canada Senior Lecturer in International Relations, School of Politics and International Relations, University of Kent (UK)
William Easterly USA Professor of Economics, Co-director of Development Research Institute, New York University
Inchul Kim South Korea Professor, Department of Economics, Sung Kyun Kwan University
Vaclav Klaus Czech Republic Vaclav Klaus Institute, Former President of Czech Republic
Mark Klugmann El Salvador Co-Chairman, Permanent Commission of the ZEDE, LEAP Jurisdiction of Honduras
Deepak Lal UK James S Coleman Professor Emeritus of International Development Studies, University of California, Los Angeles
Edward Lazear USA Professor, Grad School of Business and Hoover Institution – Stanford University
James Jian Zhang Liang China Research Professor, Peking University
Edward Luttwak USA Sr Associate, Center for Strategic and International Studies
Roderick Macfarquhar USA Leroy B. Williams Research Professor of History and Political Science, Harvard University
Deidre Mccloskey USA Distinguished Professor of Economics, History, English, and Communication, University of Illinois at Chicago
Kevin Murphy USA George J. Stigler Distinguished Service Professor of Economics, The University of Chicago
George Priest USA Edward J. Phelps Professor of Law and Economics and Kauffman, Yale University
Pascal Salin France Professor Emeritus of Economics, University Paris-Dauphine
Pedro Schwartz Spain Fundacion del Pino Reasearch Professor, Faculty of Economics, San Pablo University in Madrid
Yoshinori Shimizu Japan Professor Emeritus, Hitotsubashi University
Scott Sumner USA Professor, Economics Department, Bentley University
John Taylor USA Mary and Robert Raymond Professor of Economics, Stanford University
Chee-Hwa Tung Hong Kong First Chief Executive of the HKSAR Government, Vice Chairman of the Twelfth National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference
R. Bin Wong USA Distinguished Professor, History; Director of the UCLA Asia Institute, Center for Chinese Studies, University of California, Los Angeles
Chenggang Xu Hong Kong Quoin Professor in Economic Development, School of Economics and Finance, The University of Hong Kong
Weiying Zhang China Sinar Mas Chair Professor of Economics, National School of Development, Peking University
Luigi Zingales USA Robert C. McCormack Professor of Entrepreneurship and Finance, The University of Chicago Booth, School of Business

June 22–29, 2013

The MPS held a “special meeting” in the Galapagos Islands of Ecuador. The meeting was titled “Evolution, the Human Sciences and Liberty” and speakers were listed as follows: [24]

September 2–7, 2012

The Mont Pelerin Society’s 2012 General Meeting took place in Prague, and was titled “New Space for Competition.” Speakers and documents below. [25]

“Economic downturn and socialist reengineering”
Sam Peltzman (USA)
Jesús Huerta de Soto (Spain)
Allan Meltzer (USA)

“Welfare states versus capitalism”
Peter Boettke (USA)
Lars Feld (Germany) 
Lars Christensen (Denmark)

“Milton Friedman at 100”
Kevin Murphy (USA)
Rolf Lüders (Chile)

“Regional integration – end of nation states”
Roland Vaubel (Germany)
Boris Begovic (Serbia) 
Jiri Weigl (Czech Republic)

“Contribution of the euro to the European crisis”
George Selgin (USA
Otmar Issing (Germany)
Mojmir Hampl (Czech Republic)

“Ludwig von Mises – original thinker and co-founder of the Mont Pelerin Society”
Richard Ebeling (USA
Guido Hülsmann (Germany, France) 
Josef Sima (Czech Republic)

“New directions in liberalism”
Niclas Berggren (Sweden)
Jan Oravec (Slovakia) 
Hardy Bouillon (Germany)

“How much government involvement in the 21st century education?”
John O´Sullivan (USA)
James Tooley (UK)
Michal Semin (Czech Republic)

“European fiscal harmonization”
Enrico Colombatto (Italy) 
Hans Olaf Henkel (Germany)

“Rise of new –isms and classical liberalism”
Vaclav Klaus (Czech Republic)
Gerhard Schwarz (Switzerland)

“The continuing financial crisis”
Robert Barro (USA)


In 2010, when members held a meeting in Australia, Perth-based mining magnate and member Ron Manners extended an invitation to those making the trip[9]

A 2010 Mont Pelerin Society newsletter obtained by DeSmogexplained how Manners, whose think tank has hosted climate science denier Christopher Monckton, had organised a “fascinating tour” of mining and energy sites including a day tour of the remote Pilbara region described as the “ground zero” of the mining boom. [9]

March, 2009

The MPS held a “special meeting” in New York titled “The End of Globalizing Capitalism? Classical Liberal Responses to the Global Financial Crisis.” View speakers and papers below. [26]

“The Historical and International Context”
Prof. Niall Ferguson
Prof. Arnold Harberger
Martin Wolf
Prof. Richard Cooper

“Theoretical Perspectives”
Prof. Axel Leijonhufvud
Prof. Peter Boettke
Prof. Tim Congdon

“The US Crisis: Origins and Outcomes”
Anna Schwartz
Prof. John Taylor
Prof. Henry Manne
Holger Schmieding

Steve Forbes
Ayaan Hirsi Ali

“International Responses”
Prof. Justin Lin
Antonio Martino
John Greenwood
Prof. Hannes Gissurarson
Greg Lindsay

“Whither the US?”
Prof. Harold Demsetz
Amity Shlaes
Rod Hunter

September, 2008

During the MPS general meeting in Tokyo, Vaclav Klaus outlined what he believed should be the group’s “long term agenda” to deal with “current global warming alarmistm.” Klaus spoke in Session 1 on “Global Warming, Environment and Free Markets” along with Kevin M. Murphy and Edward L. Glaeser. View documents below. [27]

“Global Warming, Environment and Free Markets”
Vaclav Klaus
Kevin M. Murphy
Edward L. Glaeser

“Biotechnology, Ethics and Free Markets”
Raphael Vicuna
Angelo M. Petroni
Julian Savulescu

“Healthcare in Free Markets”
Edward P. Lazear
William A. Niskanen
John C. Goodman

“Impact of Information Technology on Freedom and Communication”
Myron S. Scholes
Pedro Schwartz
Tony Curzon Price

“Asian Economic Growth: How Important Were Free Markets?”
Junichi Ujiie
Richard Wong
Kaushik Basu

“International Spread of Technology”
Francisco Gil Diaz
Yoshinori Shimizu
Naushad Forbes

“Digital Divide: Poverty, Income Inequality and Education”
Pascal Salin
Gary S. Becker

August, 2008

A former member of the Mont Pelerin Society, Paul Craig Roberts announced that he would be resigning from the group. [28]

“I have come to the conclusion that the Mont Pelerin Society is no longer an effective force for freedom, becoming instead another tool in behalf of US hegemony, ringing Russia with US military bases and puppet governments in the name of ‘supporting democracy’,” Roberts wrote. “I don’t see how the society can function in behalf of liberty when its long-time Treasurer is so closely associated with the Republican Party, now thoroughly neoconized,” he added. 

February, 2007

The MPS held a “special meeting” in Nairobi, Kenya titled “The Institutional Framework for Freedom in Africa.” View speakers and papers below. [29]

Why not Freedom Everywhere in Africa”
President’s Opening Address
Greg Lindsay

Is Botswana Exportable?”
Scott Beaulier

20 Myths About Markets”
Tom Palmer

What is the Rule of Law?”
Leon Louw

The Rule of Law: Leapfrogging Corrupt Courts through Cyberspace”
Doug Ginsberg

Secure Property Rights –– The Foundation of Prosperity and Freedom in Africa”
Wolfgang Kasper

Paths to Property: Creating Property Rights in Africa”
Karol Boudreaux

The Role of Government”
Suri Ratnapala
Ayanda Khumalo

August, 2005

The MPS held a regional meeting in Reykjavik, Iceland titled “Liberty and Property in the 21st Century.” View speakers and papers below. [30]

The Importance of Liberty and Property in Africa”
Dr. Roger Bate

Iceland Challenges and Opportunities”
The Hon. David Oddsson

Antitrust Law: Lessons from the US
Judge Douglas H Ginsburg

Tolerance and Free Trade: The Case of Switzerland
Prof. Victoria Curzon-Price

Order Without Government: The Icelandic Commonwealth of 930-1262
Prof. Birgir Thor Runolfsson

Testing Economics of Institutions in Iceland
Prof. Thrainn Eggertsson

Barbed Wireless and the Vertical Structure of Property Rights
Dr. Thomas W Hazlett

Property Rights Quality and Economic Efficiency
Prof. Ragnar Arnason

Science, Sanctions, and Cetaceans: Who Should Own the Whales
Michael De Alessi

Do We Need a Government
Prof. David Friedman

As Seen from a Post Communist Country Situated in Predominantly Post Democratic Europe
Vaclav Klas

The Privatization of the Oceans
Prof. Rognvaldur Hannesson
Prof. Hannes H. Gissurarson

The State in Liberal Theory
Prof. Boudewijn Bouckaert

Related Organizations

Atlas Network (Formerly Atlas Economic Research Foundation)

MPS society member Antony Fisher went on to establish a wide range of think tanks including the Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA) in Europe, and the Atlas Economic Research Foundation. A 1995 issue of The Executive Intelligence Review outlined a number of initial “Mont Pelerin Society front groups established through the Atlas Economic Research Foundation.” [31]

As of 2017, The Atlas Network had grown to over 479 organizations worldwide. Of those, over 100 Atlas members are also connected to individuals who are members of the Mont Pelerin Society (see table below). [4]

* Note that the individual affiliations used to cross-reference this list were obtained from SourceWatch, ExxonSecrets, and web searches. Not all original sources have been verified by DeSmog. The full list may be larger if all aliases are accounted for.

Cato Institute
The Hoover Institution
The Independent Institute
Institute of Economic Affairs
Heritage Foundation
Reason Foundation
Foundation for Economic Education
American Enterprise Institute
George Mason University
Fraser Institute
Institute of Public Affairs
Mercatus Center
Heartland Institute
Acton Institute
Property and Environment Research Center
Institute for Humane Studies at George Mason University
Pacific Research Institute
Competitive Enterprise Institute
Philadelphia Society
Institute for Free Enterprise
Centre for Independent Studies
Liberty Fund
Virginia Institute for Public Policy
Manhattan Institute
Universidad Francisco Marroquin
National Center for Policy Analysis
The Free Market Foundation
State Policy Network
Institute for Justice
Frontier Centre for Public Policy
Centre for Policy Studies
Adam Smith Institute
Instituto Juan de Mariana
E.G. West Centre
Philanthropy Roundtable
James Madison Institute
The Adam Smith Institute
Liberty Institute
Capital Research Center
Alexis de Tocqueville Institution
Libertad y Desarrollo
Texas Public Policy Foundation
Free Market Foundation
American Conservative Union
Australian Libertarian Society
Friedrich August v. Hayek Institute
The Ratio Institute
Mackinac Center for Public Policy
America’s Future Foundation
Clemson Institute for the Study of Capitalism
Buckeye Institute for Public Policy Solutions
American Friends of the Institute for Economic Affairs
American Legislative Exchange Council
Claremont Institute
Instituto Liberdade
Hudson Institute
Georgia Public Policy Foundation
Berlin Manhattan Institute
Hispanic American Center for Economic Research
Fundación Internacional por la Libertad
Institute of Policy Innovation
Tax Foundation
Federalist Society
The Leadership Institute
Americans for Tax Reform
Network for a Free Society
Instituto Liberal
Ayn Rand Institute
Foundation for Individual Rights in Education
Hayek Society
Intercollegiate Studies Institute
CIVITAS: The Institute for the Study of Civil Society
Istituto Bruno Leoni
Human Rights Foundation
Association for Liberal Thinking
Institute for Economic Studies (Europe)
John Locke Foundation
Bluegrass Institute for Public Policy Solutions
Liberal Institute (Prague)
Pacific Legal Foundation
Atlantic Institute for Market Studies
Fundacion Libertad
Pioneer Institute for Public Policy Research
Freedom Association
Globalisation Institute
Lithuanian Free Market Institute
Students for Liberty
Ludwig von Mises Institute Europe
Centro de Investigaciones sobre la libre Empresa
The F.A. Hayek Foundation
Maine Heritage Policy Center
Barry Goldwater Institute for Public Policy Research
Center for Political Studies
The Israel Center for Social and Economic Progress
Mannkal Economic Education Foundation
The Pioneer Institute for Public Policy Research
Media Research Center
Beacon Hill Institute
Alternate Solutions Institute
Walter Eucken Institut
Montreal Economic Institute
Fund for American Studies

Contact & Address

The Mont Pelerin Society [35]
c/o Probasco Distinguished Chair of Free Enterprise
The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
313 Fletcher Hall, Dept. 6106
615 McCallie Avenue
Chattanooga, TN 37403-2598
United States

Voice 1-423-425-4118 (inside the U.S.)
Voice +01- 423-425-4118 (outside the U.S.)
Fax 1-423-425-5218 (inside the U.S.)
Fax +01-423-425-5218 (outside the U.S.)
Email address: [email protected]

Social Media


  1. Eamonn Butler. “A Short History of the Mont Pelerin Society” (PDF), Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.

  2. George Monbiot. “How the neoliberals stitched up the wealth of nations for themselves,” The Guardian, August 28, 2007. Archived July 10, 2017. URL:

  3. Philip Mirowski and Dieter Plehwe (2009). The Road from Mont Pelerin. London, England. Harvard University Press. 

  4. Global Directory,” Atlas Network. Accessed July 8, 2017. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog

  5. Atlas Network,” SourceWatch. Accessed July 10, 2017. URL:

  6. Andrew Simms. “Rewrite the aims of the economic revolution – word for word,” The Guardian, December 3, 2013. Archived July 10, 2017. URL

  7. Mont Pelerin Society A Window Into Ideological Heart Of Kochtopus Climate Denial,” DeSmog, January 27, 2014.

  8. Philip Mirowski, Jeremy Walker, and Antoinette Abboud. “Beyond Denial,” Overland, Autumn 2013. Archived July 10, 2017. URL: 

  9. Graham Readfearn. “Exclusive: Mont Pelerin Society Revealed As Home To Leading Pushers Of Climate Science Denial,” DeSmog, January 14, 2014.

  10. Current Global Warming Alarmism and the Mont Pelerin Society’s Long Term Agenda,”, September 8, 2008. Archived July 11, 2017. URL

  11. Mont Pelerin Society,” Conservative Transparency. Accessed July 10, 2017. Data on file at DeSmog.

  12. George Monbiot. “The educational charities that do PR for the rightwing ultra-rich,” The Guardian, February 18, 2013. Archived July 10, 2017. URL:

  13. “Mont Pelerin Society Directory – 2013” (PDF), PDF created November 13, 2013. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.

  14. Graham Readfearn. “Mont Pelerin Society A Window Into Ideological Heart Of Kochtopus Climate Denial,” DeSmog, January 27, 2014.

  15. Mont Pèlerin Society (1947-…),” Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.

  16. Past Meetings,” The Mont Pelerin Society. Archived July 10, 2017. URL:

  17. 2017 Seoul Regional Meeting Papers,” Mont Pelerin Society. Archived July 11, 2017. URL:

  18. Speaker Bios,” Archived July 11, 2017. URL:

  19. 2016 Miami Biennial Congress Papers,” The Mont Pelerin Society. Archived July 11, 2017. URL:

  20. Speaker Bios,” Archived July 11, 2017. URL:

  21. 2014 Hong Kong General Meeting Papers,” The Mont Pelerin Society. Archived July 11, 2017. URL

  22. Speakers,” The Mont Pelerin Society General Meeting 2014. Archived July 11, 2017. URL:

  23. Conference Program,” The Mont Pelerin Society General Meeting 2014. Archived July 11, 2017. URL:

  24. The Speakers,” Universidad San Francisco de Quito. Archived July 11, 2017. URL:

  25. Prague 2012 Papers,” The Mont Pelerin Society. Archived July 11, 2017. URL:

  26. New York City 2009 Papers,” The Mont Pelerin Society. Archived July 11, 2017. URL:

  27. Tokyo 2008 Papers,” The Mont Pelerin Society. Archived July 11, 2017. URL:

  28. Paul Craig Roberts. “I Resign From the Mont Pelerin Society,”, August 21, 2008. Archived July 10, 2017. URL:

  29. Kenya 2007 Papers,” The Mont Pelerin Society. Archived July 11, 2017. URL:

  30. Iceland 2005 Papers,” Mont Pelerin Society. Archived July 11, 2017. URL:

  31. “Mont Pelerin Society’s fascist international” (PDF), IER, Vol. 22 No. 8 (February 17, 1995). Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.

  32. The Populist Threats to the Free Society and the Reconstruction of the Liberal Project,” Archived July 12, 2017. URL:

  33. People,” Archived July 12, 2017. URL

  34. Past Presidents,” The Mont Pelerin Society. Archived July 11, 2017. URL

  35. “Frequently Asked Questions” (PDF),, Jun 13, 2017. Archived .pdf on file at Desmog.

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