American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPM)

American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPM)

Background

The American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPM) is a national trade association representing 98 percent of oil refining capacity in the United States. The American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers describes itself as the “trade association representing high-tech American manufacturers of virtually the entire U.S. supply of gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, other fuels and home heating oil, as well as the petrochemicals used as building blocks for thousands of vital products in daily life.” [1]

The AFPM was formerly known as the National Petrochemical & Refiners Association, before rebranding in 2012. Both James Mahoney and Charles Drevna have served in leadership capacities at the association. Mahoney twice served as chairman of the board of the organization, once while it was the NPRA and then again during the group’s rebranding in 2012. Drevna served as President of the AFPM[2]

The AFPM hasn’t hidden its position promoting oil interests, and they oppose any legislation that could reduce profits for their sector. For example, they oppose renewable fuel standards, support increasing domestic oil and gas production on public and private lands, and argue that the EPA has no authority to regulate greenhouse gas emissions.  [3], [4], [5]

Stance on Climate Change

“Greenhouse gases are regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency under the Clean Air Act, even though the Clean Air Act never authorized such regulation. AFPM believes that using this 40-year-old law to control of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions threatens our nation’s economic and energy security. The Clean Air Act applies only to U.S. companies and was never intended to regulate greenhouse gas emissions. Even the EPA has admitted Clean Air Act GHG emissions will do nothing to reduce global concentrations of these emissions.” [5]

Funding

The Conservative Transparency project lists only four transactions for American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers, and for their AFPM‘s PAC: [27]

DonorRecipientAmountYear
Koch Industries PACAmerican Fuels and Petrochemical Manufacturers Association PAC$5,0002015
Koch Industries PACAmerican Fuels and Petrochemical Manufacturers Association PAC$5,0002014
American Petroleum InstituteAmerican Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers$30,0002012
American Petroleum InstituteAmerican Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers$75,0002011

990 Forms

Annual Reports

Key People

Executive Committee

Name2016[6]2019DescriptionCompany (If Listed)
Chet ThompsonYYAFPM SecretaryAmerican Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPM)
David LampYYMemberWestern Refining Company
Gary R HemingerYYVice ChairMarathon Petroleum Corporation
George DamirisYYTreasurerHollyFrontier Corporation
Jeff RamseyYYMemberFlint Hills Resources, LP
Joseph W GorderYYChairman of the BoardValero Energy Corporation
Rebbie J RileyYYStaff CoordinatorAmerican Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPM)
Thomas J NimbleyYYMemberPBF Energy Inc.
Daniel Coombs YMemberLyondellBasell Industries
Doug Sparkman YMemberBP Products North America
Graeme Burnett YMemberMonroe Energy, LLC
Ian Carr YMemberExxon Mobil Corporation
Mark Lashier YMemberChevron Phillips Chemical Company LP
Michael Coyle YMemberChevron U.S.A. Inc.
Michael Nagle YMemberINEOS Olefins & Polymers USA
Robert Herman YMemberPhillips 66
Dennis SeithY TreasurerINEOS Olefins & Polymers USA
Gregory J GoffY Chairman of the BoardTesoro Corporation
Jack LipinskiY MemberCVR Energy, Inc.
James S LovingY MemberCHS Inc.
Jerry WascomY MemberExxon Mobil Corporation
Kevin W BrownY MemberLyondellBasell Industries
Lawrence M ZiembaY Vice ChairPhillips 66
Mike CoyleY MemberChevron U.S.A. Inc.
Patrick QuarlesY MemberCelanese Ltd.

Board of Directors

Name2004200520062007200820092010201120122013201420152016[7]20172019DescriptionCompany
Albert Chao     YYYYYYYYYYMemberWestlake Chemical Corporation
Frederec C Green     YYYYYYYYYYMemberDelek Refining Ltd.
Jeff Ramsey     YYYYYYYYYYMemberFlint Hills Resources, LP
Matthew Smorch     YYYYYYYYYYMemberCountrymark Cooperative Holding Corporation
Richard Rennard     YYYYYYYYYYMemberArkema Inc.
Gregory J Goff       YYYYYYYYMemberTesoro Corporation
Lane Riggs       YYYYYYYYMemberValero Energy Corporation
Doug Sparkman        YYYYYYYMemberBP Products North America
Graeme Burnett        YYYYYYYMemberMonroe Energy, LLC
Mark Lashier        YYYYYYYMemberChevron Phillips Chemical Company LP
Joseph W Gorder         YYYYYYChairValero Energy Corporation
Ross Reucassel         YYYYYYMemberThe International Group, Inc.
Thomas J Nimbley         YYYYYYMemberPBF Energy Inc.
Luis Sierra          YYYYYMemberBP Petrochemicals
Mark G Nikolich          YYYYYMemberBraskem America, Inc.
Chet Thompson           YYYYAFPM SecretaryAmerican Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPM)
Joseph Israel           YYYYMemberPar Petroleum LLC
Patrick Quarles           YYYYMemberCelanese Ltd.
Gary R Heminger      YYYYY YYYVice ChairMarathon Petroleum Corporation
Danny Rey            YYYMemberNALCO Champion
Edward J Dineen            YYYMemberTPC Group
George Damiris            YYYMemberHollyFrontier Corporation
Paul Huang            YYYMemberFormosa Plastics Corporation, USA
Raphael Crawford            YYYMemberAlbemarle Corporation
Raymond L Brooks            YYYMemberMarathon Petroleum Corporation
Tom Schmitt            YYYMemberHunt Refining Company
Brian Zolkos             YYMemberAmerican Refining Group, Inc.
Christophe Gerondeau             YYMemberTotal Petrochemicals & Refining USA, Inc.
Daniel Coombs             YYMemberLyondellBasell Industries
Heather Remley             YYMemberBASF Corporation
John Edward Schumann             YYMemberSolenis
Michael Coyle             YYMemberChevron U.S.A. Inc.
Robert Herman             YYMemberPhillips 66
Thomas Petti             YYMemberW. R. Grace & Co.
David Lamp     YYYYYYYY YMemberWestern Refining Company
Rebbie J Riley            Y YStaff CoordinatorAmerican Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPM)
Arthur M Klein              YMemberCITGO Petroleum Corporation
Brenda Stout              YMemberShell Oil Products U.S.
Brian Lever              YMemberLimetree Bay Refining, LLC
Brian S Coffman              YMemberMotiva Enterprises LLC
Burnis J Hebert              YMemberOccidental Chemical Corporation
Darren Cross              YMemberShell Catalysts & Technologies LP
Erwin Dijkman              YMemberEastman Chemical Company
Francis Murphy              YMemberFlint Hills Resources, LLC
Frank Chris D’Anna              YMemberEnterprise Products Operating LLC
Frank Niznik              YMemberBaker Hughes
Ian Carr              YMemberExxon Mobil Corporation
James Carver              YMemberSUEZ Water Technologies & Solutions
James Guilfoyle              YMemberLyondellBasell Industries
Jerry Miller              YMemberHusky Energy
Joe Blommaert              YMemberExxonMobil Chemical Co.
John Gugel              YMemberHoneywell UOP
John Traeger              YMemberCHS Inc.
Keith Cleason              YMemberThe Dow Chemical Company
Lance Puckett              YMemberErgon, Inc.
Loic Vivier              YMemberExxon Mobil Corporation
Marc Mageau              YMemberSuncor Energy, Inc.
Michael Nagle              YMemberINEOS Olefins & Polymers USA
Michael Swanson              YMemberBig West Oil, LLC
Monte Edlund              YMemberHuntsman Corporation
Niall McConville              YMemberSABIC
Robert Beadle              YMemberPlacid Refining Company
Steve Sondergard              YMemberSinclair Oil Corporation
Thomas Yura              YMemberCornerstone Chemical
Kevin W Brown YYYYYYYYYYYYY Vice PresidentLyondellBasell Industries
Dennis Seith    YYYYYYYYYY DirectorINEOS Olefins & Polymers USA
Lawrence M Ziemba    YYYYYYYYYY ChairPhillips 66
Jack Lipinski     YYYYYYYYY Vice PresidentCVR Energy, Inc.
James S Loving     YYYYYYYYY Vice PresidentCHS Inc.
John McIntosh     YYYYYYYYY DirectorOlin Chlor Alkali Products
Naushad Jamani     YYYYYYYYY DirectorNOVA Chemicals Corporation
Raymon C Barlow     YYYYYYYYY DirectorGE Water & Process Technologies
Clint W Ensign      YYYYYYYY DirectorSinclair Oil Corporation
Glenn Liolios      YYYYYYYY DirectorDuPont
Jerry Wascom      YYYYYYYY DirectorExxon Mobil Corporation
Purnendu Rai      YYYYYYYY DirectorOxea Corporation
Russ Willmon      YYYYYYYY DirectorCalcasieu Refining Company
Michael Berry       YYYYYYY DirectorEastman Chemical Company
Eduardo Assef        YYYYYY DirectorCITGO Petroleum Corporation
John Dearborn        YYYYYY DirectorThe Williams Companies
Joseph A Vetrone        YYYYYY DirectorSuncor Energy, Inc.
Mark R Keim        YYYYYY DirectorBig West Oil, LLC
Paul Mikesell        YYYYYY DirectorCornerstone Chemical
Bruce H March         YYYYY DirectorExxonMobil Chemical Co.
Douglas H Culpon         YYYYY DirectorHuntsman Corporation
Albert Beninati          YYYY DirectorGrace Catalysts Technologies
Dan Romasko          YYYY DirectorMotiva Enterprises LLC
Douglas May          YYYY DirectorThe Dow Chemical Company
Jim Macaluso          YYYY DirectorBaker Hughes Incorporated
Robert Peterson          YYYY DirectorOccidental Chemical Corporation
Simon Upfill-Brown          YYYY DirectorSouth Hampton Resources, Inc.
David C Dotson           YYY DirectorKoch Industries, Inc.
Kendra Lee           YYY DirectorMerichem Company
Dan Robinson     YYYYYY YY DirectorPlacid Refining Company
Bob Baird            YY DirectorHusky Energy
Corey Johnson            YY DirectorEnterprise Products Operating LLC
Rebecca Liebert            YY DirectorUOP LLC – A Honeywell Company
Sridhar Srinivasan            YY DirectorHoneywell Inc.
David Friedman    YYYYYYYY Y VP of Regulatory Affairs 
Gerald van de Velde    YYYYYYYY Y Chief Financial Officer 
Susan Yashinskie     YYYYYYY Y SVP of Member Services 
Brendan Williams      YYYYYY Y EVP 
Richard Moskowitz       YYYYY Y General Counsel  
Heidi Alderman         YYY Y Director 
Helen Kutska         Y   Y Senior Director of Convention Services 
Andy John Gosse             Y Director 
Cameron Proudfoot             Y Director 
Derrick Morgan             Y SVP of Federal Affairs 
Edward Connors             Y Director 
Geoff Moody             Y VP of Government Relations 
Greg Willms             Y Director 
Jaime Zarraby             Y SVP of Communications 
Jim McCloskey             Y VP of Petrochemicals 
Kris Patrick             Y Director 
Mike Humby             Y Director 
Mike Walsh             Y Director 
MJ Aguiar             Y Director 
Rebecca Adler             Y Senior Director of Communications 
Rodrigo Abramof             Y Director 
Scott Sharp             Y Director 
Tomeu Vadell             Y Director 
Paul Eisman  YYYYYYYYYYY  MemberAlon USA
Charles Drevna   YYYYYYYYYY  Ex Officio 
Raghu Menon     YYYYYYYY  MemberThe Linde Group
Zachary Levine     YYYYYYYY  MemberDeltech Corporation
James Runyan       YYYYYY  MemberWyoming Refining Company
Tim Brown        YYYYY  MemberAmerican Refining Group, Inc.
Khalid Almazyed         YYYY  MemberSABIC
Philip Rinaldi         YYYY  MemberPhiladelphia Energy Solutions (PES)
Philippe Doligez         YYYY  MemberTotal Petrochemicals & Refining USA, Inc.
Robert Trout         YYYY  MemberCriterion Catalysts & Technologies
Michael Jennings      Y   YYY  TreasurerHollyFrontier Corporation
Daniel Yoder          YYY  MemberU.S. Oil & Refining Co.
Tim Bennett          YYY  MemberSasol Chemicals (USA) LLC
H Don Davis     YY    YY  MemberErgon, Inc.
Michael Newton           YY  MemberMartin Operating Partners
Shruti Singhal           YY  MemberSolenis
Fernando Feitosa de Oliveira            Y  MemberPasadena Refining System, Inc.
Heidi S Alderman            Y  MemberBASF Corporation
Mike Coyle            Y  MemberChevron U.S.A. Inc.
Timothy Go            Y  MemberCalumet Specialty Products Partners, L.P.
Tom Rizzo            Y  MemberShell Chemical Company
James MahoneyYYYYYYYYYYYY   Past Chair 
Richard Meeks  YYYYYYYYYY   Treasurer 
Jeffrey Hazle    YYYYYYYY   Senior Director of Refining 
C Douglas Shannon     YYYYYYY   Director 
Paul Foster     YYYYYYY   Director 
Rajeev Gautam     YYYYYYY   Director 
Stan Ueng     YYYYYYY   Director 
Terry Burleson     YYYYYYY   Director 
Gary Yesavage       YYYYY   Vice President 
Richard Bedell       YYYYY   Director 
Aamir Farid      YY YYY   Director 
Frank Whitsura         YYY   Director 
Steve Harrington         YYY   Director 
David Carroll        Y YY   Director 
Fernando Oliveira          YY   Director 
Graham Bacon          YY   Director 
Keith West          YY   Director 
Melissa Hockstad          YY   VP of Petrochemicals 
Sarah Magruder Lyle          YY   VP of Strategic Planning 
Bill Anderson     YYYY  Y   Director 
Charlie Graham           Y   Director 
Donald Templin           Y   Vice President 
Silvio Ghyoot           Y   Director 
Jeffrey Byrne     YYYYYY    Director 
Laura Ruiz     YYYYYY    Director 
Scott Richardson       Y YY    Director 
Jennifer Straumins         YY    Director 
Mike McDonnell         YY    Vice President 
Christopher Jobb          Y    Director 
D Michael Wilson          Y    Director 
Dave Kirshner          Y    Director 
Kirk Novak          Y    Director 
James Cooper    YYYYYY     Senior Advisor, Petrochemicals 
Alan Cabodi     YYYYY     Director 
Brian Ames     YYYYY     Director 
Chuck Anderson     YYYYY     Director 
Michael Pesch     YYYYY     Director 
Mike Ebert     YYYYY     Director 
Nicholas Carter     YYYYY     Director 
Robert Pease     YYYYY     Director 
Terry Hurlburt     YYYYY     Director 
Bruce Rubin      YYYY     Director 
Hank Jeans      YYYY     Director 
Shawn Abrams      YYYY     Director 
Francisco de Cerqueira Neto       YYY     Director 
Nick Spencer       YYY     Director 
William P Brown      Y YY     Director 
Doug Towns        YY     Director 
Amy Hebert         Y     Director 
David Fischer         Y     Director 
Jason Akey         Y     Director 
Patrick Hickey         Y     Director 
William KlesseYYY  YYYY      Past Chair 
Brian Smith     YYYY      Director 
Bruce Macklin     YYYY      Director 
Fred Dohmann     YYYY      Director 
Kenneth Currie     YYYY      Director 
Luther Jones     YYYY      Director 
Mark Zyskowski     YYYY      Director 
Darius Sweet      YYY      Director 
McMillan Hummel      YYY      Director 
Thomas O’Malley      YYY      Vice President 
Janice Latz     Y YY      Director 
Jerry Basconi     Y YY      Director 
Michael McGarry     Y YY      Director 
Russ Crockett       YY      Vice President 
Steve Rathweg     Y  Y      Director 
Amy Motto        Y      Director 
Dan Sheets        Y      Director 
Jeff Warmann        Y      Director 
Kevin Mcquade        Y      Director 
Mark Oberle        Y      Director 
Patrick Kimmet        Y      Director 
Gregory Scott    YYYY       Executive Vice President 
Daniel Knepper     YYY       Director 
Harry Halloran     YYY       Director 
Joel Elstein     YYY       Director 
John A Matson     YYY       Director 
John Nicols     YYY       Director 
Mike Dusterhoff     YYY       Director 
Robert Kent     YYY       Director 
Ronald Williams     YYY       Director 
Stephen Hunkus     YYY       Director 
Stephen Kirk     YYY       Director 
Terry Jackson     YYY       Director 
Lynn Elsenhans      YY       Vice President 
Darrell Jacob       Y       Director 
James Sparkman       Y       Director 
John Quinn       Y       Director 
Tim Taylor       Y       Director 
William J Finnerty YYYYYY        Vice Chair 
Jerry C Welch   YYYY        Vice President 
Vince J Kelley   YYYY        Vice President 
Greg Garland    YYY        Vice President 
Charles Shaver     YY        Vice President 
David Huffman     YY        Director 
Donald Lindley     YY        Director 
F R de Cerqueira Neto     YY        Director 
Jas Gill     YY        Director 
John Fotheringham     YY        Director 
Pat Havener     YY        Director 
Peter Cella     YY        Director 
Randy Newcomer     YY        Director 
Robert Gengelbach     YY        Director 
Steve Douglas     YY        Director 
Steven Burtch     YY        Director 
Sylvian de Lescazes     YY        Director 
Terry Begley     YY        Director 
Nigel Dunn      Y        Director 
Scott Telesz      Y        Director 
Michael Brown  YYYY         Former Treasurer 
Richard J Marcogliese   YYY         Former Treasurer 
Joseph Lee    YY         Vice President 
William Holbrook    YY         Director 
Robert Genovese     Y         Director 
Steven Abrams     Y         Director 
Maurice McBrideYYYYY            
Catherine Karen    Y            
James GalloglyYYYY           Director 
Robert SlaughterYYYY           President 
W Norman PhillipsYYYY           Director 
Joel ManessYYY            Treasurer 
Larry M EchelbergerYYY            Vice President 
Peter Huntsman YY            Vice Chair 
Ray Wilcox  Y            Vice Chair 
Don DaigleYY             Vice President 
Duane GilliamYY             Past Chair 
Jerry E ThompsonYY             Vice President 
Bruce SmithY              Vice President 
Chris GaanY              Treasurer 

James Mahoney

James Mahoney has been employed by Koch Industries, Inc. since 1988 and serves as their Vice President for Operations Excellence and Compliance, and is a member of the board (he has also been past chairman). [8], [9] James Mahoney served as the chairman of the NPRA from 2007 to 2008 and served as chairman of the board of directors of the AFPM from 2012 to 2014.

Mahoney helped develop Fueling U.S. Forward, a Koch-funded campaign designed to promote the benefits of fossil fuels. As investigative journalist Peter Stone revealed in the Huffington Post in February 2016, James Mahoney and Charlie Drevna teamed up to pitch the concept of launching a pro-petroleum campaign to refining companies Valero and Tesoro and other energy interests. [10]

In his piece, The Kochs Are Plotting A Multimillion-Dollar Assault On Electric Vehicles, Stone wrote that the “fledgling Mahoney and Drevna efforts seem to signal an expansion of Koch-backed drives against subsidies and tax breaks for alternative fuels to the transportation sector, at a time when support may be on the rise in Washington and some states for boosting electric vehicles.” [10]

Charles Drevna

Charles Drevna, former lobbyist for the oil refining industry, was a Senior Fellow at the Institute for Energy Research (IER), and previous President of American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers. He is currently heading the Fuelling U.S. Forward campaign, operating as President and CEO. [11]

According to IER’s website, while he was a Senior Fellow, Drevna advised IER on a variety of energy topics, particularly fuel and refining issues. Though Drevna told DeSmog’s Sharon Kelly that IER is not involved with this Fueling U.S. Forward campaign, it’s worth noting that Drevna developed Fueling U.S. Forward while officially serving as a fellow at IER. [12], [13]

Committees

The AFPM is operated by experts among its 450+ member companies through a variety of committees and subcommittees including the following. (Committee member lists can only be viewed by authorized members): [14]

  • Communications Committee
  • Environmental Committee
  • Fuels Committee
  • Government Relations Committee
  • Issues Committee
  • Labor Relations and Human Resources Committee
  • Base Oils & Waxes Committee
    • Waxes Subcommittee
  • Legal Committee
  • Reliability & Maintenance Committee
  • Manufacturing Committee
  • Petrochemical Committee
  • Petrochemical Steering Committee
    • Petrochemical Statistics Subcommittee
  • Plant Automation & Decision Support Committee
    • Cybersecurity Subcommittee
  • Safety & Health Committee
  • Industrial Hygiene Subcommittee
  • Regional Process Safety Networks
  • Security Committee

Actions

The Intercept reported how, in the midst of the Coronavirus Pandemic, the Critical Infrastructure Protection Act was signed by the West Virginia Gov. Jim Justice. The law would create new felony penalties for protests against oil and gas facilities. [30]

The law mimics model legislation promoted by the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC). [30]

Records obtained by The Intercept and the Energy and Policy Institute revealed that a network of lobbyists working for the natural gas industry had played a part in advancing the bill, including representatives for Dominion Energy, which owns the Atlantic Coast pipeline; the West Virginia Oil and Natural Gas Association; and the American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers. [30]

The West Virginia Critical Infrastructure Protection Act was introduced by Delegate John Kelly. Kelly received numerous emails about the bill from constituents, including one where he provided detail of the bill’s origins: [30]

Simple explanation, this bill reinforces property rights. when a person goes on private property and does intentional damage,” Kelly replied to a constituent. “The bill was requested by the natural gas industry, because protesters entered a drilling site, and destroyed equipment.” [30]

The first critical infrastructure laws aimed at pipeline protestors emerged following the uprising against the Dakota Access pipeline near the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation in North Dakota. After Dakota implemented anti-protest laws in May 2017, ALEC swiftly moved to create its own model legislation. [30]

An AFPM lobbyist reportedly worked with ALEC to help create that model: [30]

AFPM advocated for the model legislation because of its importance for refineries and for the pipeline infrastructure that delivers products to and from our facilities,” the association’s spokesperson told The Intercept[30]

According to analysis from Greenpeace, some of the most influential companies pushing for critical infrastructure laws nationally included Marathon Petroleum, Exxon Mobil, and Koch Industries. [30]

November 8, 2019

French oil company Total announced its withdrawal from the American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers trade association. Bloomberg reported Total decided not to renew its membership due to “different views on the Paris agreement, carbon pricing and renewable energies.” [29]

Total’s decision came months after Royal Dutch Shell withdrew its AFPM membership for similar reasons. [29]

April 2019

Royal Dutch Shell withdrew its membership in the American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers, citing differences over climate change. The Washington Post reported “Shell said that it was at odds with the refining and petrochemical group on the Paris climate agreement, carbon pricing, fuel mandates and the reduction of methane emissions.” [28]

July 2016

The Center for Media and Democracy (CMD) reports that AFPM President Chet Thompson attended private, undisclosed meetings with republican attorneys general to coordinate on defending ExxonMobil and push back against climate change legislation. [15]

Thompson spoke at the event alongside prominent climate change denier Myron Ebell of the Competitive Enterprise Institute, who was recently selected to head Donald Trump’s “EPA transition team.” Audio obtained by CMD below. [15]

CMD reports that Chet Thompson “thanked the attorneys general for their ‘leadership’ and ‘support’ in the investigations of oil companies, and asked for further assistance in blocking the EPA ‘social cost of carbon’ disclosure rules for the fossil fuel industry and halting the college divestment campaigns.” [15]

October 23, 2015

The American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPM) joined U.S. Chamber of Commerce, the National Association of Manufacturers, and others in filing a petition for review (PDFattempting to block the Environmental Protection Agency’s Clean Power Plan. [16]

The full list of petitioners is as follows:

March 13, 2015

American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPMsued Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) for allegedly violating its common carrier obligation under federal law. A DeSmog investigation suggested that there may be more to the lawsuit than initially meets the eye, and may serve as a distraction to the center issues in the oil-by-rail debate. [17], [18]

The suit was filed in in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas, Houston Division. AFPM sued BNSF “for violating its common carrier obligation by imposing a financial penalty” for those carrying oil obtained via hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”) in North Dakota’s Bakken Shale basin and other hazardous petroleum products in DOT-111 rail cars. Bloomberg reported how 

This $1,000 surcharge on certain PHMSA-authorized rail cars breaches BNSF’s common carrier duty to ship hazardous materials under the auspices of PHMSA’s comprehensive regime governing hazardous materials transportation,” wroteAFPM’s legal team. [17], [18]

BNSF began imposing a $1,000 surcharge for companies carrying explosive Bakken fracked oil in DOT-111 cars, as opposed to “safer” CPC-1232 cars, at the beginning of 2015. [19], [20]

November 2014

The American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPM) released studies that oil producers used to counter oil-by-rail safety measures in the Bakken region. The Wall Street Journal reported that AFPM‘s testing methods “may understate the explosive risk of the crude” from the region. [21]

Bakken oil gained coverage after the July 2013 oil train derailment in Lac-Magentic, Quebec that killed 47 people. Since that initial incident, seven more oil trains have derailed. Desmog reported that “We now know that oil produced in North Dakota’s Bakken Shale formation is extremely volatile due to its high natural gas liquid content — resulting in the ‘bomb train’ phenomenon.” [22], [23]

Oil producers rejected calls to stabilize the oil, citing studies by both AFPM and the North Dakota Petroleum Council. The Wall Street Journal notes that while the AFPM study’s author, Frits Wybenga, claimed that their tests were adequate, a more stringent study by the U.S. government did find more volatile compounds in the Bakken crude. AFPM released a “survey” of Bakken crude on May 14, where it stressed it could be transported using existing railroad cars, under existing rules. [21]

March 19, 2012

Charles Drevna, then the president of AFPM, testified to Congress. Drevna, representing AFPM, opposed limits on carbon dioxide under the Clean Air act, and also cautioned that we should not move to electric vehicles (read more about the Industry’s fight against electric vehicles at Desmog’s Koch vs. Clean project): [24]

“As Congress and the Administration seek ways to increase our energy security, economic security, and national security, AFPM urges policymakers to weigh the full spectrum of trade-offs. While weaning the U.S. off oil is a good talking point, artificially forcing the market to adopt expensive new technologies that rely on the fair trade practices of China could bring a new set of challenges. In the meantime, the U.S. can instead develop its own abundant supply of energy, which can increase our energy, economic and national security. The U.S. can do so without subsidies or mandates, all our industry needs is the room to do it. As we look to diversify our energy sources, we must not turn our back on petroleum-derived fuels that we will continue to depend upon for decades to come. To do so would simply disadvantage the consumer, harm our national economy and erode our energy security.” [24]

Regarding the regulation of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) under the Clean Air Act, Drevna argued that it would make the U.S. less competitive: 

“In the absence of a comprehensive global approach to GHG emissions, imposing these burdens on the U.S. would unilaterally cripple the ability of U.S. manufacturers to compete on a world market against other nations – notably India, China and Brazil – with less stringent environmental regulations. [24]

June, 2012

Both the American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPM) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) challenged the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard in court, calling renewables “phantom fuels.” [25]

AFPM has hundreds of member organizations listed on its website. Notable examples include Chevron, DuPont, Exxon Mobil Corporation, Husky Energy, Koch Industries, Inc.,  Shell Chemical Company, and The Dow Chemical Company. View a full list below: [26]

Member20162019
Associate Member  
A.T. Kearney, Inc.Y 
Advanced Refining TechnologiesYY
AdvanSix Y
AECOMYY
AEGION Energy Services Y
Aegis Energy Advisors Corp.YY
Afton Chemical CorporationY 
Aggreko, LLCY 
Air Liquide Large Industries U.S. LPYY
Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Y
Airgas, Inc.YY
Akzo Nobel Polymer ChemicalsY 
Alfa Laval PackinoxYY
AlixPartners LLPYY
All4 Inc.YY
Allied UniversalYY
Allied Universal SecurityYY
AltairStrickland, Inc.YY
Altran North AmericaY 
Ambitech Engineering CorporationY 
Amec Foster WheelerY 
Amerisafe Consulting & Safety ServicesY 
Apex Companies, LLCY 
Apprion, Inc.Y 
AramcoY 
Argo, Inc.YY
Argus MediaYY
ASM Catalysts, LLCY 
Aspen Technology, Inc.Y 
Asset Performance NetworksYY
Athlon SolutionsY 
Athlon, A Halliburton Service Y
Atlantic Methanol Production Co.YY
Austin Industrial, Inc.Y 
AVEVA Y
Axens North AmericaYY
AZZ WSIY 
Babcock & Wilcox Y
BAKER & O’BRIENYY
Baker Engineering and Risk Consultants, Inc.Y 
Bantrel Co. Y
Barr Engineering CompanyYY
Bay Ltd.YY
Becht Engineering Co., Inc.YY
Bechtel CorporationYY
BIC AllianceY 
Blue Ridge PartnersY 
Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc.Y 
Bouchard Transportation Co., Inc.YY
Brand Energy and Infrastructure ServicesY 
BrandSafway Y
Brenntag North America, Inc.YY
Brinderson, L.P.Y 
BroadspectrumY 
Brock GroupYY
Brown & Root Industrial Services, LLC Y
Brown and CaldwellY 
Burns & McDonnellYY
C&I EngineeringYY
Cajun Industries, LLC Y
Campbell Fittings, Inc.Y 
CARBERY 
Cat Tech International Ltd Y
CB&IY 
Cenovus Energy Inc.YY
CenterPoint Energy Y
CertifiedSafety, Inc.YY
CF Industries, Inc. Y
CH2MY 
Chem32 LLC Y
Chemical DataYY
Chemium International Corp.Y 
ChemTreat, Inc.Y 
Cheniere Energy Y
CHEP – Catalyst & Chemical ContainersYY
Chevron Lummus Global LLCYY
CIRCON Environmental Y
Clariant CorporationYY
Clean Air EngineeringYY
Clean Harbors Energy and Industrial Services Corp.2 
CMC – Commercial Metals CompanyY 
CME GroupY 
Colfax Fluid Handling – Reliability ServicesY 
Contract Fabricators, Inc.Y 
Cooling Tower Depot, Inc.Y 
CrystaphaseYY
Cust-O-Fab, Inc.YY
DeloitteYY
DEWright, Inc.Y 
Distribution NowY 
Dorf Ketal Chemicals, LLCYY
Downstream Advisors, Inc.YY
Dresser-RandY 
DuPont Clean Technologies Y
DuraTherm, Inc. Division of Clean Harbors ESY 
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc.Y 
Echo Group, Ltd. Y
Electronic Data, Inc.Y 
Emerson Automation Solutions Y
Emerson Process ManagementY 
Emission Monitoring Services, Inc.(EMSI)YY
Environmental Resources ManagementYY
Envirosystems Inc.Y 
EthosEnergy Field Services, LLCY 
Ethylene Strategies International, L.P. Y
Eurecat U.S. IncorporatedYY
Evergreen North America Industrial ServicesYY
Excel Modular ScaffoldYY
Firestone PolymersY 
Flexitallic L.P.Y 
Fluor CorporationYY
FurmaniteY 
G. W. Aru, LLC Y
Gallop Tower Field ServiceYY
Gantrade CorporationYY
Gayesco-WIKA USA Y
GP Strategies CorporationY 
Graywolf Industrial CompanyY 
GTC Technology US, LLCY 
Gulf Chemical & Metallurgical Corp.Y 
Gulf Energy Information Y
Gulf Publishing – Hydrocarbon ProcessingY 
Gulfspan Industrial, LLCYY
Hagemeyer North America – Technical ServicesY 
Haldor Topsoe, Inc.YY
Hargrove Engineers + ConstructorsY 
Helm AGYY
Hertz Equipment Rental CorporationY 
HOERBIGER Compression TechnologyY 
Houston Area Safety Council (HASC) Y
HTIY 
Hunter Buildings & Manufacturing, LPY 
HydroChem LLCY 
HydroChemPSC Y
IAGY 
ICISYY
ICLYY
IHS ChemicalY 
IHS MarkitYY
IMI Z&JYY
Industrial Info ResourcesY 
Infineum USA L.P.YY
IngeneroY 
Innospec Fuel Specialties LLCYY
INOVX SolutionsY 
Inserv – Integrated Service Company LLCYY
InterAtlas Chemical Inc.YY
Interchem USAY 
Intertek PARCY 
ioMosaic CorporationYY
J.J. White, Inc.YY
Jacobs Engineering Group Inc.YY
James & Luther, Inc.Y 
JCL Safety ServicesYY
JO Tankers Inc.Y 
Johnson Matthey Y
Johnson Matthey Process TechnologiesY 
Katten Muchin Rosenman LLPYY
KBC Advanced Technologies, Inc.YY
KBRYY
KH Neochem Americas, Inc.Y 
KiewitYY
KiOR, Inc.Y 
Kirby Inland Marine, LPYY
Kolmar Americas, Inc.YY
KP Engineering, LPYY
KPMG LLPYY
Lane Power & Energy Solutions, Inc. Y
LANXESS CorporationYY
Lauren Engineers & Constructors, Inc.Y 
LBC Houston, LPYY
Leidos Engineering LLCY 
Lewis GoetzY 
Linde Engineering North America Inc. Y
Liskow & LewisY 
Loadstar Product Handling Services, LLC Y
Lucite International Inc.YY
Lummus TechnologyYY
Magellan Midstream Partners LP Y
MAHLE Industrial FiltrationY 
Masterank America Inc.Y 
MathesonYY
Matrix ServiceYY
McDermott Y
McKinsey & CompanyY 
Merichem Company Y
Meridium Inc.Y 
MERRICK & CompanyYY
Messer North America Y
METECS Y
Middough Inc.YY
MISTRAS Group Inc.YY
Montrose Environmental Group, Inc.YY
Muse, Stancil & CompanyY 
Navigant Consulting, Inc.Y 
Nexant Inc.Y 
Nooter CorporationYY
North West Redwater Partnership (NWR)Y 
Norton Engineering Consultants, Inc.YY
Nouryon Y
NovaPexYY
Odfjell USA (Houston) Inc.YY
OhmstedeYY
OiltankingYY
Old World Industries, LLCYY
Olin Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls Y
Omni Vision International, Inc.Y 
Opportune LLPYY
OSIsoftYY
ParFab CompaniesYY
Parpinelli TecnonYY
Partner Industrial, LP Y
PAS Global, LLC Y
PCL Industrial Construction Co.YY
PCS SalesY 
Performance Contractors, Inc.YY
Perstorp Specialty ChemicalsYY
Petroleum Service CorporationYY
Petrotechnics USA, Inc.Y 
Pilko & Associates, Inc.YY
Plant Automation Services, Inc.Y 
Plant Performance Services LLC (P2S)Y 
Porocel International, LLCYY
Praxair Inc.YY
PricewaterhouseCoopersYY
Process Consulting Services Inc.YY
Procter and Gamble CompanyYY
Provenance Consulting, LLCY 
PSCY 
RAMBOLL Y
RAMBOLL ENVIRONY 
RAVAGO LMY 
Recon Refractory Engineering & Const.Y 
RedGuardY 
Refractory Construction Services Co., LLCY 
ReichholdY 
Reliability Management Group (RMG)YY
Rentech Boiler Services, Inc.YY
Repcon, Inc.YY
Richard Industrial Group, Inc.YY
Rive Technology, IncYY
RLG International Inc. Y
Roddey Engineering Services, Inc. Y
S&B Engineers and Constructors Ltd.YY
S8 Engineering Inc Y
Sabin Metal CorporationYY
Safway GroupY 
Sage ATC Environmental ConsultingYY
Satellite Shelters, Inc.YY
Savage ServicesYY
Scheck Mechanical CorporationY 
Schneider ElectricY 
SCS Energy LLCY 
Securitas Critical Infrastructure Services, Inc.Y 
Sentinel Integrity SolutionsY 
Service Radio – Industrial Blind SolutionsY 
SGSY 
Shaw Stone & WebsterYY
Shermco IndustriesY 
SI GroupYY
Siemens Energy, Inc. – Water SolutionsY 
SLR Y
SLR/E.Vironment, LLCY 
Smith & Burgess, LLCY 
SNC-Lavalin Y
SNC-Lavalin Hydrocarbons & Chemicals USAY 
Sojitz Corporation of AmericaYY
Solomon Associates LLCYY
Sonneborn, LLCY 
South Chicago Packing Co.Y 
Southern Chemical CorporationYY
Spiral Software LimitedYY
Spirit EnvironmentalY 
SPX Cooling TechnologiesY 
SRI ConsultingYY
Stancil & Co.YY
STARCON International Inc.YY
STCY 
STI GroupY 
Stolt-Nielsen USA, Inc.Y 
Structural Group, Inc.Y 
Sulzer Chemtech USA, Inc.YY
Summit Petrochemical Trading Inc.Y 
Sunbelt Rentals Y
Superheat FGH ServicesY 
Swift Fuels, LLCYY
Systech Environmental CorporationY 
Systran, Inc.Y 
T.A. CookYY
TapcoEnpro, LLC.YY
Tauber Oil CompanyYY
TEAM, Inc.YY
Technip USAY 
TechnipFMC Y
Tecnon OrbiChem Ltd.YY
Tetra Tech, Inc. Y
Texas Aromatics L.P.YY
Textron AviationY 
The Babcock & Wilcox Co.Y 
The Equity Engineering GroupYY
The Mundy CompaniesY 
Third Coast InternationalYY
TIC – The Industrial CompanyYY
TIMEC Y
Total Energy Corp.Y 
Total Safety U.S., Inc.YY
Toyota Tsusho America, Inc.Y 
Trammo, Inc. Chemicals DivisionY 
TRCYY
Tricon Energy, Ltd.YY
TRICORD Consulting, LLC Y
Trihydro CorporationYY
Trinity Consultants, Inc.YY
TrinityRailYY
Tristar Global Energy Solutions, Inc.Y 
Turnaround Logistics, IncY 
Turner Industries Group, LLCYY
Turner, Mason & CompanyYY
United Rentals, Inc.YY
United Shutdown SafetyY 
Univar USA Inc.YY
Universal Plant Services, Inc.YY
Vapor PointYY
Veolia North AmericaYY
Vopak Americas Y
Vopak North America Inc.Y 
Waid EnvironmentalYY
Watson Millican & Co.Y 
WeaverY 
William W. Rutherford & AssociatesY 
Wink Engineering, LLCY 
Wood Y
Wood Group MustangY 
Wood MackenzieYY
WorleyParsonsYY
Woven Metal Products Y
YokogawaYY
Zachry GroupYY
Zeeco, Inc.Y 
International Manufacturing Member  
Asahi Kasei Chemicals CorporationYY
Axion EnergyYY
Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited Y
China Petrochemical Technology Company LimitedYY
Consumers’ Co-operative Refineries LtdY 
Delamine B.V.YY
Essar Oil LimitedY 
Evonik CorporationYY
Grupo IdesaYY
HPCL – Mittal Energy Ltd.YY
Irving Oil LimitedYY
ITOCHU Chemicals America Inc.YY
Marubeni America CorporationYY
MEGlobalYY
Mitsubishi International CorporationYY
Mitsui & Co. (U.S.A.), Inc.YY
Nayara Energy Limited Y
Parkland Refining (B.C.) Ltd. Y
Petrojam LimitedY 
PETROTRINY 
Reliance Industries Ltd.YY
Samsung C&T America, Inc.YY
SK Energy Y
SolvayYY
Sumitomo Corporation of AmericasYY
The Co-op Refinery Complex Y
UBE Industries (America), Inc.Y 
Versalis S.p.A.YY
Regular Member  
Albemarle CorporationYY
Alon USAY 
American Refining Group, Inc.YY
Arkema Inc.YY
Baker Hughes IncorporatedYY
BASF CorporationYY
Big West Oil, LLCYY
BP PetrochemicalsYY
BP Products North AmericaYY
Braskem America, Inc.YY
Calcasieu Refining CompanyY 
Calumet Specialty Products Partners, L.P.Y 
Celanese Ltd.Y 
Chemical Safety & Hazard Investigation Y
Chevron Phillips Chemical Company LPYY
Chevron U.S.A. Inc.YY
CHS Inc.YY
CITGO Petroleum CorporationYY
City of Edmonton Y
Cornerstone ChemicalYY
Countrymark Cooperative Holding CorporationYY
Criterion Catalysts & TechnologiesY 
CVR Energy, Inc.YY
Defense Logistics Agency Energy Y
Delek USYY
Deltech CorporationY 
DuPontY 
Eastman Chemical CompanyYY
Enterprise Products Operating LLCYY
Ergon, Inc.YY
Exxon Mobil CorporationYY
ExxonMobil Chemical Co.YY
Flint Hills ResourcesYY
Formosa Plastics Corporation, USAYY
Gary-Williams CorporationY 
GE Water & Process TechnologiesY 
Government of Alberta Y
Grace Catalysts TechnologiesY 
HollyFrontier CorporationYY
Honeywell Inc.Y 
Honeywell UOPYY
Houston Refining, LPYY
Hunt Refining CompanyYY
Huntsman CorporationYY
Husky EnergyYY
INEOS Olefins & Polymers USAYY
Koch Industries, Inc.YY
Limetree Bay Refining, LLC Y
Louisiana Dept. of Economic Development Y
LyondellBasell IndustriesYY
Marathon Petroleum CorporationYY
Martin Operating PartnersY 
Merichem CompanyY 
Monroe Energy, LLCYY
Motiva Enterprises LLCYY
NALCO ChampionYY
NOVA Chemicals CorporationY 
Occidental Chemical CorporationYY
Olin Chlor Alkali Products and VinylsY 
Oxea CorporationYY
Par Petroleum LLCYY
Pasadena Refining System, Inc.Y 
PBF Energy Inc.YY
Philadelphia Energy Solutions (PES)Y 
Phillips 66YY
Placid Refining CompanyYY
SABICYY
Sasol Chemicals (USA) LLCY 
Shell Catalysts & Technologies LP Y
Shell Chemical CompanyY 
Shell Oil Products U.S. Y
Sinclair Oil CorporationYY
SolenisYY
South Hampton Resources, Inc.YY
State of Kansas Dept. of Health & Environment Y
Strategic Petroleum Reserve Y
SUEZ Water Technologies & Solutions Y
Suncor Energy, Inc.YY
TCEQ Y
Tesoro CorporationY 
The Dow Chemical CompanyYY
The International Group, Inc.YY
The Linde GroupY 
The Williams CompaniesY 
Total Petrochemicals & Refining USA, Inc.YY
TPC GroupYY
U.S. Coast Guard Y
U.S. Department of Energy Y
U.S. Department of Homeland Security Y
U.S. Department of Labor Y
U.S. EPA/HQ Y
U.S. Oil & Refining Co.Y 
Valero Energy CorporationYY
W. R. Grace & Co. Y
Western Refining CompanyY 
Westlake Chemical CorporationYY
Wyoming Refining CompanyY 

National Petrochemical & Refiners Association (NPRA)

Former name for the AFPM before rebranding in 2012. [2]

Social Media

Resources

  1. ABOUT AFPM,” AFPM. Archived October 11, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/UNtwN
  2. NATIONAL PETROCHEMICAL & REFINERS ASSOCIATION BECOMES AMERICAN FUEL & PETROCHEMICAL MANUFACTURERS,” AFPM, January 25, 2012. Archived October 11, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/dFneh
  3. Policy Position – Renewable Fuel Standards,” AFPM. Archived October 11, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/UDzNV
  4. Policy Position – Increasing Domestic Oil & Gas Production,” AFPM. Archived October 11, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/SZsEw
  5. Policy Position – Greenhouse Gas Regulations,” AFPM. Archived October 11, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/geJX8
  6. Executive Committee,” AFPM. Archived October 11, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/Xq4iy
  7. Board of Directors,” AFPM. Archived October 11, 2016.
  8. Executive Profile: James Mahoney,” Bloomberg. Archived October 11, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/Fh191#selection-1089.0-1103.13
  9. Executive Committee Roster,” NPRA. Archived August 6, 2007. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/X3Wmv
  10. Peter Stone. “The Kochs Are Plotting A Multimillion-Dollar Assault On Electric Vehicles,” The Huffington Post, February 19, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/jXPA4
  11. Jennifer A. Dlouhy. “Former refining lobbyist joins Institute for Energy Research,” FuelFix, May 26, 2015. Archived August 30, 2015. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/NByMt
  12. Charles Drevna,” Institute for Energy Research. Archived April 1, 2016. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/ax61J
  13. Charles Drevna,” Koch Vs. Clean. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/mbDp5
  14. Committees,” AFPM. Archived October 11, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/Wcox2
  15. GOP ATTORNEYS GENERAL HELD PRIVATE MEETINGS WITH FOSSIL FUEL LOBBYISTS ON EXXON INVESTIGATION,” The Center for Media and Democracy, September 23, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/iePD8
  16. PETITION FOR REVIEW No. 15-1382 (October 23, 2015). USCA Case #15-1382 Document #1579899.  Retrieved from consideringthegrid.com. Archived .pdf on file at Desmog.
  17. AMERICAN FUEL & PETROCHEMICAL MANUFACTURERS,  Plaintiff v.  BNSF RAILWAY COMPANY, Defendant. Civil Action No. 4:15-cv-682, UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS HOUSTON DIVISION (PDF), Filed March 13, 2015. Archived at Desmog.
  18. Steve Horn. “Purposeful Distraction? Unpacking the Oil Refiners’ ‘Bomb Trains’ Lawsuit vs. Warren Buffett’s BNSF,” Desmog, March 24, 2015.
  19. Thomas Black, Dan Murtaugh and Mario Parker. “Berkshire’s BNSF to Add Surcharge on Older Oil Tank Cars,” Bloomberg, October 24, 2014. Archived October 11, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/csQex
  20. Eric de Place. “WHY NEW IMPROVED OIL TRAINS ARE NOT NEARLY GOOD ENOUGH,” Sightline Institute, January 28, 2015. Archived October 11, 2016. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/DSLAV
  21. Chester Dawson and Russell Gold. “Accuracy of Bakken Volatility Tests Face More Challenges,” The Wall Street Journal, November 12, 2014.  Archived .pdf on file at Desmog. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/aTiET
  22. Brendan DeMelle. “Deadly Quebec Oil Train Disaster and Athabasca River Spill On Same Day as Tar Sands Healing Walk,” Desmog, July 6, 2013. 
  23. Brendan DeMelle. “VIDEO: Government, Industry Ignore Scientific Case For Improving Crude By Rail Safety, Let Bomb Trains Roll On,” Desmog, September 17, 2015.
  24. WRITTEN STATEMENT OF AMERICAN FUEL & PETROCHEMICAL MANUFACTURERS AS SUBMITTED TO THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON COUNTERTERRORISM AND INTELLIGENCE” (PDF), Committee on Homeland Security United States House of Representatives, March 19, 2012. Archived .pdf on file at Desmog.
  25. Chris Hatch. “Industry Lobbying to Weaken B.C.’s Clean Fuel Rules, Despite Soaring Profits,” Desmog Canada, October 8, 2014.
  26. MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY,” AFPM. Accessed October 11, 2016.
  27. Seach for “American Fuel,” Conservative Transparency. Perfomed May 31, 2017.
  28. Shell quits trade group over climate-change positions,” The Washington Post, April 2, 2019. Archived April 3, 2019. Archive.fo URL: https://archive.fo/XWEZm
  29. Amanda Jordan. “Total Quits U.S. Oil Lobby Group Over Climate Policy Stance,” Bloomberg, November 8, 2019. Archived November 8, 2019. Archive.is URL: http://archive.is/qz7sA
  30. Alleen Brown. “A POWERFUL PETROCHEMICAL LOBBYING GROUP ADVANCED ANTIPROTEST LEGISLATION IN THE MIDST OF THE PANDEMIC,” The Intercept, June 7, 2020. Archive URL: https://archive.vn/2Ehvw

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