Western Energy Alliance

Western Energy Alliance (WEA)


The Western Energy Alliance (WEA) represents over 300 member companies “engaged in all aspects of environmentally responsible exploration and production (E&P) of oil and natural gas in the West,” according to its website. It is located in Denver, Colorado. [1]

WEA was founded in 1974 as the Independent Petroleum Association of Mountain States (IPAMS). It changed its name to Western Energy Alliance in 2010. Then-executive director Marc W. Smith told Leslie Haines of Oil and Gas Investor that the new name “better reflects who we are.” Oil and Gas Investor paraphrased Smith as suggesting “some anti-drilling interests in the region wrongfully assumed the old name implied that members were actually willing to drill on mountain tops.” [2]

According to an archived version of its website, WEA‘s advertised services included: [3]

  • “Comprehensive representation in Washington and across the West focusing on: access to government lands for exploration and production, federal agency permitting, air and water quality, reform of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and Endangered Species Act (ESA), wildlife conservation, health and safety, taxation, and other issues.”
  • “Established relationships with lawmakers and their staffs is fostered by regular trips to Washington, D.C. to meet with Congress and the Administration.”
  • “Policymakers view Western Energy Alliance as a valuable resource on all issues related to oil and natural gas development in the Intermountain West.”
  • “Western Energy Alliance Speaker Series luncheons, frequent symposia, workshops, and conferences focus on regional, national, and global outlooks, marketing, transportation, technology, and other current issues.”
  • “Western Energy Alliance publishes the highly regarded Wildcatter Weekly, an executive summary of the week’s events impacting natural gas and oil producers in the Intermountain West.”
  • “Western Energy Alliance provides networking opportunities with others conducting business in the same areas. Service companies, financial institutions, accounting and law firms, and E & P companies are all part of the Intermountain West petroleum community.”

WEA has historically lobbied against restrictions on the oil and gas industry, including environmental protections for the greater sage grouse, which would prevent the expansion of oil and gas development on federal lands. WEA has suggested that “Oil and natural gas provide a net benefit to the environment,” while it praised former President Donald Trump’s decision to withdraw the US from the Paris Climate Agreement, saying it “conflicted with the administration’s plans to increase American development of the energy that actually powers the country.” [4], [5]

Western Wire

WEA runs Western Wire, a joint initiative with FTI Consulting—a communications firm known for its pro-fracking Energy In Depth (EIDcampaign on behalf of the Independent Petroleum Association of America (IPAA). [6], [7], [8]

DeSmog reported on a 2009 industry memo titled “Hydraulic Fracturing Under Attack,” showing that Energy In Depth “would not be possible without the early financial commitments” of major oil and gas interests including BP, Halliburton, Chevron, Shell, XTO Energy (now owned by ExxonMobil), and several other large oil and gas companies that provided significant funding early on. [8]

WEA launched Western Wire in 2017 as the “go-to source for news, commentary and analysis on pro-growth, pro-development policies across the West.” Its managing editor is Michael Sandoval, who formerly worked as senior energy policy analyst and investigative reporter at the Independence Institute. Aaron Johnson, WEA‘s vice president of public affairs, also serves as an editor. Matt Dempsey, Western Wire’s opinion editor, is also managing director of strategic communications at FTI Consulting. [9], [10]

Dempsey worked under Senator James Inhofe for over 7 years as his press secretary (2003–2008) and later communications director (2008–2010), according to LinkedIn. [33]

There is significant overlap with Western Wire staff and FTI Consulting staff. Examples below:

Name Western Wire Position FTI Consulting Position
Michael Sandoval Managing Editor Director of Strategic Communications
Matt Dempsey Opinion Editor Managing Director of Strategic Communications
Elena Connolly Staff Writer Senior Consultant, Energy & Natural Resources
Erin Mundahl Staff Writer Public Affairs Consultant, Energy

Western Wire faced controversy when EarthRights International said its General Counsel Marco Simons, who was representing Colorado communities in climate change litigation against Exxon at the time, was contacted by two “Exxon-sponsored consultants posing as journalists.” Audio and a transcript of that call is available at the EarthRights website. [11] 

During that call, Michael Sandoval of FTI Consulting/Western Wire responded to Simons’ questions. A section of that transcript below, with Michael Sandoval of FTI Consulting/Western Wire, Marco Simons of EarthRights, and Matt Dempsey of FTI Consulting/Western Wire:

Marco Simons: Before we get started, I, I wonder, was wondering if I could 
get a little more information about Western Wire?

Sandoval: Sure.

Simons: So, my understanding is that Western Wire is a project of the Western 
Energy Association, um –

Michael Sandoval: Yeah, Western Energy Alliance, yeah. 

Simons: The Western Energy Alliance, right. Um, and it’s staffed by, primarily by staff of FTI Consulting, um –

Sandoval: Yeah.

Simons: Although one of the, one of the staff members is, is from WEA itself. Um, and, 
so, presumably that’s, that’s FTI Consulting on a contract to, under a contract to 
Western Energy Alliance, is that right?

Sandoval: Yes.

Simons: And correct me if I’m wrong, but Western Energy Alliance includes Exxon as 
one of its members, is, is that, is that right?

Sandoval: I don’t know.

Simons: You don’t –

Sandoval: I’m not privy to the membership of, of the Western Energy Alliance.

Simons: Okay. Well, it does include an executive from Exxon on its board, right?

Sandoval: Yeah.

Simons: So, I’m just assuming that Exxon’s one of its members. I guess I’m just concerned from a conflicts perspective that if you’re being funded by an organization that you don’t know their members, how do you, I guess, ensure, you know, lack of conflicts from a journalistic integrity point of view?

Sandoval: My colleague Matt Dempsey’s here, as well, and can answer some questions.

Simons: Sure.

Matt Dempsey, FTI Consulting/Western Wire: I just walked in the door. It sounds like you’re asking some questions about the membership of the Alliance. Is this being done in – are you asking questions as a lawyer as part of representing Boulder? Or is this for your own personal information? We’re – we’re ready to proceed on an interview about the case, but if this is something else, we need to know that now.

Simons: I – I’m just trying to figure out whether, uh – obviously if you’re representatives of Exxon in any fashion, I can’t talk to you, um, because, you know, Exxon is represented by counsel in the litigation.

Western Wire editor Aaron Johnson released a response, saying “We have been transparent and forthright about Western Wire’s pro-industry perspective.” He wrote at the Western Wire website: “Recently, Washington D.C. lawyers representing the City of Boulder contested the legitimacy of the news outlet. They published a blog post and that piece was picked up by Climate Liability News. The assertions made by these two entities, which are not transparent with their own funders, are misleading.” (Climate Liability News reporting can be viewed here). [12]

WEA Lobbying

Data exported from the United States House of Representatives lobbying disclosure database shows that WEA hired the American Capital Group to lobby on a number of issues, with a grand total of nearly $25 million from 2012 to 2020. Also see the Western Energy Alliance’s lobbying profle at OpenSecrets.org. [13]

Year and Topics Lobbied Total
2020 $80,000
2019 $160,000
2018 $160,000
2017 $130,000
2016 $120,000
2015 $115,000
2014 $80,000
2013 $80,000
2012 $60,000
Grand Total $985,000

Stance on Climate Change


According to the WEA‘s website: [14]

“Oil and natural gas provide a net benefit to the environment. Countries with greater access to reliable, affordable energy not only have higher standards of living, but also cleaner environments and healthier populations. Increased use of natural gas electricity generation leads to lower levels of air pollution and offers a tangible solution for climate change. Fuel switching to natural gas in the electricity sector is the number one reason the United States has reduced greenhouse gas emissions more than any other country since 2005.”

December 12, 2019

WEA President Kathleen Sgamma via Twitter:


“Colorado #climatechange activists get caught spreading #FakeNews, but this leaves unchallenged an obviously made-up ‘statistic’ that 99.9% of scientists say we’re in a ‘climate emergency.’ Real scientists don’t engage in such loaded language.”

July 31, 2018

WEA‘s Kathleen Sgamma via Twitter:

Sgamma Tweet - Finally recognition that the "cures" for  #ClimateChange could be worse for the world's poor than the symptoms


“Finally a recognition that the ‘cures’ for #ClimateChange could be worse for the world’s poor than the symptoms. Now we need a recognition that “green” energy policies are often worse for the environment than theoretical impacts in the distant future. https://nature.com/articles/s41558-018-0230-x…”

June 2, 2017

Sgamma wrote at the Western Energy Alliance‘s blog, praising President Donald Trump’s decision to withdraw from the Paris Climate Agreement: [5]

“Western Energy Alliance applauds President Trump’s decision to withdraw from the Paris climate accord. The unratified treaty conflicted with the administration’s plans to increase American development of the energy that actually powers the country […].”

“At a time like this, I like to remember how much more effective the oil and natural gas industry is at providing a real solution to climate change than any international treaty such as Paris or Kyoto; government policy like a carbon tax or cap-and-trade; or renewable subsidy.

“Our industry is responsible for 62% of the greenhouse gas emissions reductions in the electricity sector, compared to just 38% for wind, solar and other non-carbon generation, according to the Energy Information Administration.

“Our industry is the number one reason the United States leads the world in reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

“That’s right. The United States provides actual leadership on climate change by reducing more greenhouse gases than any other developed country. Leadership is not worrying about upsetting other countries because we pull out of an agreement that would hamstring our economy and possibly (or not) avoid a mere 0.2 degrees C of warming by 2100.

“Climate alarmists and others looking to fundamentally reorient society don’t like to admit it, but the oil and natural gas industry has done more to reduce greenhouse gas emissions than any government climate change policy, which is why our success is ignored by most of the media and mainstream environmental groups. The orthodoxy is about government control of the economy in the guise of the environment. We provide the exact opposite solution–the private sector operating in a free market, delivering an environmental and energy benefit at the lowest price. “

May 31, 2017

WEA‘s Kathleen Sgamma via Twitter:

March 7, 2017

WEA President Kathleen Sgamma tweeted an article by Chris Horner for the Competitive Enterprise Institute, pushing for Trump to follow through on withdrawal from the Paris Climate Treaty:

Sgamma tweet-Trump Should Keep Promise, Withdraw from Paris Climate Treaty

January 30, 2013

WEA‘s then-vice president of government and public affairs Katherine Sgamma appeared in an interview with E&E News where she suggested natural gas was the primary reason for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the US: [15]

Monica Trauzzi: “We’re heard strong indicators from both the President and inside Congress that there will be a focus on addressing climate change over the next four years. How should the administrative square those goals with the goals that it has to expand federal exploration and development?”

Katherine Sgamma: “Well, I think if you look at natural gas in particular, the reason that the United States has significantly reduced greenhouse gas emissions on path towards those Kyoto goals of 1990 emissions rates, and it’s because of natural gas, because we have switched over a considerable portion of our electricity generation from coal to natural gas. And so we’re the only industrialized country that has seen significant drop in greenhouse gases, and it’s because of natural gas. So it’s definitely easy to square those two together, because the more natural gas we produce domestically, we can export it overseas, we can use it here at home, and it’s clean burning, and it reduces greenhouse gas emissions.”

June 4, 2013

WEA‘s Katherine Sgamma has advocated for a “free-market approach” to global warming policy. She wrote at National Journal: [16]

“Which parts of the world are leading the way on energy production and global-warming policy? Clearly the United States. Through technological innovation and private-sector investment, the US is threatening the energy dominance of OPEC and Russia, with all the associated positive geo-political implications. Along with the increased production comes job and economic growth; the oil and natural gas industry is responsible for one out of every five new private-sector jobs and contributes $1.1 trillion to U.S. GDP annually.

“We’re also leading on global warming policy. Because of abundant natural gas, the United States has increased natural gas electricity generation which has enabled us to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions to 1992 levels. No other industrialized countries have come close to meeting Kyoto-style GHG reductions targets, and we did it through thousands of market decisions, not top-down federal government fiat.

“That free-market approach has enabled the US to avoid the mistakes of Europe, where misguided “green” energy policies have caused more harm than good by saddling consumers and industry with high energy costs without delivering real environmental benefits. For example, Germany is actually increasing GHG emissions while, as Bjorn Lomborg reports, spending $110 billion for 37 hours of delay in global warming by the end of the century. Clearly that is a bad cost-benefit ratio that is harming German consumers and making its industry considerably less competitive.

“Luckily, America’s adversarial democracy enabled us to avoid making the same mistakes as Europe and other countries by avoiding signing onto the Kyoto treaty and adopting similar big government policies such as cap-and-trade. There are those on this blog who will lament that we’re falling behind other countries by not adopting more government imposed “investment” strategies in green energy. How many more Solyndras do we need before we convince everyone that that type of government policy is also misguided? There are plenty of examples overseas as well. Spain and Germany again come to mind, where taxpayer money has been wasted on non-sustainable subsidies to energy sources that can’t compete in the market, saddling consumers with high-priced energy and taxpayers with debt. We’re lucky that we have a strong democracy with a solid free-market tradition that has enabled us to avoid those same command-and-control policies that continue to fail. Other countries should follow.”


According to funding records at the Conserative Transparency project, from 2008 to 2009 the Western Energy Alliance recieved at least $81,000 in funding from the American Petroleum Institute while it was still operating under the name Independent Petroleum Association of Mountain States (IPAMS). [17]

Membership in the WEA also has a range of costs depending on the size of the member company.

990 Forms

Key People

View the attached spreadsheet for details on sources, all listed affiliations, compensation, and additional information on the Western Energy Alliance people year over year (xlsx).

The following is based on information collected from listings at the WEA/IPAMS website via Internet Archive combined with listings in publicly available 990 forms:

Board of Directors

Name 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Most Recent Listed Affiliation Description
Aaron Johnson                                      Y   Vice President of Public Affairs
Alan Harrison      Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Williams Board of Advisors
Alex Campbell                    Y  Y                 Enduring Resources, LLC Advisor
Alexandra Tune                        Y  Y  Y             Treasurer thru 7/2013
Amanda Rovira                              Y  Y       Anadarko Petroleum Corporation Director
Andy Franklin      Y  Y  Y  Y                           Marathon Oil Co.  
Andy Hendricks                Y  Y                     Schlumberger At-Large
Andy Logan                Y  Y  Y  Y                 Logan Petroleum, LLC At-Large
Art Krasny                      Y                 Wells Fargo Bank, N.A. Board of Advisors
Barry Winstead      Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                         Burlington Resources  
Barth Whitham                Y  Y  Y  Y      Y  Y  Y  Y  Y   Enduring Resources Director
Beth McBride    Y                                   Legacy Energy Corp. Utah/Idaho
Betty Dieter          Y  Y                           Fidelity Exploration & Production  
Bill Bergner      Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                   Berco Resources, LLC At-Large
Bill Cadman                                  Y  Y   Whiting Petroleum Corporation Director
Bill Jones              Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Pioneer Energy, Inc. At-Large
Bill Picquet                Y  Y  Y  Y                 Ultra Petroleum At-Large
Blaine Parrott  Y  Y                                   Koch Oil Co.  
Bob Davis      Y  Y  Y  Y          Y                 Patara Oil & Gas Board of Advisors
Bob Fielding    Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                           Wellogix, Co-Chair Technology Committee Co-Chair
Bob Plowman                    Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y         Halliburton Energy Services Director
Bob Reid              Y                         eVs Natural Gas Subcommittee Co-Chair
Bob Swann  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                           Swann Exploration Co.  
Bob Unger          Y  Y                           J. M. Huber Corp.  
Brad Johnson                                  Y  Y  Y Ultra Petroleum, Inc. Director
Brad Miller                    Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y         Anadarko Petroleum Corporation 2013 – 2014 Chairman
Brent Miller                  Y  Y  Y                 Whiting Petroleum Corporation North and South Dakota State Vice President
Brent Wulf              Y                         Nabors Drilling USA, LP  
Bret Sumner                            Y  Y  Y  Y  Y   Beatty & Wozniak, P.C. Vice Chair, Government & Public Affairs
Brian Fakharzadeh                                      Y   Vice President of Development & Operations
Brian Jeffries              Y                         Western Gas Resources Natural Gas Subcommittee Co-Chair
Brian Kissick      Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                         Koch Exploration Company, LLC  
Brian Macke                    Y  Y                 Delta Petroleum Corporation Board of Advisors
Brian Searles  Y  Y  Y  Y                               The Petroleum Place, Inc.  
Brian Tooley      Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                     Welborn Sullivan Meck & Tooley, P.C. At-Large
Brian Wold                      Y                 Williams Production RMT Company Vice President
Brook Simmons                                Y  Y  Y  Y   Director
Bruce Bowman              Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Fidelity Exploration & Production Company Advisor
Bruce Kelso                Y  Y  Y  Y                 Berry Petroleum At-Large
Bryan Pratt                    Y                   Ehrhardt Keefe Steiner & Hottman PC Tax Subcommittee Chair
Bud Isaacs  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                           RIM Operating  
Carol Bickerton              Y                         Questar Market Resources Community Outreach Committee Chair
Carter G. Mathies  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                   Arista Midstream Services At-Large
Chad Calvert                            Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y Noble Energy Inc. Director
Charles Searle  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Guaranty Bank and Trust Company Advisor
Charles Stanley          Y  Y    Y  Y  Y  Y                 QEP Energy Company Vice President
Charlie Sizemore                                Y  Y  Y  Y Pioneer Natural Resources Director
Chris Carter                Y  Y  Y  Y      Y  Y         J-W Energy Company Director
Christian Rhinehart                                  Y  Y  Y   Director
Chuck Farmer                        Y  Y  Y  Y         Saga Petroleum Director
Chuck Pollard              Y  Y  Y                     Petro-Canada Resources (USA) Inc. At-Large
Cole T. Chandler  Y  Y                                   Klabzuba Oil and Gas Montana
Cornelius Dupré              Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Dupré Energy Services, LLC Advisor
D.J. Lay              Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Cimarex Energy Co. Advisor
Dale Fritz                            Y  Y         Devon Director
Dale Larsen                    Y  Y                 Calfrac Well Services Corp Advisor
Dan Amidon                              Y  Y  Y  Y   PDC Energy, Inc. Director
Dana Johnson                    Y  Y                 Enerplus Resources (USA) Corporation Board of Advisors
Danny Jimenez                    Y  Y      Y  Y  Y  Y     Craig Energy Director
Daria Mahoney                    Y  Y                 U.S. Bank Board of Advisors
Darin MacDonald              Y                         Sanjel (USA) Inc.  
Darrell Jones          Y  Y                           The Petroleum Place  
Daryll Howard                    Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y   Fuse Energy 2016-2017 Chairman
Dave Banko      Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y   Banko Petroleum Management, Inc. Director
Dave Kornder              Y                         Noble Energy  
David Heinz  Y  Y                                   CMS Oil & Gas  
David Miller              Y  Y  Y                     EnCap Investments, LLC At-Large
David S. Petrie  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                         EnCana Oil & Gas (USA) Inc.  
David Searle              Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Marathon Oil Company Board of Advisors
David Tameron                                      Y   Director
Dick Weber          Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 B.J. Services Board of Advisors
Dominic Bazile                Y  Y  Y  Y                 Central Resources At-Large
Don DeCarlo  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y             Devon Director
Don Law                Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y             Director
Don McClure                Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y             EnCana Oil & Gas (USA) Inc. Director
Don Spence          Y  Y  Y                         Merit Energy Company  
Don Wallette      Y  Y  Y  Y                           ConocoPhillips  
Donald Wolf  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                         Aspect Energy LLC Vice President
Doug Rogers                Y    Y  Y              Y  Y Basic Energy Services Director
Doug York          Y  Y                           St. Mary Land & Exploration Co.  
Dru Bower-Moore                              Y  Y  Y     Devon Energy Corporation Director
Duane Zavadil  Y  Y      Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y   Bill Barrett Corporation Director
Ed McLaughlin                    Y  Y                 Petro Canada Resources (USA) Inc. At-Large
Eric Dillé                Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y   EOG Resources Director
Eric Greager                                    Y   EnCana Oil & Gas (USA) Inc. Director
Eugene C. Kozlowski  Y                                     Makoil, Inc. Nevada/Arizona
Frank Muscara          Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                   Wells Fargo Bank N.A. Vice President
Frank Yates    Y                                   Yates Petroleum Corp. New Mexico
Fred Barrett      Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Bill Barrett Corporation Vice President
Gabrielle Sitomer                                      Y   Director
Gary Davis      Y  Y  Y  Y                           Hat Creek Energy LLC Advisor
Gary McGee      Y  Y                               Devon Energy Corporation  
Gary Packer              Y  Y  Y                     Newfield Exploration Company Vice President
Geoff Solich          Y  Y  Y  Y  Y    Y                 SFC Energy Partners Board of Advisors
George Solich  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y             Cordillera Energy Partners III, LLC Director
Greg Morzano              Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Liberty Energy Holdings, LLC Board of Advisors
Greg Pulliam                                Y  Y  Y  Y XTO Energy Director
Greg Ruben              Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y             El Paso Western Pipelines Director
Hilary Dussing  Y  Y                                   Tom Brown Inc. Wyoming
Hugh Schaefer  Y  Y  Y  Y                               Hugh V. Schaefer  
J.C. Ridens                Y  Y                     Forest Oil Corporation At-Large
Jack Ekstrom          Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y     Whiting Petroleum Corporation Immediate Past President
Jack Wold              Y      Y  Y                Y Wold Oil Properties, Inc. Director
Jagadeesan Sethuraman                      Y                 Whiting Petroleum Corporation Regulatory Committee Chair 
James Lightner  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Beacon E&P Company, LLC Board of Advisors
James Schroeder              Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y           Mesa Energy Partners Advisor
James Stewart      Y  Y  Y  Y                           Schlumberger  
Jason Buehler                    Y  Y                 IMA, Inc. Advisor
Jay Neese              Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y           QEP Resources, Inc. Director
Jay Ottoson                        Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y SM Energy Director
Jay Prudhomme                    Y  Y                 Merit Energy Company Board of Advisors
Jay Still              Y  Y  Y                     Pioneer Natural Resources Vice President
Jeff Lang              Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y   Alcova Resources Vice Chair, Events
Jeff Schwarz                            Y             Director
Jerry Barnes              Y  Y  Y  Y                   Williams Production RMT Company Vice President
Jerry Hoffman          Y  Y                           Berry Petroleum Co.  
Jim Abercrombie              Y                         Dominion Resources  
Jim Brown      Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Whiting Petroleum Corporation Board of Advisors
Jim Dobson  Y                                     Andex Resources LLC  
Jim Dodson    Y                                   Andex Resources LLC  
Jim Felton                Y  Y                     Bill Barrett Corporation Utah State Vice President
Jim Kleckner              Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Anadarko Petroleum Corporation Board of Advisors
Jim Piccone                            Y  Y  Y  Y  Y   Resolute Energy Corporation Director
Jim Powers                    Y                   Denver Mineral & Royalty Company At-Large
Joe Icenogle                    Y  Y                 Fidelity Exploration & Production Board of Advisors
Joe Jaggers    Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                         Williams Production Vice President
Joe Lima              Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Schlumberger Board of Advisors
John Benton                    Y  Y                 El Paso E&P Company, L.P. Vice President Crude Oil Markets
John Byrom                      Y                 DJ Simmons New Mexico State Chair 
John Harpole          Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y         Mercator Energy Advisor
John Kelso    Y                                   Evergreen Resources Inc. Public Relations
John Klee          Y  Y                           The Petroleum Place  
John Ludwig    Y  Y  Y  Y  Y    Y  Y                     Enrisk Services At-Large
John T. McDougal                    Y  Y                 Energy Transfer Board of Advisors
John Vering                      Y                 Black Hills Exploration and Production Board of Advisors
Jonny Brumley              Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Enduro Resource Partners At-Large
Kathleen Schroder                            Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y Davis Graham & Stubbs LLP Director
Kathleen Sgamma                                    Y  Y   President
Kelly Price          Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                     BJ Services At-Large
Kent Holsinger                                  Y  Y   Holsinger Law, LLC Secretary
Kevin Bailey                    Y  Y                 Cameron Board of Advisors
Kevin Collins      Y  Y                                 Banking & Finance Subcommittee Chair
Kevin Norris                Y  Y                     E2 Business Services Natural Gas Committee Chair
Kimberly Mazza                Y  Y                     Pioneer Natural Resources Communications Committee Chair
Kimberly Rodell                                    Y  Y   Director
Krista Johnson              Y                         Western Gas Resources  
Krista Mutch          Y  Y                           Western Gas Resources Vice President Government Affairs
Kurt Doerr      Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                   EOG Resources, Inc. At-Large
Larry Parnell                    Y  Y                 Bill Barrett Corporation Advisor
Larry Van Ryan              Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 McElvain Oil & Gas Properties At-Large
Lem Smith                Y  Y  Y  Y      Y  Y  Y  Y     EnCana Oil & Gas (USA) Inc. Director
Lisa Winn                            Y  Y  Y       XTO Energy Director
Logan Magruder  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Macquarie Tristone Vice President
Lynn Belcher      Y  Y                               Westport Oil & Gas Company  
Marc W. Smith              Y                           Executive Director
Mark Erickson      Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                   Gasco Energy, Inc. At-Large
Mark Grummon          Y  Y  Y                         Samson  
Mark Sexton  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                           Evergreen Resources Vice President
Mark Thompson                    Y  Y                 U.S. Bank Board of Advisors
Martin Fleming                Y  Y                     Noble Royalties At-Large
Martin Wigley                            Y  Y  Y  Y       President thru Nov.
Mary Laitos  Y  Y                                   Welborn, Sullivan, Meck & Tooley Secretary
Mary Viviano      Y  Y  Y  Y                           EnCana Oil & Gas (USA)  
Matt Wurtzbacher  Y  Y                                   Forest Oil Membership
Matthew Thompson                              Y  Y  Y  Y   QEP Resources, Inc. Director
Matthew Vezza                                Y         Director
Michael Batzer      Y  Y                               Fidelity Exploration & Production Co.  
Michael Decker                      Y              Y  Y Badlands Energy, Inc. Director
Michael O’Shaughnessy                    Y  Y                 Lario Oil & Gas Company Board of Advisors
Michael Smith                    Y  Y                 QEP Resources Utah State Chair 
Michael Wozniak      Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Beatty & Wozniak, PC At-Large
Mike Bock      Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                     Merrill Lynch At-Large
Mike Brunstein                    Y  Y                 Schlumberger Board of Advisors
Mike Crisman          Y  Y  Y                         Bear Paw Energy  
Mike Helwig                              Y  Y  Y     Ultra Petroleum, Inc. Director
Mike Kennedy      Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 EnCana Oil & Gas (USA) Inc. At-Large
Mike Nuss              Y  Y  Y                     Ensign International Energy Services, Inc. At-Large
Murphy Markham                    Y  Y                 EnCap Investments Advisor
Nancy McDonald          Y  Y                           EnCana Oil & Gas (USA) Inc. Community Outreach Committee Chair
Neal A. Stanley  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Great Western Oil and Gas Company Vice President
Nick Schoville                                Y  Y     Anadarko Petroleum Corporation Director
Pamela Roth                    Y  Y                Y WPX Energy Director
Patrick Hanley                      Y      Y  Y  Y  Y  Y   Hein & Associates Treasurer
Paul Debonis  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Keane Group Board of Advisors
Paul J. Zecchi  Y  Y                  Y                 Central Resources At-Large
Paul Sheppard                    Y                   BJ Services At-Large
Pete Stark                    Y  Y                 IHS Inc. Board of Advisors
Peter Dea      Y  Y      Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y             Chairman thru 7/2013
Peter Mueller                              Y  Y         Director
Phil Cook                            Y             Director
Phil Schlagel                    Y  Y                 Anadarko Petroleum Corporation Board of Advisors
Phil Stalnaker                Y  Y  Y  Y                 Cabot Oil & Gas Corp. At-Large
Philip Doty          Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y             Ehrhardt Keefe Steiner & Hottman PC Treasurer
Phillip A. Kriz  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Evertson Oil Company, Inc Nebraska StateVice President
Pierce Norton                Y  Y                     ONEOK Partners At-Large
Porter Bennett                    Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y         Ponderosa Advisors Advisor
Porter Trimble      Y  Y                               Merit Energy Company  
Ralph Reed  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                           Tall Grass Energy  
Randy Bolles                Y  Y  Y  Y          Y  Y  Y   Devon Director
Randy Pharo              Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 SM Energy At-Large
Ray Lechler  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                         Plains Marketing, L.P.  
Ray Singleton      Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Earthstone Energy, Inc. Board of Advisors
Rebecca Watson                    Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y       Welborn Sullivan Meck & Tooley, P.C. Secretary
Rene Moin              Y                         Rim Operating, Inc.  
René Morin                Y  Y  Y  Y                 Rim Operating, Inc. Board of Advisors
Rich Eichler              Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Hart Energy Publishing Advisor
Rich Frommer                Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y   Great Western Oil and Gas Company, LLC First Vice Chairman
Rich Gan                                  Y  Y  Y Wells Fargo Bank, N.A. Director
Rick Grisinger  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y        Y  Y  Y  Y  Y Halliburton Energy Services Director
Rick Hayley  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                     Cameron Corporation At-Large
Rick Hodges      Y  Y                               Exco Resources  
Rick McCullough                      Y                 Petroleum Development Corporation Vice President
Rick Robitaille          Y  Y  Y                         Anadarko Petroleum  
Rick Ross              Y  Y                       Whiting Petroleum Corp. North and South Dakota Vice President
Rob Bilger              Y  Y  Y                     Tristone Capital At-Large
Rob Swanson                              Y  Y  Y     RAS & Associates Director
Robert Cohen  Y                                     Insurance Management Associates  
Robert Harber                                      Y   Director
Robert J Clark  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 3 Bear Energy, LLC Advisor
Robert Jornayvaz  Y                                     III, Intrepid Production Corp. Utah/Idaho
Robert L. Bayless, Jr.  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Robert L. Bayless, Producer LLC Board of Advisors
Robert Parks                                      Y   Manager Gov
Robert R. McBride  Y                                     Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation  
Robert S. Boswell  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                           Forest Oil Corp.  
Rod Mellott      Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                         Orion Energy Partners  
Roger Biemans    Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                         EnCana Oil & Gas (USA), Inc. Vice President
Roger Parker          Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                     Delta Petroleum Corp At-Large
Roger Reinmiller      Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                         Fronterra Integrated Geosciences LLC Chair
Ron Boone      Y  Y                               St. Mary Land & Exploration Company  
Scot Woodall              Y                         Forest Oil Corporation  
Scott Butler    Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                         Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation  
Scott Gutberlet                            Y  Y         QEP Resources, Inc. Director
Scott Hobbs      Y  Y  Y  Y                           Peak Energy Ventures, Co-Chair Natural Gas Subcommittee Chair
Scott Key                Y  Y                     IHS Inc. At-Large
Scott Moore                    Y  Y                 Anadarko Petroleum Corporation Board of Advisors
Scott Zimmerman      Y  Y                               JM Huber  
Shane Henry                        Y  Y             Williams Director
Shane Schulz                    Y  Y                Y QEP Energy Company Director
Shawn Reed              Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Crescent Consulting, LLC Board of Advisors
Shea Loper                                  Y  Y  Y EnCana Oil & Gas (USA) Inc. Director
Sheridan Swords                    Y  Y                 ONEOK Board of Advisors
Stan Sprinkle  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Sprinkle & Associates LLC Board of Advisors
Stephen Barnes                Y  Y  Y  Y                 Breck Energy Corp Advisor
Stephen Bell          Y  Y                           Cimarex Energy  
Stephen Flaherty                                  Y  Y   Halliburton Energy Services Director
Stephen Harpham                    Y  Y                 Forest Oil Corporation At-Large
Steve Bain                    Y  Y                 Welborn Sullivan Meck & Tooley, P.C. Board of Advisors
Steve Durrett              Y                         US Exploration  
Steve Fallin  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Duncan Oil, Inc. Board of Advisors
Steve Frazier              Y  Y  Y  Y                   Klabzuba Oil & Gas At-Large
Steve Hulse                Y  Y  Y  Y                 Nabors Drilling USA, LP Board of Advisors
Susan Aldridge                                Y  Y  Y   Anadarko Petroleum Corporation Director
T. Greg Merrion                Y  Y  Y  Y                 Merrion Oil & Gas Board of Advisors
Tad Herz                    Y  Y                 Cordillera Energy Partners III, LLC Board of Advisors
Ted Brown      Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y             Noble Energy Inc Director
Tekla Taylor                              Y  Y  Y  Y   Peakview Resources, LLC Director
Terry Dobkins                Y  Y                     Antero Resources At-Large
Thomas Mac McDaniel              Y                         Schlumberger  
Thomas Sheffield                    Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y         Pioneer Natural Resources Director
Tim Hopkins      Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Entek Energy Board of Advisors
Tim Rasmussen              Y                         MDU Resources/Fidelity E & P Co Chair
Tim Wigley                            Y  Y  Y  Y     Western Energy Alliance President
Timothy A. Ficker  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                           KPMG Treasurer
Todd Berryman  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Bank of the West Advisor
Todd Ennenga              Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Energy North America At-Large
Todd Flott                Y  Y                     Merit Energy Company At-Large
Todd Tipton          Y  Y  Y                         Devon Energy Corporation  
Tom Clayson                            Y  Y  Y  Y     Samson Resources Director
Tom Crowe              Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 J-W Operating Company NGV Subcommittee Chair
Tom Dyk  Y  Y                                   Tom Brown Inc.  
Tom Foncannon  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Bank of Oklahoma, N.A. Board of Advisors
Tom Hedrick                Y  Y  Y                   Wells Fargo Bank N.A. At-Large
Tom Jepperson                      Y                 Questar Natural Resources At-Large
Tom Price  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                           El Paso Western Pipelines  
Tom Tyree              Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Vantage Energy, LLC Board of Advisors
Tony Best                Y  Y  Y  Y                 SM Energy Board of Advisors
Tony Marino      Y  Y  Y  Y                           Dominion Exploration, Canada  
Tony Mayer  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                           Captiva Resources  
Tripp Kerr                    Y  Y                 Noble Energy Inc. Board of Advisors
Tuss Erickson                    Y  Y                 Ensign United States Drilling Board of Advisors
Vaughn Vennerberg              Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 XTO Energy At-Large
Ward Polzin              Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                 Tudor Pickering Holt & Co. Board of Advisors
Will Matthews                            Y             Director
William (Bill) Griffin                Y  Y                     El Paso E&PL.P. At-Large
William Lancaster  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y        Y GMT Exploration Company, LLC Director


Name 1998 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Description
Aaron Johnson                            Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y Vice President of Public Affairs
Andrew Bremner        Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                       Staff. Director of Government Affairs
Ann Priestman          Y                               Knowledge and Information Manager, IPAMSGTI Information Center. Staff
Becca Ness                    Y                     Events Coordinator
Brian Fakharzadeh                              Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y Vice President of Development & Operations
Brian Meinhart                          Y  Y             Policy Analyst
Carla J. Wilson  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                         Director of Communication
Deena McMullen        Y  Y  Y                             Manager of Government & Public Affairs for MT, WY, ND. Staff
Donna Parker                  Y                       Assistant to the Executive Director
Gina Brooke                                  Y  Y  Y  Y Manager of Administration & Events
Gina Mateo                      Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y         Office Manager
Grant D. Melvin        Y  Y                               Manager of Government & Public Affairs for UT, CO, NM. Staff
Jon Bargas                  Y  Y                     Director of Public Affairs
Jon Haubert                    Y  Y  Y  Y               Manager of Communications
Karyn P. Grass  Y  Y                                     Executive Director
Kate Noble                                        Y Regulatory Analyst
Kathleen Eccleston            Y  Y  Y                         Director of Public & Industry Affairs
Kathleen Sgamma                  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y President
Lindie Woodruff      Y                                   Manager of Community Relations
Logan Macmillan      Y                                   Manager of Lands and Environment
Marc W. Smith  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y                     Executive Director
Natalie Garner      Y  Y  Y                               Director Of Member Services
Natalie Willms            Y  Y  Y  Y                       Staff. Director of Member Services
Paul G. Gagnon  Y  Y                                     Director of Technology Transfer
Ray Gorka  Y  Y  Y    Y                               Technology Transfer Agent, IPAMSGTI. Staff
Rebecca Shirley  Y  Y                                     Director of Membership Communications
Robert Harber  Y                                       Director
Ryan Streams                                Y  Y       Manager of Regulatory Affairs
Sarah S. Cornwell    Y  Y    Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y               Vice President of Finance & Administration
Spencer Kimball                  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y               Manager of Government Affairs
Stuart Siffring                                      Y   Regulatory Analyst
Susan Fakharzadeh                    Y  Y  Y  Y  Y             Vice President of Business Development
Tim Wigley                        Y  Y  Y  Y  Y         President, Western Energy Alliance
Timothy S. Stewart            Y  Y  Y  Y                       Washington Representative
​Tripp Parks                                Y  Y  Y  Y  Y Vice President of Government Affairs
Ursula Rick                          Y  Y             Manager of Regulatory Affairs
Wendy Wollert                    Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y           Manager, Events & Membership


March 9, 2021

The Guardian reported the Western Energy Alliance was behind a report Republicans including Liz Cheney were using to suggest Biden’s policies on oil and gas drilling would damage the economy. Records obtained by Documented and shared with Floodlight and Wyoming Public Media showed WEA had proposed a $114,000 publicly funded study. [34]

In February 2020, WEA sought to help fund the study—but was unable to. It did provide $8,000 in founding to help publicize the report, according The Guardian[34]

“Now, the Western Energy Alliance is spending thousands more to amplify the warnings in an ad campaign against Biden’s climate policies,” The Guardian reported. “The numbers have been cited dozens of times in local and national newspapers, including in the New York Times in a reference to Wyoming officials’ projections.” [34]

“The data has become core to Republican messaging opposing Biden’s climate plans even as critics suggest the study might exaggerate economic impacts by as much as 85%. The author even appeared at a meeting of the Congressional Western Caucus in February, alongside Cheney.” [34]

WEA first approached the report’s author, Tim Considine, in mid 2019 to request a proposal about his research for state officials. [34]

“Just wanted to let you know that I’m working with the Governor’s office about who will commission and pay for the analysis, so I’m making progress,” Sgamma emailed Considine, according to the records. The Guardian noted, “month earlier, Considine had shared his proposal with Sgamma and then offered to amend it based on her preferences if it would ‘help your fund raising [sic]’.”

Sgamma later defended the study and lack of disclosure of WEA‘s involvement. [34]

The bottom line is we didn’t fund it, and that’s usually where the disclosure comes in,” Sgamma said.

The $114,000 cost for the Wyoming study was publicly funded through the Wyoming Energy Authority and Wyoming State Energy Program. It had been proposed by former lawmaker Eli Bebout. He is president of Nucor Oil and Gas and has received campaign contributions from industry. [34]

July 2020

The New York Times reported that, shortly after President Trump’s inauguration, WEA‘s Kathleen Sgamma reached out to the president’s transition team regarding requirements for methane release data. [18]

Looks like this will be easier than we thought,” David Kreutzer, an economist with the Heritage Foundation, who coordinated with the Environmental Protection Agency, wrote of cancelling methane reporting requirements on Feb. 10, 2017. [18]

Three weeks later, the EPA officially withdrew the reporting requirement. [18]

The email was part of a collection of correspondence and interviews made public by a lawsuit 15 states brought against the EPA over the regulation of methane. [18]

February 24, 2020

The Western Energy Alliance bought a full-page ad in the New York Times in which 54 oil and natural gas industry executives “forcefully pushed back against months of claims that they are corrupt criminals who should be jailed” with regards to climate change. [19]

“Contrary to the anti-oil and natural gas messages candidates are spreading to voters and the media on the campaign trail, the underlying statement from business leaders is that it ‘would be criminal not to produce oil and natural gas’,” the WEA‘s press release reads. [20]

Sen. Sanders calls us criminal and Vice President Biden says he would put us in jail, but it would be criminal not to produce the life-sustaining energy that enables a healthy, safe and modern lifestyle,” said Kathleen Sgamma, president of Western Energy Alliance.

Several sources told DeSmog that WEA’s messaging indicates the industry is desperate to defend its public image. [21]

As a legal matter this claim is laughable so it’s better thought of as a PR stunt,” said Douglas Kysar, professor of law at Yale Law School. “The oil and gas industry seems to realize that its products are being recognized as deadly by growing portions of the world community and is trying to salvage their image with this ploy.” [21]

They can see their social license to operate slipping away, and they’re scrambling to hold on as long as they can. They must be scared,” added Geoffrey Supran, a Harvard research associate who studies the history of fossil fuel disinformation. “Propaganda campaigns like this ad are the flagging fossil fuel industry’s predictable response.” [21]

September 24, 2019

WEA President Kathleen Sgamma testified before the House Committee on Natural Resources, Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources in a hearing titled “Fossil Fuel Development: Protecting Taxpayers and Eliminating Individual Giveaways.” [22]

“Because the consumption of our products indeed does generate greenhouse gases, we’re vilified, yet our products provide overwhelming benefits that outweigh the impact,” Sgamma’s testimony reads. She also criticized proposed legislation to limit industry on federal lands as “duplicative regulatory red tape.” [22]

“Why would Congress want to give BLM redundant powers to regulate air quality that is already granted to EPA and the states through the Clean Air Act?” She asked. “EPA rules are applicable on public lands, of course, so why the inefficient duplication? The answer can only be that the bill is following the example of the Obama Administration in doing an end-run around the Clean Air Act and its processes for regulating existing sources properly.” [22]

She also criticized a bonding bill that would address the cleanup of orphan wells by the oil industry claiming that “If bond levels are raised too high, as they are in the bill, it ties up significant amounts of capital in an unproductive capacity, adding another cost that, in combination with all the other costs of operating on federal lands, leads to less production.” [22]

On a bill regarding royalties, she claimed “Raising royalty rates on federal lands will make them even less competitive with adjacent non-federal lands because the federal government, through acts of Congress and Executive Branch policies, has already determined that it would rather extract more in regulatory costs than it can garner in direct royalty revenue.” [22]

June 7, 2018

WEA‘s Western Wire published an interview with Roger Pielke, Jr. on “Climate Funding.”

If we’re worried about the accumulating amount of CO2 in the atmosphere, then for all the politics, for all the noise, for all the heat, it is ultimately a technology problem,” Pielke told the Western Wire. “The problem is, that the climate issue has for 20 years been owned, taken over, by some of the most far-left activists, who have the leading voices on the issue,” Pielke said. [23]

October 27, 2018

The New York Times outlined the role that industry lobbyists supporting groups including the Western Energy Alliance and Independent Petroleum Association of America (IPAA) had played in working with the Interior Department under the Trump administration to expand fracking and drilling on public lands. [4]

“A successful push by industry lobbyists has changed internal policies that govern how frequently new federal leases are offered, how quickly drilling permits are approved and how much the companies pay in royalties on oil and gas that they extract from the federal lands. The administration, at the industry’s request, also cut the time the public has to challenge federal land sales.” [4]

“The Interior Department is also moving to ease restrictions that had limited access to certain critical wildlife habitats, such as the mating grounds used by the sage grouse,” The New York Times reported. Protections for the sage grouse have long been opposed by the oil and gas industry, as it prevented industry expansion into many habitat areas. [4]

A July 2017 email from WEA‘s president, Kathleen M. Sgamma, argued some protections for the sage grouse were “overly expansive and burdensome.” She added: “These provisions are contrary to the president’s executive order” to promote energy independence. [4]

Documents and emails showed the influence of groups like the Western Energy Alliance. “Yesterday afternoon we, BLM & Solicitor’s Office, had a preliminary discussion on possible settlement conditions with the Western Energy Alliance,” said one February 2017 email from Kathleen Benedetto, a senior advisor at the Bureau of Land Management put in place by Ryan Zinke[4]

The New York Times noted that “The outcome of that meeting became public this year” when a “instruction memorandum” was sent out to field offices directing them to eliminate “unnecessary impediments and burdens” to leasing more federal land to oil and gas expansion. [4]

August 11, 2016

WEA filed a lawsuit in the federal district court for the District of New Mexico asking for the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to be compelled to lease federal lands for oil and gas exploration. In a blog post on the action, WEA blamed the “Keep-It-in-the-Ground movement” for the slowing of leasing. [26]

“The Keep-It-in-the-Ground movement is yelling and screaming to coerce BLM into violating the law so that this bureaucratic chokehold becomes a full policy stop. They’ve seen how the Obama Administration is willing to use its pen and phone to rule by fiat and impose policy that flouts Congressional mandate. The time is now for industry to stand up and demand that BLM and the Interior Department follow existing law passed by the representatives of the People. [26]

For that reason, Western Energy Alliance today filed a lawsuit challenging the failure to hold quarterly lease sales to try to compel BLM to do what’s already required by law,” WEA wrote at its blog. [26]

View court documents here.

March 17, 2015

WEA was among organizations represented in comments The Independent Petroleum Association of America (IPAA) submitted to the EPA fighting against tightening air quality standards for ozone. [27]

“Assessing the need for a revised Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (Ozone NAAQS) hinges on the quality of the health analysis to determine the ambient concentrations of ozone that create adverse effects and on the implications of control strategies to meet the Ozone NAAQS. IPAA’s analysis of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) material on its proposed revisions to the Ozone NAAQS concludes that EPA fails to justify any change in the current NAAQS,” the comments read. “While EPA has a responsibility to set an Ozone NAAQS at a level to protect public health, it should not act in a manner that imposes unnecessary costs on American citizens.” [27]

The complaint references material produced by IPAA‘s “Energy In DepthPR project as evidence. IPAA claims EID “found considerable flaws in the arguments EPA makes to justify the newly proposed NAAQS options.”  The document suggests in conclusion that “EPA should retain the current Ozone NAAQS because it would be the most cost effective choice for the same health benefits. [27]

March 2015

WEA and IPAA, represented by the law firm Baker & Hostetler LLP, filed a lawsuit claiming new regulations by the Interior Department’s Bureau of Land Management (BLM) were based on “unsubstantiated concerns,” Bloomberg reported. The regulations would require drillers on federal land to reveal the chemicals they use, meet construction standards for wells and safely dispose of contaminated water. [24]

According to the Center for Western Priorities, a conservation and advocacy organization, WEA filed its lawsuit one hour after BLM submitted its final rule. [25]

June 25, 2014

Lobbyist Richard Berman spoke at the Western Energy Alliance’s Annual Meeting in a presentation titled “Big Green Radicals: Exposing Environmental Groups” (PDF), as reported by the New York Times, who was provided a copy of the meeting agenda and a recording of the meeting from a confidential executive who had attended. [28]

You can either win ugly or lose pretty,” Berman said. “Think of this as an endless war. … And you have to budget for it.” [28]

I get up every morning and I try to figure out how to screw with the labor unions — that’s my offense,” Berman also said in his speech to the Western Energy Alliance. “I am just trying to figure out how I am going to reduce their brand.” [28]

Among Berman’s suggestions was to “Use humor to minimize or marginalize the people on the other side.” [28]

During his speech, Berman also outlined how he could route money from oil and gas industry executives to obscure the sources in his campaigns: [28]

People always ask me one question all the time: ‘How do I know that I won’t be found out as a supporter of what you’re doing?’ ” Mr. Berman told the crowd. “We run all of this stuff through nonprofit organizations that are insulated from having to disclose donors. There is total anonymity. People don’t know who supports us.” [28]


According to the IPAMS annual report, in addition to various activities lobbying on federal lands issues and the environment, the group also produced “Earth science and educational videos aimed at elementary school children.” [29]

Under their list of PR campaigns, they also ran a “Petro Pros” campaign to distribute presentations and kits to elementary school children. It included the following description: [29]

“Through this program, IPAMS volunteers make one-hour presentations – provided by IPAMS – to elementary, middle and high school classrooms. The goal is to enlighten students and teachers of the importance of petrochemicals in their lives. Three teaching } kits~ have been assembled thus far, and Cherry Creek School District officials have already expressed interest.”

Some other selected activities listed for that year included: [29]

  • IPAMS lobbied Congress to implement royalty reduction (eco-credits) for voluntary mitigation.”
  • IPAMS joined forces with an industry coalition to prevent the listing of the Black-tailed Prairie Dog.”
  • IPAMS coordinated an effort to block Interior’s wilderness re-inventories in Utah and Colorado.”
  • IPAMS worked to limit EPA involvement in oil and gas operations and sent a letter to EPA’s Carol Browner requesting that the EPA not duplicate state authority to regulate oil and gas operations.”
  • “In October IPAMS successfully petitioned the EPA not to regulate fracing [sic] under the UIC program.”
  • IPAMS organized an Emissions Trading Conference to explore the possibility of using voluntary market forces to reduce air quality concerns.”

Related Organizations


Note that WEA/IPAMS did not consistently provide a membership list to the public and it is currently viewable only to members. While efforts to reproduce clean data have been made from Internet Archive records, discrepancies in naming or logos from WEA/IPAMS year-over-year could have resulted in inconsistencies in the below information.

View the attached .xlsx spreadsheet of WEA and IPAMS Members for source data and reference links.

*Note that in 2010, only a partial listing was available, based on names listed on the IPAMS homepage.


M= Basic Member
BG= “Black Gold” Member
WM= “Wildcatter” Member
SM = “Sustaining Member” – Likely a more recent version of “Black Gold” Member

Name 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2010* 2014 2015
A-Plus Well Service, Inc               M M
A.G. Andrikopoulos Resources, Inc. M M M M M M   M M
About Talent                 M
ACI Group, LLC               M  
Adam James International               M  
Advanced Resources International         M M      
Advantage Resources, Inc. M M M M M M      
AEC Oil & Gas (USA), Inc. BG M              
AECOM Environment                 M
Aeon Energy M M M M M M   M M
Air Resource Specialists, Inc.               M  
Albrecht & Associates M M M M M M      
Allegro Development                 M
Allison Drilling Company, Inc.     M M M     M  
Alpha Development Corporation M M              
Alpine Gas LLLP               M  
Altex Oil Corporation M M M M M M      
Amadeus Petroleum Inc.               M  
Amegy Bank N. A./ Vectra Bank Colorado               M M
Amerada Hess Corporation     M M M        
American Capitol Group                 M
American Energy Alliance                 M
American Energy Finance M M M            
American Gas Compression Services, Inc. M M M M M        
American National Bank         M M      
Anadarko Petroleum BG BG BG M WM M BG SM  
Anchor Bay Corporation               M M
Anderson Exploration Company                 M
Anderson Management Company M M M M       M M
Anderson Oil Company M M M M M M      
Andex Resources, LLC M M              
Ansbro Petroleum Company     M M M M      
Anschutz Exploration Corporation M M M M M     M M
Antea Group                 M
Antelope Energy Company, L.L.C. M M M M M M   M M
Antero Resources Corporation           M   M M
Aquila   M M            
ARCADIS         M        
ARK Directional Services, Inc. U.S.               M  
Armstrong Oil & Gas, Inc.     M M M M   M M
Armstrong Resources, LLC & Armstrong Oil & Gas, Inc. M                
Arnell Oil Company M M M M M M   M M
Arthur Andersen LLP M M              
Ashby Drilling Corporation M M M M M        
Asher Resources Inc. M M           M  
Asher Resources Partnership     M M M M   M  
Ashley Glassman               M  
Aspect Energy LLC         M M   M  
Aspen Exploration Corporation M M M            
Asset Risk Management                 M
Atlas Energy, L.P.               M  
AUCTORIS                 M
Avison Young               M  
Aviva, Inc. M M M M M M      
Axia Energy LLC               M M
Aztec Energy Corporation     M            
B.J. Services M M M M BG M      
B2 Energy, LLC         M M      
Babcock & Brown Energy, Inc.     M M M M      
Badlands Energy, Inc.                 M
Baker Atlas     M            
Baker Hostetler LLP               M M
Baker Hughes M M M M M   BG M  
Balcomb & Green, P.C.           M      
Ballard Petroleum Holdings LLC     M M M M   M M
Bank of America Merrill Lynch                 M
Bank of Oklahoma, N.A.     M M M M   M M
Bank of the West           M   M M
Bank One Energy & Utilities Group M                
Banko Petroleum Management, Inc. M M M M M M   M M
Banque Paribas M                
Barbrick Investment Company     M M M M      
Barlow & Haun, Inc. M M M M M M      
Barrett Resources Corporation BG BG              
Barron Investments               M  
Basic Earth Science Systems, Inc. M M M M M M      
Basic Energy Services               M M
Basin Exploration, Inc. M                
Bass Enterprises Production Co.           M      
Bayless             BG    
Bayswater Exploration & Production, LLC               M M
Baytex Energy USA Ltd.               M  
Beacon E&P Company, LLC               M M
Bear Cub Energy LLC     M M M M      
Bear Paw Energy M M M M M M      
Beatty & Wozniak, P.C.           M   M M
Behrens And Associates               M M
Belco Energy Corp. M                
Benchmark Commercial               M  
Benson Mineral Group, Inc. M M M M M M   M M
BENTEK Energy LLC               M  
Berco Resources, LLC M M BG BG BG BG      
Berry Petroleum Company     M BG BG BG BG M  
Bestoso Oil & Gas Company M M              
BETR Resources, Ltd. M M M            
Big Country Energy Services LLC               M  
Bill Barrett Corporation     M BG BG BG BG SM  
Bird Oil Corporation M M M M M        
Bison Engineering, Inc.                 M
BJ Services Company       BG   BG      
Bjork Lindley Little PC       M M M   M M
Bjork, Lindley, Danielson & Baker, P.C. M M              
Bjork, Lindley, Danielson & Little, P.C.     M            
Black Diamond Minerals, LLC               M  
Black Hills Exploration and Production, Inc.     M M M M BG M M
Blackeagle Energy Services                 M
Bonanza Creek Energy, Inc.               M M
BOPCO, L.P.             BG M  
Boulder Oil Company M                
Bourland & Leverich Supply Co. M                
Boyt Investment Co.           M      
Bradsby Group               M M
Breck Energy Corp               M M
BreitBurn Management Company, LLC               M  
Breitenbach Petroleum Corporation               M  
Bright Star Energy Services, Inc.       M M        
Broe Companies               M M
Brooke Denver Insurance         M        
Brooks Exploration, Inc. M                
Brownlie, Wallace, Armstrong & Bander Exploration M M M M M M   M  
Brownstein Hyatt & Farber         M        
Brownstein Hyatt Farber Schreck, LLP                 M
Bryan Cave LLP               M M
BTA Oil Producers M                
BTC Oil Properties,LLC       M M        
Bullock Oil Properties   M M M M M   M M
Burlington Resources M M M M M M      
Burns & McDonnell                 M
Burns, Wall, Smith and Mueller, PC M M M M M M      
Business Acquisitions, Ltd. M   M M M        
Buys & Associates, Inc. M M M M M M      
BWAB Incorporated M M M M M M      
C & E Operators M M M M M M   M M
Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation BG BG BG BG BG BG BG    
CACHCO Investments, LLC M M M            
Caerus Oil and Gas LLC               M M
Calfrac Well Services Corp             BG M M
Caliber Midstream                 M
Calpine Natural Gas     M M WM        
Calver Resources Inc.     M M M        
Cameron M M M M WM BG BG M M
CamWest M M M M M        
Canadian Consulate               M M
Canary, LLC               M M
Captiva Resources, Inc. M M M M M M   M M
Carbon Energy Corporation M M M M          
Carbon Natural Gas Company               M M
Cardo Company M M M M M M      
Caribou Land and Livestock Montana, LLC     M M M M      
Carl F. Smith M M M M M M      
Carmony Exploration, LLC                 M
Cassidy Turley Colorado                 M
Castle Rock Resources, LLC         M M   M  
Castleton Commodities International               M M
Catamount Constructors, Inc.               M M
Catamount Resources, LLC               M M
Cathedral Energy Services               M M
Catlin Underwriting Agency U.S., Inc.       M M        
Caza Drilling Company M M M M M        
CB Richard Ellis           M   M M
CBRE               M M
Cenex Harvest States Cooperatives M                
Centennial Resource Development, LLC               M M
Central Operating, Inc. M M              
Central Resources, Inc. BG BG M M M M   M M
Certek Heating Solutions               M  
Chaco Energy Company               M M
Chandler Energy, LLC   M M M M M     M
Charles A. Einarsen M M M M M M      
Chemco, Inc. M M M M M M   M M
Cherry Creek Insurance               M M
Chesapeake Energy Corporation               M M
Chevron                 M
Chief Well Logging Company   M   M M M      
Chippewa Resources                 M
Chris Kennedy M M M M M M      
Cimarex Energy Co.     M M M M BG M M
Ciris Energy Inc.               M  
Cirque Resources LP               M M
Citation Oil and Gas Corp.             BG    
Citi Private Bank               M  
Clanahan, Tanner, Downing & Knowlton, P.C. M   M            
Claude C. Corkadel     M M M        
Cliff Stevens     M M M        
Club Oil & Gas, Inc. M M              
CLX M M M M M M      
CMS Energy Oil & Gas M M              
Coastal Oil & Gas Corporation BG BG              
Cody Energy, LLC M M              
Cohort Energy Company     M M          
Coleman Oil and Gas, Inc. M   M M M M      
Colliers               M  
Colliers International               M M
Colorado Business Bank               M M
Colorado Interstate Gas     M            
Colorado Tubulars/Aztec Pipe LLC       M M M      
Colton Limited Liability Company M M M M M M      
Columbine Logging               M  
Column Commercial Partners               M M
Comerica Bank               M M
Comet Resources, LLC     M M M        
Comet Ridge Resources, LLC               M  
Community Banks of Colorado               M  
Compass Bank         M M      
ComplyWorks               M  
Concho Resources                 M
Concord Energy Holdings LLC     M M M     M M
Condor Exploration, LLC M M              
Conley P. Smith Operating Company M M M M M     M M
Connelly Exploration Inc. M M M M M M      
ConocoPhillips     M M M     M M
Continental Resources               M M
Corab Resources                 M
Coral Production Corp. M M M            
Cordillera Energy Partners LLC   M M M WM M BG    
Cornerstone Environmental Resources, Inc. M                
Cornerstone Natural Resources LLC         M M   M M
Coronado Oil Company M M M M M M   M M
Corpac Steel               M M
Corporate Source Office Furniture         M M      
Craig Energy                 M
Cramer Oil Company M M M M M M      
CRED                 M
Credo Petroleum Corporation M M M M M M      
CRESA Partners           M      
Crescent Point Energy               M M
Crow Creek Energy, L.L.C.     M M M M      
Crown Energy Partners, LLC               M  
CSI Recruiting     M M M M      
Cudd Pressure Control, Inc. M M M M M M BG    
D. J. Simmons, Inc. M M M M M M      
D.A. Davidson & Co.                 M
D.J. Simmons, Inc.               M M
Dalton Boggs               M  
Danish Flats Environmental Services               M  
David Bradshaw               M  
David Morrison-Commercial real estate broker           M      
Davis, Graham & Stubbs LLP M M   M M M   M M
Deal Energy Resources               M  
Dejour Energy (USA) Corporation               M  
Deloitte         M M   M  
Delta Petroleum Corporation M M M M BG BG      
Dennis A. Oliver & Associates, Inc.     M M M        
Denver Petroleum Club                 M
Denver Zoo               M  
Desco Environmental Consultants               M M
Devon Energy Corporation BG BG BG BG BG BG SM SM SM
DGS Law             BG    
DHS Drilling Co.               M  
Diamond Oil & Gas, LLC               M  
Discovery Natural Resources, LLC                 M
DJ Resources, Inc.               M M
Dolar Energy, LLC     M M M M      
Dolar Oil Properties M M              
Domestic Petroleum Council M M              
Dominion Exploration & Production, Inc. M M              
Dominion Exploration Canada Ltd.     M BG BG BG      
Dominion Oklahoma Texas Exploration & Production, Inc.     M            
Don Adams & Associates M M              
Don Greenwood     M M M M      
Don Wolf               M M
Don’s Directory, Inc.     M M M M   M  
Dorado E&P Partners               M M
Dorado Gas Resources, LLC     M M M M      
Dorsey & Whitney LLP M M M M M     M M
Double Eagle Petroleum Company     M         M  
Douglas Cullen M                
Dr. Burdette A. Ogle M M M M   M      
Drillinginfo               M M
DRM Oilfield Tubulars                 M
DTC Energy Group, Inc.               M  
DTZ Americas, Inc.                 M
Dudley & Associates, LLC     M M M M      
Dugan Production Corp. M M M M M M      
Duke Energy Field Services, Inc. M M M M WM M      
Duncan Oil, Inc. M M M M M M   M M
Dupré Energy Services, LLC               M M
E.C. Yegen M M M M M M      
Eagle Environmental Consulting, Inc.                 M
Eagle Exploration               M  
Earth Services & Abatement               M  
Earthstone Energy, Inc.               M M
Eaton Metal Products Company LLC               M M
Edgen Corporation         M M      
Edmonds Energy Corp.               M M
EE3 LLC               M M
Ehrhardt Keefe Steiner & Hottman PC     M M M M   M M
Eide Bailly LLP               M M
El Paso             BG    
El Paso Corporation       BG BG        
El Paso Field Services     BG            
El Paso Western Pipelines       M M M      
Elevation Digital Media                 M
Elk Creek Energy, LLC         M M      
Elk Resources, Inc.           M      
Elm Ridge Exploration Company, LLC               M M
Elm Ridge Resources, Inc. M M BG BG BG BG      
eLynx Technologies, L.L.C.         M M      
Emerald Oil               M  
Emerald Operating Company M M M M M M      
Encana Oil & Gas (USA), Inc.   BG BG BG BG BG SM SM SM
EnCap Investments   M     M M BG M M
Encore Acquisition Company         M M BG    
Endeavour International Corporation               M M
Enduring Resources, LLC           M   M M
EnerCom Incorporated BG BG M M M M   M  
Energy Acquisition Corp.     M            
Energy Ingenuity Co.     M            
Energy IV, LLC               M  
Energy Navigator               M M
Energy Operating Company, Inc. M M M M M M   M M
Energy Real Estate Solutions, LLC                 M
Energy Search Company M M M M M M      
Energy Services Limited Liability Company               M  
Energy Spectrum           M      
EnergyNet     M M M M   M M
Enerplus Resources (USA) Corporation               M M
Enerplus Resources Fund             BG    
Enertia Software     M M M        
Enesco                 M
England Resources Corporation M M M M M M      
Enron North America Corp. BG M              
Enserco Energy, Inc. M M M M M M      
Ensign Energy Services Inc.             BG M M
Ensign Oil & Gas, Inc. M M M M WM        
Ensign United States Drilling           M      
Entek Energy               M M
enTerra Energy, L.L.C.         M M      
EnVent Energy LLC       M M M   M M
EnviroGroup               M  
Environmental Resource Management               M  
Environmental Strategies Corp.     M            
EOG Resources M M M BG BG BG BG M M
EP Energy               M M
EP Tech     M M          
Equity Oil Company     M M M        
ERM Pipeline, LLC           M      
Ernst & Young         M M BG M M
Escalera Resources Co.                 M
ESRI           M      
Eurofins Lancaster Laboratories Environmental Inc.                 M
Evans Energy Company M M M            
Everest Energy     M M M        
Evergreen Resources, Inc. BG BG BG BG          
Evertson Oil Company, Inc. M M M M M M   M M
eVs, LLC       M M M      
Ewing Exploration Company               M  
Exaro Energy III, LLC               M M
Exciter                 M
EXCO Resources, Inc. M M       M      
Falcon Petroleum, LLC     M            
Fall Line Energy M M M M M M      
Fancher Resources, LLC M M M M M M   M M
Farleigh Oil Properties M M M M M M      
Ferguson Beauregard     M M M M      
Ferguson Energy, Inc. M                
Fidelity Exploration & Production Company M M BG BG WM M BG M M
Fifth Third Bank                 M
Financial Designs Limited               M M
Find Oil & Gas Co. M M M M M M      
Finley Resources Inc.                 M
First Albany Capital         M M      
First Albany Corporation     M M M        
First Energy Services Company M M              
First Union Securities, Inc. M M              
First Western Trust Bank               M  
Five States Energy Company, L.L.C.     M M M M   M  
Flint Hills Resources, LP     M M M M      
Flood & Peterson Insurance M M              
FMC Technologies Completion Services               M M
Forest Oil Corporation BG BG BG M M M BG    
Forestar Petroleum Corporation               M M
Foundation Energy Management, LLC               M M
FourPoint Energy, LLC                 M
Frank Di Grappa           M      
Frank W. Winegar, Trust M M M M M M      
Franke Greenhouse List & Lippitt LLP               M  
Freberg & Company, Inc. M                
Frontier Oil and Refining Company M                
FTS International               M  
Furst Engineering Inc. M M M M M        
Fuse Energy                 M
G & H Production Company, LLC M M M M M M   M M
G Wiz Systems, Inc. M M              
Gallatin Public Affairs               M M
Gardere & Wynne, LLP M M M            
Garvin Robert               M  
Gary-Williams Energy Corporation M M       M      
GaryWilliams Energy Corporation     M M M        
Gas Research Institute M                
Gas Technology Institute   M M M M        
GasCo Energy, Inc.     M M M M   M  
Gasher-Brum Energy Partners Corporation           M      
GE Capital               M  
Gene F. Lang & Co.               M M
Genesis Energy               M M
Genesis Gas & Oil LLC           M   M  
George C. Vaught Jr. M M              
George Dolezal, Jr. M M M M M        
George G. Vaught, Jr.     M M   M   M M
Geosyntec Consultants                 M
GeoTrans, Inc.     M            
Gerald Quiat M M M M   M      
GES Energy & Natural Resources               M  
Global Infrastructure Partners               M M
GMT Exploration Company LLC               M M
GMT, Inc.     M M M M      
Gold Point Exploration Ltd.           M      
Golder Associates Inc.               M M
Good Earth Minerals LLC         M        
Grand Mesa Operating Company M M M M M     M  
Grand Resources, Ltd. M M M M M M   M M
Grant Thornton, LLP                 M
Great Western Oil and Gas Company, LLC               M M
Greenberg Traurig               M M
Greystone M M M M M M      
GRI M                
Guaranty Bank and Trust Company               M M
Gunlikson Petroleum Inc.               M M
Gunnison Energy Corp     M M M M   M M
GWiz Systems, Inc.     M M M        
H.J. Kagie M                
H.N. “Dusty” Rhodes   M   M M        
H&C Colton Co               M M
H2H Group               M  
Halcon Resources Corporation               M  
Haley Engineering Inc. M M              
Hallador Petroleum Co. M M M M M        
Halliburton       BG   BG BG SM SM
Halliburton Energy Services BG BG BG M BG M      
Hallwood Energy Corporation M M              
Hanifen, Imhoff Inc. M                
Haploos               M  
Harding ESE M M M            
Harris Nesbitt Corp.         M M      
Hart Energy Publishing               M M
Hart Publications, Inc. M M M M M        
Harvey E. Yates Company M M M M M M   M M
Hat Creek Energy LLC               M M
Hawthorn Oil Company M                
Hayden-Wing Associates, LLC               M  
Headington Oil Company   M M M M        
Heartland Oil and Gas Company M M M            
Hebna Corporation                 M
Hein & Associates M M M M M M   M M
Heinle & Associates, Inc. M M M M M M   M M
Helis Oil & Gas               M M
Herbaly Exploration LLC     M M M M   M M
Herbaly Petroleum Corp. M M              
Herbrick Agency Oil & Gas Field Insurance           M      
Hewitt B Fox Inc M             M M
Hibernia National Bank         M M      
High Country Executive Search               M M
HITT Contracting                 M
Hogan & Hartson L.L.P.     M M M M      
Hogan Lovells US LLP               M M
Holland & Hart, LLP M M M M M M BG M M
HollyFrontier Corporation               M  
Holme Roberts & Owen LLP M M M M M M      
Holsinger Law, LLC               M M
Hoovler Ventures, LLC M M M            
HRF Exploration & Production     M M M        
HRM Resources, LLC               M M
HS Resources, Inc. M M              
Hub International               M  
Hubbell Exit Strategies, LLC           M      
Hugh V. Schaefer M M   M M M      
Hunsucker Goodstein               M  
Hunter Energy LLC               M  
Hunter Stuart Energy Advisors     M M M        
i 2 Construction               M M
IHS             BG    
Impact Energy Resources, LLC               M  
Impact Energy, Inc.   M M M M        
Incorr Energy Group LLC               M  
Independent Production Company, Inc. M M M M M        
Industry Infographics, Inc.               M M
Infinity Oil & Gas M M M M M M   M M
Infinity Oil & Gas of Wyoming     M M M        
Inflection Energy               M M
ING (U.S.) Capital Corp. M                
Inland Oil & Gas Corporation M M M M M M   M  
Inland Production Company M                
Inland Resources, Inc.     M M          
Insurance Management Associates, Inc. M M M M M M      
Integrated Petroleum Technologies, Inc. M   M            
Intoil Inc. M M M            
Intrepid Oil & Gas LLC M M M M M M      
IPAMSGTI   M              
J-W Energy Company               M  
J-W Operating Company         WM M      
J.L. Obourn, Jr. & Co. M M M M M M      
J.M. Abell M M M M M M   M M
J.M. Huber Corporation     M M WM M      
J&H Marsh & McLennan M                
JACAM Chemical               M M
Jackson Kelly PLLC               M  
JBR Environmental Consultants           M   M  
Jenex Petroleum Corporation M M M            
Jet Linx Denver                 M
JMI Energy, Inc M                
John Cranor M                
Jonah Gas Company, LLC     M M M M   M M
Jones Lang LaSalle Americas, Inc.               M M
Julander Energy               M  
Julien J. Studley, Inc.       M          
Juneau Energy LLC                 M
Jupiter Energy, L.L.C.           M      
K.P. Kauffman Company, Inc.               M M
Kadrmas Lee & Jackson               M  
Keane Group               M M
Keith Lightfield               M  
Ken Farmer Operating, LLC         M M   M M
Kennedy Oil     M M M        
Kentta Corporation M M M M M M      
Kerr McGee           BG      
KerrMcGee Rocky Mountain Corporation     M M M M      
Key Energy Services, Inc.               M M
Key Production Company, Inc. M                
Kim Overcash LLC M M           M M
Kinder Morgan, Inc. M M M M M        
Kinney Oil Company M M M M M M   M M
Kirkpatrick Energy Associates, Inc. M                
Klabzuba Oil & Gasac M M M M M M      
Kleinfelder               M M
KLT Gas Inc.     M            
Knapp Oil Corporation               M M
Koch Exploration Company, LLC     M M M M   M M
Koch Petroleum Group LP M M              
Kodiak Oil & Gas               M  
KPMG       M WM M   M M
Krug & Sobel M M              
L. B. Industries, Inc. M                
Lake Fork Resources, LLC M M M M M        
Lamar Light & Power M M M            
Laramide and Laramide Production LLC M M M            
Laramide LLC       M M M      
Laramie Energy         M M      
Laramie Energy II, LLC               M M
Lario Oil & Gas Company M M M M M M   M M
Lathrop & Gage L.C.               M M
Lawton L. Clark M M M            
Layfield Environmental Systems Corporation               M  
LEED Energy Services Corporation     M M M M      
Leede Exploration M M              
Leede Operating Co., LLC     M M M M   M M
Legacy Energy Corporation M M              
Legacy Wealth Partners               M  
Leith Ventures, LLC M                
Lewis, Bess, Williams & Weese P.C.               M M
Liberty Energy Holdings, LLC     M M M M   M  
Liberty Gas Marketing         M        
Liberty Oilfield Services               M M
Liberty Resources LLC               M M
Lime Rock Partners       M M M      
Linc Energy               M M
LiTMus EPO LLC M   M M M M   M M
Little Oil & Gas M M M M M M      
Locin Oil Corporation M M M M M M      
Lockton Companies, LLC               M M
Logan & Firmine, Inc. M M M M M M      
Lone Mountain Production Company M M M M M M   M  
Lone Star Steel Company           M      
Longwell Investments     M M M M      
Louis S. Madrid Oil & Gas M M M M M M      
LT Environmental, Inc.               M M
Luca Technologies, LLC         M M      
Luff Exploration Company               M M
M & G Drilling Company, Inc.     M            
M & K Oil Company, Inc M M M M M M      
M-I SWACO         M M      
M.A. Miceli M                
M.I./SWACO M M M M M        
M.J. England & Associates M M M M M M   M M
M2M Data Corp.       M M        
M2M Matrix, Inc.     M            
M3 Construction, LLC                 M
Macquarie Tristone               M  
Maddox Oil Properties, Inc. M M M            
Madison Energy Advisors, Inc. M M M M   M      
Madrid Oil & Gas Properties               M M
Magna Energy Services               M  
Major Gathering Company M M              
Major Oil & Gas M                
Major Pipeline, L.L.C.     M M M        
MAK-J Energy Partners, Ltd.         M M      
Makoil, Inc. M                
Mallard Resources Company M                
Mallon Resources Corp. M M M M M        
Manley & McAdam, Inc. M M M M M M   M M
Manti Operating Company           M      
Manx Oil Corporation M M M M M M      
Mar Oil and Gas Corporation               M M
Marathon Oil M M M M M M BG M M
Markus Production, Inc. M M M M M M   M M
MarkWest Resources, Inc. M M M M          
Marlin Miles & Company, PC M M M            
Marshall & Winston, Inc.               M M
MasTec North America               M M
McAda Fluids Heating                 M
McCartney Engineering, LLC         M        
McElvain Energy, Inc.               M M
McElvain Oil & Gas Properties M M M M WM M BG    
McGraw Hill/Platts M M M M M        
McGriff, Seibels & Williams           M      
McMurry Energy Company M M              
Meagher Energy Advisors               M M
Meagher Oil & Gas Properties, Inc.     M M M        
Meany Land & Exploration, Inc.     M M M M      
Medicine Bow Energy Corporation     M M M M      
Melange Associates, Inc.       M          
Melange International, LLC         M M   M  
Memorial Resource Development LLC                 M
Mendell Petroleum Corporation M                
Mercator Energy, LLC     M M M M   M M
Mercer Energy Advisors         M        
Merit Energy Company M M BG BG BG BG BG M M
Meritage Energy Partners LLC       M M        
Merrion Oil & Gas               M M
Mesa Energy Partners               M M
Mesa Hydrocarbons, Inc.   M M M          
Metro Denver Economic Development Corporation               M M
MGA Communications       M M M      
Michael Lacey           M      
Millennium Energy Group, LLC M M              
Miller Energy Consulting, LLC                 M
Miller, Dyer & Co. LLC           M      
Miratech Corporation       M M M      
Montana & Wyoming Oil Company M                
Montana Geoscience Foundation     M M M        
Moody Insurance               M M
Morenergy Exploration Company M       M M      
Morgan Stanley     M M M        
Mountain Petroleum Corporation M M M M M M   M  
Mountain States BioSolve M                
Moye |White               M M
Mull Drilling Company, Inc. M M              
Mustang Resources, LLC                 M
N M Rothschild (Denver) Inc.         M        
Nabors Drilling USA M M M M M M BG    
Nadel & Gussman HEYCO, LLC               M M
Nance Petroleum Corporation M M M BG BG        
National Fuel Corporation M M M M M M   M M
National Oilwell Varco                 M
NationsBank Energy Group Denver M                
Natural Gas Associates of Colorado, LLP M M M            
Natural Gas Fuel Company M                
Natural Gas Partners M M M M M M   M  
Nautilus Oil and Gas Company M M              
Nerd Gas Company, LLC             BG M M
Netherland, Sewell & Associates       M M M      
NetworkOil M M              
New Mexico Oil Corporation M M M M M M   M  
New Millennium Resources, Inc. M                
New Prospect Company                 M
New Tech Global               M  
Newalta Corp.               M M
Newfield Exploration Company         M M BG SM SM
Newfields LLC               M  
Newmark Knight Frank Frederick Ross               M  
Newpark Drilling Fluid, LLC     M M M M      
NexGen Oil & Gas, LLC               M M
Next Generation Solutions               M  
Nexus Resources LLC               M M
NiCo Resources, LLC               M M
Nielson & Associates, Inc. M M M M M M   M M
NMR Holdings, LLC               M M
Noble Energy Inc.             BG SM SM
Noble Royalties, Inc.         BG BG      
North American Petroleum Corporation USA           M      
North Central Oil Corporation M                
North Plains Energy, LLC               M  
Northstar Bank Colorado                 M
Norton Rose Fulbright                 M
Noshok, Inc.     M M M        
NPC Engineering Group, LLC               M  
Nytis Exploration         M M      
O’Neal Resources Corporation       M M     M M
O&G Environmental Consulting, LLC     M M M M      
Occidental Petroleum Corporation             BG M M
Ocean Energy M   M M          
OfficeScapes                 M
OGE Energy Resources           M      
Oilfield Salvage & Service Company M                
Old Ironsides Energy, LLC                 M
Oneok, Inc.             BG    
Opon LLC                 M
Opportune LLP               M M
Optigas, Inc.         M M      
Orion Energy Partners         M M      
Orion-Utah, LLC M M M            
Oso Energy Resources, Corporation M   M M M M      
OtterTail Environmental, Inc.                 M
Outrigger Energy               M M
P.A. WEISS Executive Solutions                 M
P2 Energy Solutions     M            
Pace Global Energy Services         M        
Packers Plus Energy Services Inc.               M M
PADCO, LLC         M M   M M
Paladin Energy Partners     M M M M      
Panther Creek Resources LLC M M M M M M      
Panther Pressure Testers                 M
Patara Oil & Gas               M  
Pathfinder Energy Services     M            
Patina Oil & Gas Corporation       BG BG BG      
Patrick A. Doheny M M M M          
Patterson-UTI Drilling Company     M M M M      
Patton Boggs LLP       M M M   M M
PBS Energy Production, Inc.               M  
PDC Energy, Inc.               M SM
Peabody Natural Gas     M M M M      
Peak Energy Resources Inc.     M M M M      
Peak Energy Ventures     M M          
Peak Exploration & Production, LLC               M M
Peak Wealth Advisors, Inc.                 M
Peakview Energy Company               M  
Pease Oil & Gas Company M M              
Pennaco Energy, Inc. M M              
Permits West, Inc.               M M
Peter K. Roosevelt M   M M          
PETR (logo not visible)     BG            
Petrie Parkman & Co. M M M BG BG BG      
Petrie Partners               M M
Petro-Canada           BG      
Petro-Canada         BG   BG    
Petroglyph Energy, Inc. M M M M M M BG M M
Petrogulf Corporation M M M M M M   M M
Petrol Oil and Gas Inc.           M      
Petroleum Field Services               M M
Petroleum Place   BG   BG BG        
Petron Development Company               M M
Petros Environmental Group, Inc.               M M
petroWEB               M  
Phillips Petroleum Co. M M              
Phoenix Production Company M M M M M        
Pioneer Energy Inc.               M  
Pioneer Energy Services               M  
Pioneer Natural Resources         BG BG SM SM M
Pitts Oil Company M M M M M        
Plains Marketing, L.P. M M M M M M      
Plexus Capital, LLC               M  
PLS Inc               M  
Poison Spider Oil Company, LLC M M M M M M      
Polfam Exploration Company M M M M M M      
Ponderosa Advisors               M M
Poulson, Odell & Peterson, LLC M   M M M       M
Powers Energy Corporation               M  
PowerSpring M M              
PRB Transportation, Inc         M M      
Precision Drilling               M  
Premier Data Services   M M M M M      
Presco, Inc.         M M      
Preston, Reynolds & Co., Inc. M   M M          
Prima Energy Corporation   M M M WM        
Prima Exploration, Inc. M   M M M M   M M
Prima Oil & Gas Company M                
Private Oil Industry, Inc.     M M M        
Pruitt Gushee, a Professional Corporation           M      
PYR Energy Corporation M M M M M        
QEP Resources, Inc.               SM SM
Quad Knopf Inc.               M M
Questa Engineering Corporation       M M        
Questar           BG      
Questar Market Resources     M M BG+WM M SM    
R Squared Incorporated         M M      
R.N. Industries               M  
RAS & Associates               M M
RCF Consulting Services, LLC               M  
Read & Stevens                 M
Red Sky Resources               M  
Red Willow Production Company M M M M M M   M M
Redstone Resources, Inc. M   M M          
Reed Energy Consulting LLC               M M
Renzenberger                 M
Resolute Energy Corporation               M M
Resolute Natural Resources Company         Mactio M      
Resource Solutions, LLC     M M M M      
Retamco Operating, Inc. M M M         M M
Rex Monahan M M M M   M      
Richard Altman & Company               M M
Richard P. Cullen   M   M M        
Richardson Operating Company       M M M      
Rim Operating, Inc. M M M M M M   M M
Rincon Exploration LLC M M M M M M      
Rio Chama Petroleum, Inc. M M M M M        
RiverRock Energy, LLC                 M
Rivington Capital Advisors     M M M M      
RKI Exploration & Production               M M
Robert Garvin         M M     M
Robert L. Bayless, Producer LLC M M M M WM M   M M
Robert R. Vanderbeek           M      
Rocking Horse Energy Services               M  
RockPile Energy Services               M M
Rocky Mountain Exploration, Inc. M                
Rocky Mountain Gas, Inc.         M        
Rocky Mountain Operating Co. M M M M M M      
Rosetta Resources Inc.           M BG    
Rosewood Resources, Inc. M               M
Royalty Investment Ltd Inc.               M  
Ryan Exploration       M M M   M M
Ryder Scott Company Petroleum Consultants     M M M        
Saga Petroleum             BG M M
SageRider               M  
Salomon Smith Barney, Inc. M                
Samson           BG      
Samson Energy Company, LLC                 M
Samson Resources     M M BG+WM M BG M M
Samuel Gary Jr. & Associates           M   M M
San Juan Resources, Inc.               M M
Sandefer Capital M                
Sanjel (USA) Inc.         M M BG M M
Savant Resources LLC M M M M M M      
Savills Studley                 M
Sawyer Oil & Gas Company, Inc. M M M M M        
Schlumberger BG BG BG BG BG BG BG M M
Schneider Oil Corp./GASTRON     M M M M      
Schulein Company M M M M M M      
Seitel Data Ltd.         M M      
Semcrude, LP         M M      
Seminole Transportation & Gathering Inc.     M M          
Seneca Resources Corporation       M M        
Sequel Energy, LLC               M  
Sequoyah Resource Partners     M M M M      
ServiceCo M M M M M        
SFC Energy Partners               M M
SG Interests, Inc. M M M M M M   M M
SGGS M M       M      
Shell             BG    
Shell E & P Company     M M M M   M M
Sher & Associates   M M M M M      
Shook, Hardy & Bacon L.L.P.                 M
SI Technologies               M  
Signal Hill Company , LLC               M M
Simpact Oil & Gas LLC     M M M M      
Sisk & Co.     M M M        
Slate River Resources LLC         M M      
Slawson Exploration Company, Inc.               M M
SM Energy               SM SM
Snell & Wilmer LLP                 M
Source Rock LLC               M  
Southwestern Energy                 M
Southwestern Production Corp.               M  
Sprinkle & Associates LLC M M M M M M   M M
Sproule Associates Inc.     M M M        
ST Oil Company M M M M M M      
St. Charles Capital               M  
St. Mary Land & Exploration Company M M M BG BG BG BG    
Stanford Group Co. M                
Stanley Energy, Inc. M M M M M M      
Star Resources LLC M                
Starquest Learning               M  
Stelbar Oil Corporation, Inc. M M M M M M   M M
Stellar Recruitment                 M
Stephen Smith, Inc. M M M M M M   M  
Stephens Energy Company LLC           M   M  
Stephens Production Company                 M
Steptoe & Johnson PLLC                 M
Sterling Energy Investments, LLC               M M
Stern & Curray LLC               M  
Stewart Petroleum Corporation M M M M M M   M M
Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated     M M M        
Stone Energy L.L.C.     M M M        
Stonegate Resources, LLC         M M   M M
Storm Cat Energy (USA) Corporation           M      
Strad Energy Services               M M
Strata Control Services               M  
StratCom Advisors LLC       M M        
Studley, Inc.               M  
Suex Corp. M                
Summit Resources, LLC               M M
Summit Services Group               M M
Suncor Energy Inc.   M M M M M      
Sundance Energy               M M
Swann Exploration Company     M M M M      
Swift Energy Company               M  
Systems Petroleum               M  
T-K Production Co. M M     M M   M M
T-Rex               M M
Tall Grass Energy Company M M M M M M   M  
Taqa               M  
Taurus, Ltd. M M M M M M      
Tegra Energy Services, LLC     M M M        
Temkin, Wielga & Hardt LLP       M M M      
Tengasco, Inc.                 M
Teocali Energy               M M
Termo Company, The M M              
Tesoro Companies                 M
Tesoro Refining and Marketing Company     M            
TestAmerica Laboratories                 M
Teton Oil and Gas Corporation       M M M     M
Texas American Resources Company         M M      
TGIF Investments LLC     M M          
The Armstrong Corporation M                
The Bank of Cherry Creek       M          
The Brinkerhoff Company M M M M M M      
The Louis Berger Group               M M
The Oil & Gas Asset Clearinghouse BG             M M
The Petroleum Place, Inc. M M   M M        
The RETEC Group, Inc.         M        
The Shipley Group         M M      
The Staubach Company M M M M M M      
The Termo Company     M M M M      
The Williams Companies, Inc.       BG BG BG      
Thomas J. Sisk and Company, Inc.         M M   M M
Thomasson Partner Associates, Inc.         M M   M M
Three Crown Petroleum                 M
Three Forks Resources, LLC               M  
Thunder Creek Gas Services, LLC M M M M M M      
Tim Glath       M M        
Timberline Energy, Inc. M M              
Timothy Hamilton               M  
Tiorco, Inc. M   M M M M      
Tipperary Corporation M M M M WM M      
TK Production Co.     M M          
Tom Brown, Inc. BG BG BG BG          
Tower Energy Corporation M                
Tracker Resource Development           M   M M
TransZap, Inc. M M M M M M      
Tricon Geophysics,Inc.       M M        
TrigonSheehan, LLC     M M M        
Trihydro Corporation               M M
Trinity Consultants                 M
Trinity Petroleum Management               M M
Tristone Capital           BG      
Tristone Capital & The Oil & Gas Asset Clearinghouse           M      
TriWorth               M M
True Oil M M M M M M   M M
Trueblood Resources, Inc.         M M   M M
Tudor, Pickering, Holt & Co.             BG M M
Tundra Resources, LLC M M              
Twin Bridges, LLC                 M
U.S. Bank M M M M WM M BG M M
UBS Financial Services, Inc.                 M
Ultra Petroleum, Inc. M   M M M BG BG M M
Unico, Inc.     M M M M   M  
Unit Corporation               M M
United Energy Partners         M        
United Energy Trading     M BG M        
United States Exploration M M M M M        
Universal Oil & Gas, LLC                 M
University of Colorado, GEM Program               M M
Upstream Petroleum Management, Inc.               M M
Ute Indian Tribe                 M
Valley Operating, Inc. M                
Van Cott, Bagley, Cornwall & McCarthy           M      
Van Gilder Insurance Corp               M M
Vantage Energy, LLC               M M
Vaughey & Vaughey           M   M M
Vecta Exploration M M              
Venoco, Inc. M                
Venture Transport Logistics, LLC         M M      
Vessels Coal Gas, Inc       M M M      
Vesta Commercial Interiors               M M
Vis-Op Oil M                
Vista Resources, Inc.     M M M M      
Wachovia Securities     M            
Ward Petroleum Corporation               M M
Waterous & Co.       M BG M      
Weatherford International M M M M M M BG M M
Weaver Boos Consultants, LLC               M M
Weber Law Firm, LLC               M M
Welborn Sullivan Meck & Tooley, P.C. M M M M M M   M M
Welldog, Inc.     M M M        
Wellogix, Inc. BG BG   M M        
Wells Fargo             BG    
Wells Fargo Bank West, N.A. M M              
Wells Fargo Bank, N.A.     M M WM M   M M
Wells Fargo Energy Capital         M M      
Wells Petroleum, Inc.       M M M      
Wellstar Corporation M M M M M M      
West, Inc.               M M
Westcor Energy M M              
Western Gas Resources, Inc. M M M M WM BG      
Western Interior Energy, Inc. M M M M M M   M M
Weston Solutions, Inc.               M M
Westphal Land and Landman Services               M M
Westport Oil & Gas Company, Inc. M M M M          
Westport Resources Corporation       BG          
Wexford Resources, Inc. M                
White Eagle Exploration, Inc. M M M M M M   M M
Whiting Petroleum Corporation M M M M BG BG BG SM SM
WHPacific, Inc.               M M
Wildhorse Exploration M M M M M M      
Wildrose Resources Corporation M M M M M        
William R. Smith   M   M M M      
Williams     BG M M M BG    
Williams Energy Marketing & Trading M                
Williams Production Company M M              
Willis               M M
WillSource Enterprise, LLC M M M M M M   M M
Windsor Energy Group         M M      
Wold Oil Properties, Inc. M M M M M     M M
Wolf Energy Company M M              
Wolin Associates               M M
Wolverine Energy, L.L.C. M M M M M        
Wolverine Gas and Oil Corporation               M M
Wood Mackenzie, Inc.           M      
Woodmoor Group               M M
Workplace Resource – Herman Miller               M M
WPX Energy               M M
Xpand WorldWide, LLC.                 M
XTO Energy Inc.     M M M BG BG M M
Yarmony Energy, LLC               M M
Yates Petroleum Corporation M M M M M M   M M
Zimmerman Resources Company M                

Contact & Address

According to the WEA website, as of 2021: [1]

Western Energy Alliance
1775 Sherman Street, Suite 2700
​Denver, CO 80203
​(303) 623-0987

Acoording to an archive of the IPAMS website, the group moved to the following address effective December 22, 2004: [31]

410 Seventeenth Street

Suite 1920

Denver, CO 80202

The previous address for IPAMS was listed as follows: [32]

620 Denver Club Building
518 17th Street
Denver, CO 80202

T: 303.623.0987
F: 303.893.0709

Social Media


  1. About the Alliance,” Western Energy Alliance. Archived August 4, 2020.

  2. Why IPAMS was renamed Western Energy Alliance,” HartEnergy, July 12, 2010. Archived August 19, 2020. Archive URL: https://archive.vn/Zurho

  3. About Us,” Western Energy Alliance. Archived June 1, 2012. Archive URL: https://archive.vn/aTxnb

  4. Eric Lipton and Hiroko Tabuchi. ”Driven by Trump Policy Changes, Fracking Booms on Public Lands,” The New York Times, October 27, 2018. Archived September 1, 2020. Archive URL:  https://archive.vn/ZuXWa

  5. Kathleen Sgamma. “Good News from Paris,” Western Energy Alliance, June 2, 2017. Archived September 1, 2020. Archive URL: https://archive.vn/tGIG7

  6. Arvind Hickman. “FTI Consulting investigates claims its employee posed as journalist in Monsanto trial,” PR Week, May 21, 2019. Archived August 19, 2020. Archive URL: https://archive.vn/vGMDi

  7. Lisa Graves. “‘Energy In Depth’ – A Reporters’ Guide to Its Founding, Funding, and Flacks,” PR Watch, December 28, 2012.

  8. Brendan DeMelle. “‘Energy In Depth’ Was Created By Major Oil and Gas Companies According to Industry Memo“ DeSmog, February 17, 2011.

  9. About Us,” Western Wire. Archived August 19, 2020. Archive URLhttps://archive.vn/wf7K3 

  10. Matt Dempsey,” FTI Consulting. Archived August 19, 2020. Archive URL: https://archive.vn/obNgL

  11. Exxon Sends Undisclosed Agents to Question Opposing Counsel About Colorado Climate Litigation,” EarthRights International, January 15, 2019. Archived August 19, 2020. Audio .mp3 and .pdf transcript on file at DeSmog. Archive URLhttps://archive.vn/s4XkD

  12. Aaron Johnson. “Editor’s Note,” Western Wire, January 26, 2019. Archiver August 19, 2020. Archive URL:https://archive.vn/4RXRL

  13. Lobbying disclosure and contribution search of the United States Congress. Search performed August 2020. Archived data on file at Desmog.

  14. Regulatory,” Western Energy Alliance. Archived August 4, 2020.

  15. Western Energy Alliance’s Sgamma discusses future of Interior’s fracking rule,” E&E News, January 30, 2013. Archived August 19, 2020. Archive URL: https://archive.vn/Hcx3y

  16. Kathleen Sgamma. “American IS Leading the Way,” National Journal, June 4, 2013. Archived June 15, 2013. Archive URLhttps://archive.vn/mKLez

  17. Independent Petroleum Association of Mountain States,” Conservative Transparency. Accessed August 5, 2020.

  18. Lisa Friedman. “New Emails Show How Energy Industry Moved Fast to Undo Curbs,” The New York Times, July 21, 2020. Archived August 5, 2020. Archive URLhttps://archive.vn/AmgXX 

  19. Open Letter to 2020 Presidential Candidates,” Western Energy Alliance. Archived March 15, 2020. Archive URL: https://archive.vn/k2iCo

  20. Execs’ Open Letter to 2020 Candidates Promotes Oil & Natural Gas,” Western Energy Alliance, February 24, 2020. Archived April 15, 2020. Archive URL: https://archive.is/vkqVH

  21. Dana Drugmand. “Oil Execs, Anxious About Public Support, Claim Halting Fossil Fuel Production Would Be ‘Criminal’,” DeSmog, March 6, 2020.

  22. “Testimony Before the House Committee on Natural Resources, Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources” (PDF), House Committee on Natural Resources, September 24, 2019. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.

  23. Elena Connolly. “Massive Climate Funding By Wealthy Foundations Failed To Sway Public Opinion,” Western Wire, June 7, 2018. Archived August 19, 2020. Archive URL: https://archive.vn/GM6EF

  24. Jim Polson, Mark Drajem and Andrew Harris. “Oil Industry Meets First Federal Fracking Rules With a Lawsuit,” Bloomberg, March 20, 2015. Archived August 19, 2020. Archive URL: https://archive.vn/p0bqI

  25. Greg Zimmerman. “OIL AND GAS LOBBY BRAGS ABOUT LITIGIOUS PLAYBOOK, DESPITE DOWNTICK IN ENERGY REGULATIONS DURING THE OBAMA ADMINISTRATION,” Center for Western Priorities, May 12, 2015. Archived August 19, 2020. Archive URL: https://archive.vn/GEZ8I

  26. Kathleen Sgamma. “Who Needs Keep-It-in-the-Ground? BLM’s Already Doing So,” Western Energy Alliance, August 11, 2016. Archived August 5, 2020. Archive URL: https://archive.vn/sbVeQ

  27. “Attention: National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone Docket ID No. OAR–2008–0699” (PDF), IPAA, March 17, 2015. Retrieved from EnergyInDepth.org. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.

  28. Eric Lipton. “Hard-Nosed Advice From Veteran Lobbyist: ‘Win Ugly or Lose Pretty’,” The New York Times, October 30, 2014. Archived September 1, 2020. Archived .pdf of presentation on file at DeSmog. Archive URLhttps://archive.vn/Pe20Q

  29. IPAMS 1998 Annual Report,” IPAMS. Archived June 11, 2000. Archive URL: https://archive.vn/q8mhH

  30. COOPERATING ASSOCIATIONS,” Independent Petroleum Association of America. Archived August 19, 2020. Archive URL: https://archive.vn/a3HT1

  31. IPAMS homepage, archived June 9, 2005. Archive URL: https://archive.vn/PFuKa

  32. Contact Us,” IPAMS. Archived April 4, 2005. Archive URL: https://archive.vn/ELUh9

  33. Matthew Dempsey,” LinkedIn. Accessed October 27, 2020. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmog.

  34. Emily Holden. “Republicans’ new favorite study trashes Biden’s climate plans – but who’s behind it?The Guardian, March 9, 2021. Archived March 9, 2021. Archive URL: https://archive.vn/QEYFC

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