Science and Public Policy Institute (SPPI)
SPPI was founded in mid-2007 with a strong focus on global warming skepticism, and draws heavily on papers published by climate change science denier Christopher Monckton who was the editor of the SPPI‘s “Monthly CO2 Report,” (last published in January of 2011) has had many of his papers published with SPPI, and is also listed as the group’s “Chief Policy Advisor.” , 
In addition to publishing original papers on topics like climate change and mercury in the environment, SPPI has profiled the states for observed climate change and the impact or cost of climate change regulations or prevention measures.  SPPI regularly co-publishes paper with the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change (CSCDGC), and SPPI has been described as a “front” for CSCDGC. 
Robert Ferguson, President of the SPPI, previously served as the Executive Director of the Center for Science and Public Policy (CSPP) before founding SPPI at some time in 2007. In turn, CSPP was a project of the corporate-funded Frontiers of Freedom Institute. The SPPI is now run by the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change (CSCDGC). According to John Mashey’s report, “Fake science, fakexperts, funny finances, free of tax” (PDF), the Science and Public Policy Institute is “actually not much more than Ferguson, a PO box in a UPS store and a website, plus ‘advisors.’ No casual reader would guess SPPI is a CSCDGC front.” 
Stance on Climate Change
“Furthermore, contrary to the blatantly false contention of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and others, CO2 is not a pollutant; it is a pollution fighter that reduces the negative effects of true pollutants, such as ozone, and replaces them with positive effects that are of great worth to man and nature alike.” — Joint CO2 Science & SPPI Study titled “The Response of Peanut Plants to Changes in Climate and Atmospheric CO2” 
“From the oceans via the surface and the upper atmosphere to outer space, real-world measurements prove beyond reasonable doubt that there was not, is not, and will not be any ‘climate crisis’. All of the results we publish here are of direct relevance to the debate about ‘global warming’. Yet none of these results will likely be published in any mainstream news medium. The facts are not fitting the theory nor backing the scare, so the media simply suppress them.” 
As of November, 2010, the SPPI still described itself “a nonprofit institute of research and education dedicated to sound public policy.” According to SourceWatch, In early 2011, Executive Director Robert Ferguson said SPPI had not been granted nonprofit status from the IRS for more than 3 years after it was formed. , 
According to GuideStar, “This organization’s exempt status was automatically revoked by the IRS for failure to file a Form 990, 990-EZ, 990-N, or 990-PF for 3 consecutive years. Further investigation and due diligence are warranted.” See the screenshot below: , 
“The Science and Public Policy Institute (SPPI) provides research and educational materials dedicated to sound public policy based on sound science. We support the advancement of sensible public policies rooted in rational science and economics. Only through science and factual information, separating reality from rhetoric, can legislators develop beneficial policies without unintended consequences that might threaten the life, liberty, and prosperity of the citizenry.
Proposals demanding prodigious economic or political sacrifices for the sake of negligible benefits should be rejected in favor of policies to address graver, more immediate concerns.
SPPI meets its educational objectives through timely online publication of white papers, reprints, briefings, blog entries, news stories and other educational materials.”
SPPI does not detail the sources of its funding or outline its approach to disclosure. Conservative Transparency has one donation on record ($25,000 in 2011) originating from the conservative Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation. 
According to John Mashey’s report, “Fake science, fakexperts, funny finances, free of tax” (PDF) the Science and Public Policy Institute, SPPI also received a total of $158,800 from Donors Capital Fund (DCF) between 2008 and 2009, funneled through the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change (CSCDGC). Of that total, $129,400 went to the “surface station report” and the rest for general support. 
SPPI Contact & Location
As of July, 2015, the contact address for the Science and Public Policy Institute was a PO box in a UPS store: 
Science and Public Policy Institute
5501 Merchants View Square # 209
Haymarket, VA 20169
Email Address: bferguson[at]sppinstitute.org
Phone: (202) 288-5699
Science and Public Policy Institute
Email Address: bferguson[at]sppinstitute.org
Phone: (202) 288-5699
|Craig Idso||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Science Adviser|
|James J. O’Brien||Y||Y||Y||Science Adviser|
|Joe D’Aleo||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Meteorology Adviser|
|Lord Christopher Monckton||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Chief Policy Advisor|
|Robert M. Carter||Y||Y||Y||Y||Science Adviser|
|William Kininmonth||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Science Adviser|
|Willie Soon||Y||Y||Y||Chief Science Advisor|
June 13, 2016
Prominent individuals appearing in the documents include climate deniers Willie Soon, Richard Lindzen, Roy Spencer and Richard Berman. The long list of organizations also includes groups such as Americans for Prosperity, American Legislative Exchange Council, CFACT, Institute for Energy Research, State Policy Network, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and dozens more. 
“These groups collectively are the heart and soul of climate denial,” said Kert Davies, founder of the Climate Investigation Center, who has spent 20 years tracking funding for climate denial. “It’s the broadest list I have seen of one company funding so many nodes in the denial machine.”
The company’s filings reveal funding for a range of organisations which have fought Barack Obama’s plans to cut greenhouse gas emissions, and denied the very existence of climate change. […]
Among Peabody’s beneficiaries, the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change has insisted – wrongly – that carbon emissions are not a threat but “the elixir of life” while the American Legislative Exchange Council is trying to overturn Environmental Protection Agency rules cutting emissions from power plants. Meanwhile, Americans for Prosperity campaigns against carbon pricing. The Oklahoma chapter was on the list. […]
“The breadth of the groups with financial ties to Peabody is extraordinary. Thinktanks, litigation groups, climate scientists, political organisations, dozens of organisations blocking action on climate all receiving funding from the coal industry,” said Nick Surgey, director of research for the Center for Media and Democracy.
“We expected to see some denial money, but it looks like Peabody is the treasury for a very substantial part of the climate denial movement.”
Notable organizations listed in the initial documents include:
- 60 Plus Association
- The American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity
- American Energy Alliance
- Alliance For Energy And Economic Growth
- American Energy Alliance
- American Legislative Exchange Council
- Americans For Prosperity Oklahoma
- Atlas Economic Research Foundation
- Berman And Company, Inc
- Consumer Energy Alliance
- Center For Clean Air Policy
- Center for Energy and Economic Development
- Center For The Study Of Carbon Dioxide And Global Change
- Coalition for Responsible Regulation
- Committee For A Constructive Tomorrow
- Council on State Taxation
- DCI Group AZ, LLC
- Ducks Unlimited
- Energy & Environment Legal Institute
- Edison Electric Institute
- Franklin Center for Government and Public Integrity
- Free Market Environmental Law Clinic
- Frontiers Of Freedom Institute
- George C. Marshall Institute
- Hill Knowlton Strategies
- Hill Knowlton, Inc
- Hudson Institute
- Hunton & Williams
- Independence Institute
- Institute For Energy Research
- Institute for Liberty
- National Association of Manufacturers
- National Black Chamber of Commerce
- National Conference of State Legislatures
- National Mining Association
- National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners
- National Rural Electric Cooperative Association
- NextGen Energy Council
- PACE (May refer to Partnership for Affordable Clean Energy)
- Science & Public Policy Institute
- Sidley Austin LLP
- State Policy Network
- Texas Conservative Coalition Research Institute
- Texas Public Policy Foundation
- U.S. Chamber of Commerce
- Western Business Roundtable
Notable individuals named in the initial documents include the following:
December 13, 2015
Writing as a guest blogger on Watts Up With That, CFACT‘s executive director Craig Rucker denounced the latest UN climate change agreement: 
“This agreement will not meaningfully alter the temperature of the Earth, even under the U.N.’s own computer models.
“The bad news is that it plants the seeds of a new UN climate regime that left unchecked will swell into a bureaucratic behemoth.”
January 25, 2016
Lord Christopher Monckton of SPPI was among signatories to a letter addressed to the U.S. House Science Committee Chairman Lamar Smith (R-TX) claiming that data used by the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for its June, 2015 report showing there was no pause in rising global temperatures during the past two decades failed to comply with the Data Quality Act (DQA). 
“We wrote our letter as a reminder that the climate science community is as much subject to the law of the land as the rest of us,” Monckton wrote. “Tampering with data at taxpayers’ expense in pursuit of a nakedly political objective that would have horrified the Founding Fathers of the United States is contrary to the law and may even be fraudulent. Be that as it may, the Data Quality Act must in the future be complied with.” 
January 7, 2016
A study published in the journal Global Environmental Change examined communications from conservative think tanks between 1998 and 2013, and listed the Science and Public Policy Institute as the second-highest (next to the Heartland Institute) in the volume of outpout related to the denial of man-made climate change. The Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change (CO2Science) appeared next on the list. , 
December 7, 2015
Christopher Monckton, SPPI‘s Chief Policy Advisor, appeared at the United Nation’s Conference on Climate Change, COP21, in Paris, France with the Heartland Institute, the Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow (CFACT), and the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI) to “hold a ‘counter-conference’ […] called the Day of Examining the Data.” 
The SPPI‘s Chief Policy Advisor, Lord Christopher Monckton, commented at a meeting of climate change deniers at Rue de la Rochefoucauld in Paris held by Roger Helmer MEP and Piers Corbyn. The event was titled PCC15 (“The Paris Climate Challenge”). 
With reference to the COP21 climate conference, “They are trying to establish a single world government,” Monckston said. “You can argue whether it is communist or fascist depending on whether you think the people concerned are crony capitalists, in which case it’s fascist, or whether they are collectivists, in which case it’s communist.” 
The session was chaired by Tom Harris. Some of Monckton’s talking points included that CO2 is beneficial and a “life-giving gas on the planet,” that ocean acidification “is not a threat,” that climate change is solar-driven, and that we should be increasing fossil fuel use otherwise we are “depriving the poor of inexpensive fuel.” 
December 7, 2015
The SPPI‘s Christopher Monckton appears as a “Key Scientist” in Marc Morano’s documentary film, Climate Hustle, which debuted on December 7, 2015, in Paris, France during the COP21 United Nations summit on climate change. 
April 28, 2015
Lord Christopher Monckton, Chief Policy Advisor to SPPI, traveled to Vatican City, Italy, with Marc Morano of the Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow (CFACT), and Calvin Beisner of the Cornwall Alliance, for a press event hosted by the Heartland Institute in order to “dissuade Pope Francis from lending his moral authority to the politicized and unscientific climate agenda of the United Nations,” according to a Heartland Institute press release. 
“The main reason, Your Holiness, of why we are here today, is it is not the business of the church to stray from the field of faith and morals and wander into the playground that is science… it is not the business of the church to pronounce on science.
“Of course, it doesn’t very much matter to the rest of the world what view the church takes now on this – very nearly all governments around the world have already already made up their minds on this.
“Some ‘me too’ statement from someone who is not a physicist but a chemist is not likely to carry very much weight in the councils of the world. The damage that would be done by a statement straying into the science of this question – on either side – would be to the church herself. For yet again, she would have gone beyond what she was founded to do… and yet again got the science 100 percent plumb wrong.”
The Telegraph’s Christopher Booker cites a SPPI paper written by Joseph D’Aleo and Anthony Watts, titled “Surface Temperature Records: Policy-Driven Deception?” as “the most comprehensive account of this wholesale corruption of proper science,” referencing temperature data used by many climate scientists. 
The paper being referenced was originally published on August 27, 2010 on the SPPI website and does not appear to have been submitted to any peer-reviewed journals.
July 7–9, 2014
As reported by Sourcewatch, SPPI President Robert Ferguson spoke on “Benefit Analysis of CO2” (previously known as “Warming Up to Climate Change: The Many Benefits of Increased Atmospheric CO2”) at the Energy, Environment and Agriculture Task Force meeting at the 2011 American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) Annual Meeting. 
Other speakers included Craig Idso of the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change and MEP Roger Helmer, a Member of the European Parliament for the East Midlands of Great Britain who represents the Conservative Party.
June 30–July 1, 2011
DeSmog concluded that 17 of the 43 sponsors of the Heartland Institute’s Sixth International Conference on Climate Change, including the Heartland Institute itself, had collectively received over $46 million from either Scaife Foundations, Koch Foundations, or ExxonMobil. 
The SPPI‘s Monthly CO2 Report for January, 2011 — Edited by Christopher Monckton — came to the conclusion that “Sea level continues to rise more slowly than the UN predicts.” According to SkepticalScience, who reviewed the document, these conclusions were not true. 
Skeptical Science also notes that the graph on page 33 of the SPPI document has taken a sea level graph from the University of Colorado at Boulder which shows a 3.2 millimeter per year sea level rise trend, and literally rotated to make the trend look flat.
“It boggles the mind that Monckton and the SPPI think they can convince people that sea level has dropped since 1950 based on nothing more than their own unsubstantiated claims and blatantly doctored graphs which are completely contradicted by the actual observational data,” SkepticalScience said. 
May 16–18, 2010
The conference’s theme was “Reconsidering the Science and Economics,” and its purpose was “the same as it was for the first three events: to build momentum and public awareness of the global warming ‘realism’ movement.”
June 2, 2009
March 8–10, 2009
DeSmogBlog researched the funding behind Heartland’s Second International Conference on Climate Change and found that sponsor organizations had received over $47 million in funding from energy companies and right-wing foundations. 
December 7, 2009
The SPPI released a 43-page paper titled “Climategate: Caught Green-Handed!: Cold facts about the hot topic of global temperature change after the Climategate scandal” (PDF) regarding the Climatic Research Unit email controversy.
The paper concluded that “the entire ‘global warming’ theory [is] nothing more than a scam,” and described the individual who committed criminal activities to hack personal emails as a “gallant” and a “unnamed hero.” 
December 22, 2009
The SPPI published an “original paper” (PDF) by climate science denialist Christopher Monckton titled “A Non-Problem Spun Up Into A Global Crisis” (PDF) which responds to a piece titled “Climate QaA” by Andrew Glikson, Earth and paleoclimate scientist, communicated on behalf of a member of the Australian Parliament. 
March 2–4, 2008
The Science and Public Policy Institute (SPPI) was a co-sponsor of the Heartland Institute’s First International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC1). The conference, titled “Global Warming: Truth or Swindle,” was described as a “gathering of skeptics.” 
DeSmogBlog reports how Lord Christopher Monckton, Robert Fergusun and Klaus-Martin Schulte ran a well-coordinated PR campaign to harass Naomi Oreskes using plagiarized papers originally published by Schulte at SPPI. , 
The first-known SPPI press release was issued, supporting the statements made by the then NASA Administrator Michael Griffin questioning global warming. The Heartland Institute’s Harriette Johnson was listed as media contact. 
The Science and Public Policy Institute funded a film “Apocalypse? No!” intended to show errors in the Al Gore documentary, An Inconvenient Truth. It shows Monckton giving a presentation to the Cambridge University Union.
According to The Sunday Times, “[Christopher] Monckton has obtained funding from a right-wing Washington think tank, the Science and Public Policy Institute (SPPI), to create a second film [following The Great Global Warming Swindle] that will also be sent to schools. Entitled Apocalypse No, it parodies Gore, showing Monckton presenting a slide show in a vitriolic attack on climate change science. 
The SPPI publishes ongoing commentary, press releases, reports, and “original papers.” SPPI co-publishes many of its “original papers” with the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change/C02 Science. These joint reports do not appear to be peer-reviewed, often do not list author information, and only seem to be available on the SPPI and C02 Science websites. 
SPPI and CSCDGC have historically published multiple papers per month on topics like the supposed benefits of CO2 on crop growth, the supposed exaggeration of sea level rise, and that species are more adaptive to climate change than mainstream science has suggested. 
Many of the arguments presented in the SPPI papers appear at SkepticalScience’s review of common “global warming and climate change myths.” Sample SPPI papers are listed below.
|Benefits of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on Maize||2015-12-29||Not Listed||
“In summary, it seems fairly clear that as the air’s CO2 content continues to rise, and even if the climate of the world changes in the ways suggested by GCM calculations, maize plants will likely display greater rates of photosynthesis and biomass production, as well as reduced transpirational water losses and increased water-use efficiencies; and to top it all off, more areas of the world will likely become suitable for growing this important crop.”
|Benefits of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on Tomato||2015-12-22||Not Listed||
“Clearly, the evidence reveals that as the CO2 content of the air increases, tomato plants will likely display greater rates of photosynthesis and biomass production, which should consequently lead to greater fruit yields, even under stressful conditions of fungal infection and high soil salinity.”
“As demonstrated here, for many species, ocean acidification will be a non-problem … and maybe even a blessing!”
|Benefits of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on Sunflower||2015-11-04||Not Listed||
“Thus, commercial growers of sunflower crops will likely experience enhanced yields as the atmospheric CO2 content continues to rise. “
”[…] wheat growers can anticipate greater yields in the future, due to this beneficial effect of the rising atmospheric CO2 concentration.”
”[…] marine life affairs pretty much deflates the catastrophic prognostications put forth by the IPCC with regard to the future of the planet’s corals”
|Deserts: Are They Expanding or Shrinking?||2015-10-07||Not Listed||
“As with most of the rest of the world, therefore, as global temperatures go, so also goes the greening of the Earth … driven directly by the ongoing rise in the air’s CO2 content, and possibly indirectly by warming-induced alterations in global precipitation patterns.”
|The Response of Echinoderms to Ocean Acidification||2015-09-09||Not Listed||”[…] the impacts of ocean acidification on echinoderms may not be as bad as many initially thought. Indeed, for many echinoderm species, the impacts will likely be minimal, if not altogether positive.”|
|2015-09-02||Not Listed||”[…] even if the climate changes that are typically predicted to result from anticipated increases in the air’s CO2 content were to materialize (which we very strongly doubt will happen), the concurrent rise in the air’s CO2 concentration should more than compensate for any deleterious effects those changes in climate might otherwise have had on the growth and yield of peanuts. […] CO2 is not a pollutant; it is a pollution fighter that reduces the negative effects of true pollutants, such as ozone, and replaces them with positive effects that are of great worth to man and nature alike.”|
”[…] Earth’s coccolithophores are well equipped to deal with whatever
degree of ocean acidification may yet be experienced by the world’s great water bodies.”
|Alpine Ecosystem Responses to Rising Temperature and Atmospheric CO2||2015-08-19||Not Listed||”[…] alpine species in many locations are responding in a positive manner to increasing temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentrations.”|
|Historic Trends in Global Sea Level||2015-07-29||Not Listed||
”[…] it would appear that real-world sea level rise has been far less
dramatic over the course of the Industrial Revolution than what has typically been claimed to be the case by the world’s climate alarmists.”
|Antarctic Sea Ice Trends||2015-07-22||Not Listed||”[…] for some still-unproven reason, and despite the supposedly unprecedented ncreases in mean global air temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration that the planet has experienced since the late 1970s, Antarctic sea ice extent has stubbornly refused to do what climate models say it should be doing, as it just keeps on growing.”|
|Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Corals (Laboratory Studies)||2015-07-11||Not Listed||”[…] it is clear that many corals will not succumb to the presumed negative impacts of rising temperatures and ocean acidification. […] In fact, many coral species could well benefit from the warmer ocean temperatures and higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations predicted for the years and decades ahead.”|
|Interactive Effects of C02 and Salinity on Plant Growth||2015-07-15||Not Listed||”[…] barley – and many other crop plants as well –should continue to respond positively to continued increases in the air’s CO2 content, even in situations where significant stresses may be present due to high soil salinity levels.”|
|Atmospheric C02 Enrichment: Boon or Bane of the Biosphere?||2015-06-26||Not Listed||Criticizes Pope Francis’s position on climate change. The paper cites work by Craig Idso and the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change, and describes how “many people” believe carbon dioxide as providing “aerial fertilization” and being a boon that would “avert the otherwise near certain food and water crises looming on the horizon.”|
|Climate Model Inadequacies (Sea Ice)||2015-06-15||Not Listed||Questions models suggesting dramatic reductions in Arctic Sea ice due to global warming.|
|Mammals in a CO2-Enriched and Warmer World||2015-04-27||Not Listed||Suggests global warming will result in increased biodiversity.|
|Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Crustaceans||2015-03-31||Not Listed||Puts forward a “much more optimistic viewpoint” on ocean acidification caused by global warming.|
|Stop Climate Fear Mongering||2015-01-21||William M. Gray||Part of the SPPI “Reprint Series.” According to the description, “The massively funded international global warming movement has grossly exaggerated the threat from CO2 gas increases. This warming scare has been driven by a cabal of international politicians and environmentalist groups using erroneous climate model warming predictions to brainwash an uninformed global public.”|
|Health Effects of Hot vs. Cold Temperatures in Asia||2014-12-30||Not Listed||Suggests that global cooling is more dangerous than global warming.|
|Coral Reef Responses to Temperature and Stress: Thermal Adaptation||2014-12-23||Not Listed||Suggests that corals can adapt to increased global temperatures.|
|Onward Marches the Great Pause||2014-12-05||Lord Christopher Monkcton||Part of SPPI‘s “Reprint Series.” Claims that “Since October 1996 there has been no global warming at all.” Monckton went on to share this finding with the press in an “exclusive report for Climate Depot” on June 3, 2015 where he claimed that “the predictions on which the entire climate scare was based were extreme exaggerations. |
|Response of Fish to Ocean Warming||2014-10-31||Not Listed||Presents supposed evidence”in opposition to the IPCC‘s point of view” and claims that global warming will not have net harm to marine species.|
|The Global Medieval Warm Period||2014-10-30||Not Listed||Suggests that the climate has been warmer in the past, and that this warming was “known to have had a largely beneficial impact on earth’s plant and animal life.”|
|Rewriting Sunspot History||2014-08-20||Lord Christopher Monckton||Cites research by Willie Soon on solar activity, claiming that this “might be enough to cancel the influence of global warming.”|
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- “SPPI Monthly CO2 Report” (PDF), Volume 3, Issue 1 (January 2011).
- ”SPPI Personnel 2012,” Science and Public Policy Institute. Archived August 12, 2015.
- John R. Mashey. “Fake science, fakexperts, funny finances, free of tax” (PDF), DeSmogBlog, February 14, 2012.
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- The Viscount Monckton of Brenchley.”A Non-Problem Spun Up Into A Global Crisis” (PDF), Science and Public Policy Institute, December 22, 2009. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
- Dr Andrew Glikson. “Responses to Monckton of Brenchley’s article ‘A Non-Problem Spun into a Global Crisis’” (PDF), January 10, 2010.
- “Sponsorships,” The 2008 International Conference on climate Change. Archived June 10, 2011.
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- “The Response of Peanut Plants to Changes in Climate and Atmospheric CO2” (PDF). Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change, September 2, 2015.
- “Category Archives: Science Papers,” Science and Public Policy Institute. Archived May 5, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6hHauKeu9
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- Brendan Montague. “Obama’s Secret Plot to Launch Communist World State at Paris Climate Conference*” DeSmogBlog, December 3, 2015.
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