American Enterprise Institute

American Enterprise Institute (AEI)

Background

The American Enterprise Institute (AEI), or American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, is one of the richest and most influential think tanks in the U.S. having received significant funding from conservative foundations and large corporations. AEI‘s areas of concern include foreign and domestic policy which includes the issue of global warming. [1]

The American Enterprise Institute (AEI) describes itself as a “private, nonpartisan, not-for-profit institution dedicated to research and education on issues of government, politics, economics and social welfare,” with their primary research divisions being Economics, Foreign and Defense Policy, Politics and Public Opinion, Education, Health, Energy and the Environment and Society and Culture. They are a “community of scholars and supporters committed to expanding liberty, increasing individual opportunity and strengthening free enterprise.” [2]

While AEI states that “As a tax-exempt educational organization governed by Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, AEI is generally prohibited from attempting to influence legislation in the U.S. Congress or other legislative bodies,” they also state that individual scholars and fellows “frequently do take positions on policy and other issues, including explicit advocacy for or against legislation currently being considered by the Congress.” However, AEI asserts that when they do, “they speak for themselves and not for AEI or its trustees or other scholars or employees.”  [2]

Greenpeace’s ExxonSecrets described AEI as an avid opponent of the Kyoto protocol, as well as most other environmental regulations. AEI climate science skeptics have included James K. Glassman, also of ExxonMobil-funded Tech Central StationExxonMobil CEO Lee Raymond is a previous member of AEI‘s board of trustees.  [1][3]

American Enterprise Institute-Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies

In 1998, AEI and the Brookings Institution established this joint venture with the purpose of studying federal regulatory policy. The Center would be directed by Robert Hahn of AEI and Robert Litan of the Brookings Institution. The Joint Center is no longer in operation, according to the Internet Archive of their website (as of 2009). [33]

The Joint Center distributed the following three key pamphlets related to their views on government regulation: [34]

According to an AEI newsletter, the Joint Center was created “In response to growing concerns about the effects of regulation on consumers, businesses, and government. […] Federal regulation—especially environmental, health, and safety regulation—has grown dramatically in recent decades, whether considered absolutely or as a relative share of the U.S. economy. [31]

Greenpeace’s ExxonSecrets project reports that the Joint Center has received at least $105,000 from ExxonMobil since 1998. [32]

Stance on Climate Change

 July 21, 2015

According to Mark J. Perry, resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, “Hydraulic fracking causes environmental damage, greater use of shale gas will exacerbate climate change, and the natural gas carried by the pipelines is not intended for American consumers but rather will go to export markets. Each of these three claims is completely baseless.” [7]

 February 5, 2014

The American Enterprise Institute’s head of energy studies, Benjamin Zycher, has suggested there is doubt about man-made climate change: [5]

“The issue of the climate sensitivity of the atmosphere to increasing GHG concentrations is nowhere near resolution.”

“[T]ornado, hurricane, and cyclone activity are at historically low levels, wildfires are in a long-term decline except in government forests, there is no trend in sea-levels related to increases in GHG concentrations, the record of the Arctic ice cover is ambiguous, there is no drought trend since 1895, and the same is true for flooding over the last 85-127 years.”

Leading economist Jeffrey Sachs discusses Zycher’s claims in an article in the Huffington Post, titled “How the AEI Distorts the Climate Debate,” where he challenges the AEI  “to come clean.” Sachs wrote:

The AEI, despite its roster of distinguished academics, has failed to be constructive in the climate debate. It’s time that the AEI puts forward a strategy to achieve the globally agreed objective of avoiding dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. [6]

September 2001

Christopher DeMuth, writing at “Energy Crunch,” an AEI publication, declared that “The Kyoto Treaty Deserved to Die”: [4]

“The key features of the climate change debate are large degrees of uncertainty and a long time horizon. Although it is fairly well-established that the Earth’s atmosphere has warmed somewhat (one degree Fahrenheit) during the past century, it’s not clear why this happened. The warming may have been due to human impositions (the burning of fossil fuels and other incidents of industrial growth), or to natural solar or climate variations, or to some of each. Whatever the causes, we don’t know if future warming trends will be large or small, or whether the net environmental and economic consequences (including both beneficial and harmful effects) may be large or small.” [4]

Funding

The AEI was sixth on a list of organizations that received the highest climate skeptic funding between 2011 and 2013, reaching $5.7 million in total, The Guardian reports in their article titled “Secretive donors gave US climate denial groups $125m over three years” that examines money flows from DonorsTrust and Donors Capital Fund. [9]

Below is a summary of data compiled from the Conservative Transparency database for “The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research”: [8]

See the attached spreadsheet for additional information on American Enterprise Institute funding by year (.xlsx).

AEI as Donor

RecipientTotal
Foundation for Defense of Democracies$943,167
University System of Maryland$183,124
Grand Total$1,126,291

AEI as Recipient

DonorTotal
Kovner Foundation$28,350,000
Donors Capital Fund$26,132,548
The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation$22,005,297
Searle Freedom Trust$17,259,000
Sarah Scaife Foundation$14,361,000
Smith Richardson Foundation$11,206,676
Ravenel and Elizabeth Curry Foundation$10,561,000
Hertog Foundation$8,937,500
John M. Olin Foundation$8,007,124
Brady Education Foundation$5,017,000
Exxon Mobil$4,480,000
Diana Davis Spencer Foundation$3,500,000
Schwab Charitable Fund$3,113,700
CIGNA Foundation$3,080,000
Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation$2,268,756
John Templeton Foundation$2,167,650
DonorsTrust$1,955,050
Dick and Betsy DeVos Family Foundation$1,764,000
The Anschutz Foundation$1,473,000
Walton Family Foundation$1,440,338
Adolph Coors Foundation$1,400,000
Earhart Foundation$1,268,800
Paul E. Singer Foundation$1,212,000
Grover Hermann Foundation$1,120,000
DeVos Urban Leadership Initiative$1,095,000
Richard and Helen Devos Foundation$1,082,500
The Randolph Foundation$954,500
Marcus Foundation$900,000
The Carthage Foundation$900,000
PhRMA$900,000
Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation$750,000
Jewish Communal Fund$730,800
Castle Rock Foundation$690,000
TWS Foundation$674,000
Bradley Impact Fund$617,500
Scaife Family Foundation$590,000
F.M. Kirby Foundation$589,000
Peter G. Peterson Foundation$550,000
Lumina Foundation for Education$481,900
Lovett and Ruth Peters Foundation$470,000
Dunn’s Foundation for the Advancement of Right Thinking$438,400
William E. Simon Foundation$437,500
William H. Donner Foundation$414,500
George Edward Durell Foundation$390,000
Thomas W Smith Foundation$300,000
Jaquelin Hume Foundation$250,000
JM Foundation$240,000
Dodge Jones Foundation$222,500
Philip M. McKenna Foundation$197,000
Stuart Family Foundation$168,500
American Petroleum Institute$165,000
Charles Maxfield Parrish and Gloria F Parrish Foundation$155,000
Newton D. & Rochelle F. Becker Foundation$155,000
National Christian Charitable Foundation$147,500
Armstrong Foundation$120,000
Ed Uihlein Family Foundation$100,000
Barney Family Foundation$100,000
Stiles Nicholson Foundation$91,000
Bodman Foundation$79,000
J P Humphreys Foundation$75,000
Pierre F and Enid Goodrich Foundation$60,000
Kickapoo Springs Foundation$57,500
Legett Foundation$57,500
John William Pope Foundation$50,500
Philanthropy Roundtable$50,000
Comerica Charitable Foundation$45,000
Pew Charitable Trust$30,000
Lowndes Foundation$30,000
Albert & Ethel Herzstein Charitable Foundation$26,500
Joyce and Donald Rumsfeld Foundation$25,000
The Vernon K. Krieble Foundation$22,500
The Robertson-Finley Foundation$20,000
Apex Foundation$15,000
Intel Corporation$15,000
Gleason Foundation$15,000
Kulakala Point Foundation$10,000
Arthur N. Rupe Foundation$10,000
Barbara and Barre Seid Foundation$10,000
Cato Institute$10,000
Eric Javits Family Foundation$9,200
Wodecroft Foundation$8,000
Charles Koch Institute$7,365
True Foundation$7,000
Sunmark Foundation$5,000
Bernard and Irene Schwartz Foundation$5,000
Einhorn Family Foundation$4,500
Robert W. Wilson Charitable Trust$4,000
Aequus Institute$4,000
Charles & Ann Johnson Foundation$3,000
Taube Family Foundation$2,000
National Association of Manufacturers$1,500
Grand Total$198,921,604

ExxonMobil Funding

According to ExxonSecrets, AEI received $3,615,000 from ExxonMobil since 1998. [1]

Koch Funding

According to data collected by Greenpeace USA, the American Enterprise Institute has received $2,171,121 in combined donations from Koch-related foundations between 2004 and 2017 (that does not include $750,000 to the Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory studies): [39]

The below table is from DeSmog’s own review of available 990 forms from Koch foundations:

 Donor   
Recipient & YearCharles G. Koch Charitable FoundationClaude R. Lambe Charitable FoundationCharles Koch InstituteGrand Total
American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research$2,268,756 $7,365$2,276,121
2004$50,000  $50,000
2006$100,000  $100,000
2011$200,000  $200,000
2012$517,289  $517,289
2013$910,000  $910,000
2014$30,710 $7,365$38,075
2016$15,000  $15,000
2015$23,257  $23,257
2017$317,500  $317,500
2018$105,000  $105,000
Brookings Joint Center/Regulatory Studies $750,000 $750,000
2005 $400,000 $400,000
2006 $100,000 $100,000
2007 $250,000 $250,000
Grand Total$2,268,756$750,000$7,365$3,026,121

990 Forms

Key People

Officers

Name2012[18]2017Description
Arthur C. BrooksYYPresident and Beth and Ravenel Curry Chair in Free Enterprise, American Enterprise Institute
Danielle PletkaYYSenior Vice President, Foreign and Defense Policy Studies
David GersonYYExecutive Vice President
Henry OlsenY Vice President, Director of the National Research Initiative
Jason BertschYYSenior Vice President, Development and Communications
Toby Stock YVice President, Development and Academic Programs

Board of Trustees

AEI is governed by a Board of Trustees, composed of “leading business and financial executives”: AEI‘s past Board of Trustees has included representatives from major corporations, including Lee R. Raymond (the Chairman and CEO of Exxon Mobil Corporation) who once served as “chairman” at AEI[15]

Name2012[16]2015[10]20162017Description
Arthur C. BrooksYYYYPresident and Beth and Ravenel Curry Chair in Free Enterprise, American Enterprise Institute
Bruce KovnerYYYYChairman, CAM Capital
Christopher B. GalvinYYYYChairman, CEO, and Co-Founder, Harrison Street Capital, LLC
Clifford S. Asness YYYManaging and Founding Principal, AQR Capital Management
D. Gideon SearleYYYYManaging Partner, The Serafin Group, LLC
Daniel A. D’AnielloYYYYCo-Chairman. Chairman and Co-Founder, The Carlyle Group
Edward B. Rust Jr.YYYYChairman, State Farm Insurance Companies
Elisabeth (Betsy) DeVos YY Chairman, The Windquest Group
Frank J. HannaYYYYCEO, Hanna Capital, LLC
George L. Priest Y  Yale Law School
Gordon M. BinderYYYYManaging Director, Coastview Capital, LLC
Harlan CrowYYYYChairman and CEO, Crow Holdings
Harvey GolubYYYYRetired Chairman and CEO, American Express Company, Chairman, Miller Buckfire
Henry WendtYYYYEmeritus Trustees
J. Peter RickettsY   President and Director, Platte Institute for Economic Research, Inc.
James Q. WilsonY   Boston College and Pepperdine University
John A. Luke Jr.YYYYChairman, WestRock Company
John K. Hurley YYYFounder and Managing Partner, Cavalry Asset Management
John V. FaraciYYYYChairman and CEO, Retired, International Paper
Kevin B. RollinsYYYYRetired CEO, Dell, Inc.
Marc S. LipschultzYYYYCo-Founder and President, Owl Rock Capital Partners
Marilyn WareYYY Chairman, Ret. American Water Works
Matthew K. Rose YYYExecutive Chairman, BNSF Railway Company
Mel SemblerYYYYFounder and Chairman Emeritus, The Sembler Company
Paul F. OrefficeYYYYEmeritus Trustees
Paul W. McCrackenY   Emeritus Trustee
Peter H. Coors YYYVice Chairman of the Board, Molson Coors Brewing Company
Ravenel B. Curry IIIYYYYChief Investment Officer, Eagle Capital Management, LLC
Raymond V. GilmartinYY  Chairman and CEO, Retired, Merck & Co., Inc.
Richard B. CheneyYYYY 
Richard B. MaddenYY  Emeritus Trustee
Robert F. GreenhillYYYYFounder and Chairman, Greenhill & Co., Inc.
Robert H. MalottYY YEmeritus Trustees
Seth A. Klarman YYYPresident and CEO, The Baupost Group, LLC
Tully M. FriedmanYYYYCo-Chairman. Chairman and CEO, FFL Partners, LLC
Willard C. ButcherY   Emeritus Trustee
William H. WaltonYYYYManaging Member, Rockpoint Group, LLC
William L. WaltonY   Rappahannock Ventures LLC
Wilson H. TaylorYYYYChairman Emeritus, Cigna Corporation

​​​​​Council of Academic Advisers

According to the AEI website, its Council of Academic Advisers is “chaired by Yale Law School Professor George L. Priest and including distinguished academics from a variety of policy-related fields, advises AEI’s president on the Institute’s research agenda, publications, and appointments, and each year selects the recipient of the Irving Kristol Award.” [11]

Name2012[17]2015[11]2016Description
Aaron L. FriedbergYYYProfessor of Politics and International Affairs, Princeton University
Alan J. AuerbachYYYRobert D. Burch Professor of Economics and Law, University of California, Berkeley
Eliot CohenYYYRobert E. Osgood Professor of Strategic Studies, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University
Eric A. Hanushek YYPaul and Jean Hanna Senior Fellow, Hoover Institution, Stanford University
Eugene F. FamaYYYRobert R. McCormick Distinguished Service Professor of Finance, Booth School of Business, University of Chicago
George L. PriestYY Yale Law School
Gertrude HimmelfarbY  Distinguished Professor of History Emeritus, City University of New York
Harvey S. Rosen YYJohn L. Weinberg Professor of Economics and Business Policy, Princeton University
James Q. WilsonY  Boston College and Pepperdine University
Jeremy A. RabkinYYYProfessor of Law, George Mason University School of Law
John L. PalmerYYYUniversity Professor and Dean Emeritus, Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University
Mark Pauly YY Bendheim Professor, Professor of Health Care Management, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania
Martin FeldsteinYYYGeorge F. Baker Professor of Economics, Harvard University
R. Glenn HubbardYYYVisiting Scholar
Richard J. ZeckhauserYYYFrank Plumpton Ramsey Professor of Political Economy, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
Robert P. GeorgeYYYMcCormick Professor of Jurisprudence; Director, James Madison Program in American Ideals and Institutions, Princeton University
Sam PeltzmanYYYRalph and Dorothy Keller Distinguished Service Professor of Economics, Booth School of Business, University of Chicago
Walter Russell Mead YYJames Clarke Chace Professor of Foreign Affairs and the Humanities, Bard College

National Council

According to AEI, “Members of AEI‘s National Council are business and community leaders from all over the country who are committed to the values and success of the Institute.  They are ambassadors for AEI and provide us with advice, insight, and guidance as we look to reach out to new friends around the country.” [13]

Name20122015[13]20162017Description
Al and Kathy HubbardYYYY 
Alec Litowitz YY  
Alex Navab YYY 
Alex Slusky   YChief Executive Officer, Vector Capital
Alexander Saint-Amand   YChief Executive Officer, GLG
Allen and Kelli QuestromYYYY 
Amy Korenvaes YYYPresident, Harlan and Amy Korenvaes Family Foundation
Andy Puzder YY  
Anne and Rob Raymond YYY 
Anne L. RaymondY   Managing Director, Crow Holdings
Anthony J. de Nicola YYYCo-President, Welsh, Carson, Anderson & Stowe
Anthony ScaramucciY   Managing Partner, Skybridge Capital, LLC
Armeane and Mary Chokes Y   
Armeane and Mary Choksi  YY 
Arturo Brillembourg and Hilda Ochoa-Brillembourg YYY 
Barry L. MacLean YYYPresident and Chief Executive Officer, MacLean-Fogg Company
Barry S. Sternlicht YYYChairman and Chief Executive Officer, Starwood Capital Group
Bayard Boyle, Jr.YYYYChairman, Boyle Investment Group
Bennie and Stephanie Bray  YY 
Bill Achtmeyer YYYChairman and Managing Partner, The Parthenon Group
Bill and Linda Stavropoulos YYY 
Bill Laverack YYYLaverack Capital Partners
Bob Lowe YYY 
Bobby E. Jelks  YYPresident & Chief Executive Officer, Franks Management Company, LLC
Bud Watts YYY 
C. Boyden GrayYYYYFounding Partner, Boyden Gray & Associates
Carl Thoma YYYManaging Partner, Thoma Bravo, LLC
Carolyn and Preston Butcher   Y 
Charles M. Pigott   Y 
Christian A. Felipe YYY 
Christina and Ronald Gidwitz   Y 
Christopher F. Egan YYY 
Christopher Kojima   Y 
Clifford S. AsnessY   Managing and Founding Principal, AQR Capital Management
Craig Overlander YY Chief Executive Officer, Société Générale Americas
Curtis F. Bradbury, Jr.YYYYChief Operating Officer, Stephens
D. Scott Luttrell YYYChairman and Chief Executive Officer, LCM Group, Inc.
Dan and Kellie Peters YYYThe Lovett & Ruth Peters Foundation
Dan O’Keefe YYY 
Dan Schultejann YY Chief Executive Officer, Automation-X Corporation
Daniel N. MezzalinguaYYYYAcquisitions Analyst FTO
Daniel S. Loeb YYYChief Executive Officer, Third Point LLC
Daniel S. PetersY   President, The Lovett & Ruth Peters Foundation
David and Vickie Smick   Y 
David Coulter YYYVice Chairman, Warburg Pincus
David G. Herro YYY 
David H. KochY    
David K. Reyes YY  
David N. RobertsYYYYSenior Managing Director, Angelo, Gordon & Co.
David Smick  Y Chairman & CEO, Johnson Smick International, Inc.
Dick Uihlein YYYCEO, Uline
Donald and Allison Gulbrandsen   YChief Executive Officer, Gulbrandsen Companies
Donald and Susan SturmYYY Sturm Financial Group
Donald E. ScottY   Partner, Bartlit Beck Herman Palenchar & Scott LLP
Donald J. McNamaraY   Chairman, Hampstead Holdings
Donald V. Fites YY  
Douglas and Angela Braly YYYThe Braly Group, LLC
Duane and Susan Ottenstroer  YY 
Ed and Helen HintzYYYYHintz Capital Management
Edward C. Forst YYY 
Elizabeth and Drayton McLane   YMcLane Group
Eric Cantor YYYFormer House Majority Leader; Vice Chairman, Moelis & Company
Erwin and Nancy Aulis YYY 
F. Joseph Daugherty YYY 
Gary ChartrandY   Executive Chairman, Acosta Inc.
Gary L. Wilson YY General Partner, Manhattan Pacific Partners
Gene Sykes YYY 
Geoffrey and Melissa Bradshaw-Mack YYY 
Geoffrey S. Rehnert YYYCo-Chief Executive Officer, Audax Group
Glenn A. Youngkin   Y 
Greg Miller YYYLarry H. & Gail Miller Family Foundation
Gwendolyn van Paasschen  YY 
H. Lee S. Hobson  YYHighside Capital Management
Harlan B. KorenvaesYYYYKorenvaes Capital Management
Harry Sloan  YYChairman and Chief Executive Officer, Silver Eagle Acquisition Corporation
Harry T. McMahon YYYExecutive Vice Chairman, Bank of America Merrill Lynch
Heather and Paul G. Haaga YYY 
Henry Gordon YYYPresident, Strata Resources Inc.
Howard H. LeachYYYYPresident, Leach Capital, LLC
Ivor Massey, Jr. YYYTriad LC
J. Christopher Kojima YY Managing Director, Goldman, Sachs & Co.
J. Joe RickettsYYYY 
J. Ronald Terwilliger   Y 
James C. RahnYYYYPresident, Kern Family Foundation
James D. CarrekerYYYYJDC Holdings
James F. Mooney YYYPartner, The Baupost Group, LLC
James H. DonovanYYYYManaging Director, Goldman Sachs
James L. Haskel YYY 
James M. Denny   Y 
James M. SeneffYYYYExecutive Chairman, CNL Financial Group, Inc.
James S. Tisch   YPresident and Chief Executive Officer, Loew Corporation
Janet and Craig Duchossois   Y 
Jay Adair YYY 
Jeff Wyler YYYChief Executive Officer, Jeff Wyler Automotive Family
Jeffrey L. Silverman YYYChairman and Co-Founder, Agman Partners
Jimmy and Dee Haslam  YY 
Joanie and Don McNamara YYY 
Joe Craft and Kelly Knight YYY 
Joe Lonsdale   YPartner, 8VC
Joel and Stella Freedman YYY 
Joel E. SmilowY    
John and Carol Walter YYY 
John and Carrie MorgridgeYYYYMorgridge Foundation
John and Karin KukralYYYY 
John B. MowellY   President, Mowell Financial Group, Incorporated
John ConnorsY   Partner, Ignition Partners
John D. BakerYYYY 
John D. Johns  YY 
John Evangelakos YYYSullivan & Cromwell, LLP
John K. CastleYYYYChairman and Chief Executive Officer, Castle Harlan, Inc.
John K. HurleyY   Founder and Managing Partner, Cavalry Asset Management
John Kingston YYY 
John W. and Jeanne M. Rowe YYY 
John W. Holman, III YYYManaging Director, Eagle Capital Management, LLC
Jon D. HammesYYYYHammes Company
Jonathan O. LeeY   President, Lee Capital Investments, LLC
Josh Friedman YYY 
Judson and Joyce Green YYY 
Kate Richard   YWarwick Energy Group
Ken Hirsh YYY 
Ken Langone YYY 
Kenneth B. MehlmanYYYYMember & Global Head of Public Affairs, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts
Kenneth Broad YYY 
Kenneth H. and Yvonne S. Hannan YYYColonial Navigation Co. Inc.
Kenneth H. HannanY   President, Colonial Navigation Co. Inc.
Kenneth Hersh   YGeorge W. Bush Presidential Center
Kerry Murphy Healey  YY 
Kimberly O. DennisYYYYPresident, Searle Freedom Trust
Kip Hagopian  YY 
Kohlberg Kravis Roberts  2  
Kurt Dudas YYYEhrenkranz Partners
Lawrence D. SternY   Chairman & Chief Executive Officer, Talecris Biotherapeutics
Les Ware   Y 
Lewis M. Eisenberg YYY 
Linda McMahon YYYPrincipal and former Chief Executive Officer, World Wrestling Entertainment
Lou Oberndorf YY  
M. Holt Massey YYY 
Marc Stern YYY 
Maria and Brent Frei YY  
Mark Carlin YYYExecutive Vice President, Lockton Insurance Brokers, Inc.
Mark D. Gibson YYYExecutive Managing Director, HFF, L.P.
Mark Dorman YYYManaging Director, Endeavour Capital
Martin C. EltrichYYYYPartner, AEA Investors
Martin Cohen YYYExecutive Chairman, Cohen & Steers
Martin J. GrossY   President and Founder, Sandalwood Associates, Inc.
Martin L. Garcia YYY 
Martin Lipton  YYPartner, Wachtell, Lipton, Rosen & Katz
Martin P. Hughes YYY 
Mary Anne (M.A.) and Jim Rogers   Y 
Mary Lou and John Dasburg YYY 
Mayari Pritzker YYYPresident, Robert and Mayari Pritzker Family Foundation
Michael “Mike” B. Fernandez  YYChairman, MBF Healthcare Partners
Michael A. Delaney YY Managing Partner, Court Square Capital Partners
Michael and Robin Zafirovski   Y 
Michael Doar YY  
Michael E. Martino YYYCo-Founder, Mason Capital Management
Michael H. SimmondsY   Chairman, Simmonds Holdings
Michael J. Fourticq, Sr. YYYHancock Park Associates
Michael L. KeiserYYYYCo-Founder, Recycled Paper Greetings, Inc
Michael Sullivan YYYPoint72 Asset Management
Mike CasslingY   Chief Executive Officer, Cassling
Mikee Johnson  YYChief Executive Officer and President, Cox Industries, Inc.
Morton Fleischer  Y Chairman, STORE Capital Corporation
Mr. and Mrs. Robert S. Murley YYY 
Muneer SatterYYYYFounder, Satter Investment Management, LLC
Nancy and Gary Chartrand YYY 
Nathan E. Saint-AmandYYYY 
Nicholas Pinchuk   Y 
Oliver Grace   Y 
Pat NealY   Neal Communities
Patrick and Charlene Neal YYYNeal Communities
Paul and June Schorr YYY 
Paul G. HaagaY   Chairman, Capital Research and Management Company
Paul J. Isaac YYYArbiter Partners
Paul L. “Lew” Davies III and Pilar H. Davies  YYManaging Principal, The Cambria Group
Peter B. Clark YYY 
Peter Nolan YYY 
Peter S. RummellYYYYChief Executive Officer, Rummell Company LLC
Philip and Judy Nussbaum YY  
Philip J. Purcell YYY 
Philip Lebherz  YYChairman, Lebherz Insurance Services, Inc.
R. H. (Ric) Dillon   YChairman, Diamond Hill Investment Group, Inc.
Randy P. KendrickYYYY 
Ray and Heather WashburneYYYYCharter Holdings
Ray Gilmartin   Y 
Richard A. Kayne YYYChief Executive Officer, Kayne Anderson Capital Advisors, Inc.
Richard and Allison Roeder YYY 
Richard Driehaus YYY 
Richard H. Lenny YYY 
Richard J. Riordan YYY 
Richard K. RoederY   Partner, Vance Street Capital, LLC
Richard M. Jaffee YY  
Richard R. Ong YYYManaging Director, Eagle Capital Management, LLC
Rob Taylor YYY 
Robert A. Eckert YYYMattel, Inc.
Robert and Mary McCormack YYY 
Robert B. and Janet A. HoffmanYYYYDouble V Trust Funds
Robert H. CastelliniYYYYChairman, Castellini Company
Robert H. NiehausYYYYGCP Capital Partners LLC
Robert K. Steel YYY 
Robert P. Ryan YY Elliott Management Corporation
Robert RosenkranzYYYYChairman, Delphi Financial Group
Robert Rowling YYY 
Robert S. MurleyY   Vice Chairman, Credit Suisse
Rodger R. Krouse YYYCo-Chief Executive Officer, Sun Capital Partners, Inc.
Roger T. Servison YY Fidelity Investments
Ronald J. GidwitzYYY Principal, GCG Partners
Ross McKnight  YYChairman of the Board, Olney Bancshares of Texas, Inc.
Roy W. LennoxY   Founder, Arrowhawk Capital Partners
Russell L. Carson YYYGeneral Partner, Welsh, Carson, Anderson & Stowe
Ryan Taylor YYY 
Sam and Marilyn Fox YYYFounder Harbour Group
Sam FoxY   Founder, Harbour Group
Sarah and Ross Perot, Jr YYY 
Scott Zajac YYY 
Sean Healey  YYChairman and Chief Executive Officer, Affiliated Managers Group, Inc.
Sean M. FielerYYYYGeneral Partner Equinox Partners, LP
Sheldon M. Stone YYY 
Shelly and Michael Kassen YYY 
Spencer Fleischer YYY 
Stanley S. Hubbard YY Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Hubbard Broadcasting, Inc.
Stephen M. Kotran YYYSullivan & Cromwell, LLP
Steven Klinsky   Y 
Steven PriceYYYYChairman and Chief Executive Officer, Townsquare Media, Inc.
Steven Shafran YY  
Steven Shapiro YY GoldenTree Asset Management
Steven T. Halverson YY  
Steven Tananbaum YYY 
Sue KoffelYYYY 
Sumner E. Anderson   Y 
Susan Crown and William Kunkler YYY 
Sylvie Lègére and Todd Ricketts YYY 
Tad SmithY    
Thilo Best YY Principal, Bayshore Retirement Partners
Thomas F. StephensonY   Partner, Sequoia Capital
Thomas Hillman YY  
Thomas P. Stossel and Kerry Maguire YY  
Thomas S. Roberts YYYManaging Director, Summit Partners
Timothy C. Collins   YChief Executive Officer, Ripplewood Advisors, LLC
Tod and Susan Hullin YYY 
Tod R. HullinY   Chairman, Arrowwood Partners
Troy and Elizabeth Fowler YYYBoard of Directors, Triad Foundation
W. Ross Singletary II YYYManaging Partner, Arcus Capital Partners
W.R. (Bill) Byrd   YPresident, RCP Inc.
William Kourakos YYYPerella Weinberg Partners
William N. ShieblerY   Treetops Companies
Y. Michele Kang   YFounder & CEO, Cognosante
Yvette and Lou Klobuchar Jr. YYY 

Scholars

Name2015[14]20162017Description
Adam LerrickYYYVisiting Scholar
Alan D. ViardYYYResident Scholar
Alex BrillYYYResearch Fellow
Alex J. PollockY  Resident Fellow
Andrew Bowen  YVisiting Scholar
Andrew G. BiggsYYYResident Scholar
Andrew P. KellyYY AEI Resident Scholar and Director, AEI Center on Higher Education Reform
Andy Smarick  YResident Fellow
Angela RachidiYYYResearch Fellow, Poverty Studies
Aparna MathurYYYResident Scholar, Economic Policy
Ariel Rabkin YYVisiting Fellow with AEI’s Center for Internet, Communications, and Technology
Arthur C. BrooksYYYPresident and Beth and Ravenel Curry Chair in Free Enterprise, American Enterprise Institute
Aspen GorryY  Visiting Scholar
Babette Boliek  YVisiting Fellow with AEI’s Center for Internet, Communications, and Technology Policy
Barry K. Goodwin YYVisiting Scholar
Benedic N. Ippolito YYResearch Fellow in Economic Policy Studies
Benjamin ZycherYY Resident Scholar and John G. Searle Chair
Bret SwansonYYYVisiting Fellow with AEI’s Center for Internet, Communications, and Technology
Bruce D. Meyer YYVisiting Scholar
Charles MurrayYYYW. H. Brady Scholar
Christina Hoff SommersYYYResident Scholar
Claude BarfieldYYYResident Scholar
Dalibor RohacYYYResearch Fellow, Foreign Policy Studies
Dan BlumenthalYYYDirector of Asian Studies and Resident Fellow
Danielle PletkaYYYSenior Vice President, Foreign and Defense Policy Studies
David SchoenbrodY  Visiting Scholar
Derek ScissorsYYYResident Scholar
Desmond LachmanYYYResident Fellow
Ed Olsen  YVisiting Scholar
Edward BlumYYYVisiting Fellow
Edward ConardYYYVisiting Fellow
Edward J. PintoYYYResident Fellow and Codirector of AEI‘s International Center on Housing Risk
Eric J. Belasco YYVisiting Scholar
Flavio FeliceYYYAEI Adjunct Scholar University of Molise
Frederick M. HessYYYResident Scholar and Director of Education Policy Studies
Frederick W. KaganYYYResident Scholar and Director, Critical Threats Project and Christopher DeMuth Chair
Gary J. SchmittYYYResident Scholar, Co-Director of the Marilyn Ware Center for Security Studies and Director of the Program on American Citizenship
Gerard RobinsonYYYResident Fellow, Education Policy Studies
J. Matthew McInnisYYYResident Fellow
James C. CaprettaYYYResident Fellow and Milton Friedman Chair
James K. GlassmanYYYVisiting Fellow. James K. Glassman is known for hosting “TCS Daily,” a publication of  Tech Central Station[15]
James PethokoukisYYYEditor, AEIdeas DeWitt Wallace Fellow
Jason D. Delisle YYResident Fellow
Jeffrey EisenachYYYVisiting Scholar and Director, Center for Internet, Communications, and Technology Policy
Jim TalentYYYVisiting Senior Fellow and Director, National Security 2020 Project, Marilyn Ware Center for Security Studies
Joe Glauber YYVisiting Scholar
Joel M. ZinbergYYYVisiting Scholar
John H. MakinY  (1943-2015). Resident Scholar
John R. BoltonYYYSenior Fellow
John W. Miller  YVisiting Fellow
John YooYYYVisiting Scholar
Jon KylYYYVisiting Fellow
Jonah GoldbergYYYFellow
Joseph AntosYYYResident scholar and Wilson H. Taylor Scholar in Health Care and Retirement Policy
Karlyn BowmanYYYSenior Fellow
Katharine B. StevensYYYResident Scholar, Education Policy Studies
Katherine ZimmermanYYYResearch Fellow
Kevin A. HassettYYYState Farm James Q. Wilson Chair in American Politics and Culture and Director of Research for Domestic Policy
Kevin C. CorinthYYYResearch Fellow in Economic Policy Studies
Kevin J. JamesY  Research Fellow, Center on Higher Education Reform
Kirsten D. Madison YYResident Fellow and Deputy Director of Foreign and Defense Policy Studies
Leon AronYYYResident Scholar and Director of Russian Studies
Leon R. KassYYYResident Scholar and Madden-Jewett Chair
Lindsey R. NeasY  AEI Research Fellow, Marilyn Ware Center for Security Studies
Lynne V. CheneyYYYSenior Fellow
Mackenzie EaglenYYYResident Fellow at the Marilyn Ware Center for Security Studies
Madeline ZavodnyYYYAEI Adjunct Scholar Agnes Scott College
Marc A. ThiessenYYYResident Fellow
Mark J. PerryYYYScholar
Mark SchneiderYYYVisiting Scholar
Mary HabeckY  Visiting Scholar
Matt A. Mayer Y Visiting Fellow, Homeland Security Studies
Matt Jensen YYManaging Director, Open-Source Policy Center
Matthew H. JensenY  Managing Director, Open-Source Policy Center
Maura CorriganYY Visiting Fellow
Michael AuslinYYYResident scholar and Director of Japan Studies
Michael BaroneYYYResident Fellow
Michael MazzaYYYResearch Fellow, Foreign and Defense Policy Studies
Michael Q. McShaneYYYAEI Adjunct Fellow, Education Policy Studies
Michael R. StrainYYYDirector of Economic Policy Studies and Resident Scholar
Michael RubinYYYResident Scholar
Mike DanielsYYYVisiting Fellow with AEI’s Center for Internet, Communications, and Technology Policy
Nat MalkusYYYResearch Fellow, Education Policy Studies
Nicholas EberstadtYYYHenry Wendt Chair in Political Economy
Norman J. OrnsteinYYYResident Scholar
Paul H. KupiecYYYResident Scholar
Paul WolfowitzYYYVisiting Scholar
Peter J. WallisonYYYSenior Fellow and Arthur F. Burns Fellow in Financial Policy Studies
Phil GrammYYYVisiting Scholar
Phillip LohausYYYResearch Fellow, Marilyn Ware Center for Security Studies
Phillip SwagelYYYVisiting Scholar
R. Glenn HubbardYYYVisiting Scholar
R. Richard GeddesYYYVisiting Scholar
Rachel M. McCleary  YVisiting Scholar
Ramesh PonnuruYYYVisiting Fellow
Richard BennettY  Visiting Fellow, AEI Center for Internet, Communications, and Technology Policy
Robert B. HelmsYYYResident Scholar
Robert DoarYYYResident Fellow and Morgridge Fellow in Poverty Studies
Robert J. Barro YYJohn H. Makin Visiting Scholar
Roger BateYYYVisiting Scholar
Roger F. NoriegaYYYVisiting Fellow
Roger I. ZakheimYYYVisiting Fellow
Roslyn LaytonYYYVisiting Fellow at AEI‘s Center for Internet, Communications, and Technology Policy
Ryan Streeter  YAEI Director of Domestic Policy Studies
Sadanand DhumeYYYResident Fellow
Sally SatelYYYResident Scholar
Scott GottliebYYYResident Fellow
Shane TewsYYYVisiting Fellow with AEI’s Center for Internet, Communications, and Technology Policy
Sita Nataraj SlavovYYYVisiting Scholar
Stan VeugerYYYResident Scholar
Stephen D. OlinerYYYResident Scholar and Codirector of AEI‘s International Center on Housing Risk
Thomas DonnellyYYYResident Fellow and Co-Director of the Marilyn Ware Center for Security Studies
Thomas P. MillerYYYResident Fellow
Thomas Peter StosselY YVisiting Scholar
Timothy P. CarneyYYYVisiting Fellow
Tomas J. PhilipsonYYYVisiting Scholar
Vincent H. SmithYYYVisiting Scholar and Director, Agriculture Studies
Vincent R. ReinhartYYYVisiting Scholar
W. Bradford WilcoxYYYVisiting Scholar
Walter BernsY  (1919-2015). Resident Scholar, Emeritus
Weifeng ZhongYYYResearch Fellow, Economic Policy Studies
Wendell L. Willkie II YYVisiting Fellow
William IngleeYYYVisiting Fellow, Marilyn Ware Center for Security Studies

Actions

May 18, 2021

AEI resident scholar Paul H. Kupiec wrote an op-ed at The Hill claiming “Central banks’ misguided plan to become climate warriors is doomed to fail.” [42]

In the article, Kupiec discusses The Central Banks and Supervisors Network for Greening the Financial System (NGFS).

“The NGFS is committed to the belief that climate change and environmental risks endanger the safety and soundness of the financial system in the guise of floods from rising sea level, greater storm intensity, wildfires, and other real or imagined environmental plagues, like ‘air pollution, water pollution and scarcity of fresh water, land contamination, reduced biodiversity and deforestation’,” he wrote. [42]

Kupiec predicts “environmentally sustainable financial policies will experience a similar cycle of failure and revision” to efforts to maintain monetary stability. He concludes: “will the NGFS successfully create a new form of ‘transitional risk’ linked to climate-change fanaticism? Time will tell.” [42]

DeSmog investigations found that many of the directors at the world’s largest banks have affiliations to polluting companies and organizations such as oil, gas, and coal extracting industries. In 2020, DeSmog also covered how a report from the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) had found future climate disasters had the potential to bring down the global financial system. [43], [44]

September 17, 2018

UK Treasury minister Liz Truss met with representatives from the AEI during a visit to Washington DC, Greenpeace’s investigative unit, Unearthed, found. The taxpayer-funded trip also included meetings with the Cato Institute, the American Legislative Exchange Council, Americans for Tax Reform, and the Heritage Foundation. [41]

April 17, 2018

AEI hosted an event titled “What did they know, and when did they know it? The municipal climate litigation, the fossil-fuel industry, and the municipal bond market” to discuss the ongoing legal actions as cities and municipalities sue large oil companies for damage caused by fossil fuels. Climate change deniner Patrick Michaels was featured on the panel, using his time to criticize the reliability of climate models.  See video below: [40]

February 22 – 25, 2017

The AEI was a Participating Sponsor of the 2017 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC), among a range of other conservative and pro-industry groups. [38]

June, 2016

The American Enterprise Institute was among organizations named in a Massachusetts subpoena looking for communications between ExxonMobil and organizations denying climate change, reports The Washington Times. [35]

Organizations named in the Massachusetts subpoena include the following:

This latest inquiry by Massachusetts Attorney General Maura Healey is one in a series of investigations into what ExxonMobil knew about climate change and when, started by a coalition of attorneys general in the US. [36] 

June, 2015

Sheldon Whitehouse of Rhode Island and Brian Schatz of Hawaii visited the AEI to discuss a proposal to curb greenhouse gas emissions by taxing them. AEI‘s head of energy studies, Benjamin Zycher, argued that the carbon tax would have minimal benefit.

As reported by the AEI, “Zycher argued against the senators’ carbon tax plan, arguing that their emphasis on global benefits led to flawed measurement of the social cost of carbon emissions, that the impact on temperatures would be minimal, and that the rest of the world would have an incentive to free-ride at the expense of the US.” [19]

Chad Stone, chief economist at the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, commented that Zycher’s view was “based on a very skeptical reading of the scientific evidence on global warming and a worldview in which, with rare exceptions like national defense, government activities are almost always rooted in special-interest politics and almost always destructive. That position won’t likely change, and it doesn’t make adherents receptive to a carbon tax of any kind.” [20]

April 21, 2015

The AEI‘s Scholar Mark J. Perry comments on “18 examples of the spectacularly wrong predictions made around 1970 when the ‘green holy day’ (aka Earth Day) started.” With reference to issues like climate change, Perry comments that the “hype, hysteria and spectacularly wrong apocalyptic predictions will continue, promoted by the ‘environmental grievance hustlers’.” [21]

November 18, 2014

Media Matters reports how Fox News “provided AEI fellow Jonah Goldberg a platform to attack climate scientists as profiteers who are “financially incentivized” to advocate climate change action, without disclosing AEI‘s own financial incentive to undercut action on climate change.” [22]

Goldberg appeared on the November 18 edition of Your World with Neil Cavuto where you argued that mainstream climate scientists have a conflict of interest because they are “deeply invested in the whole industry of global warming” for university program funding. View the video below.

August, 2011

AEI President Arthur C. Brooks spoke at a “Leadership Dinner” sponsored by Reynolds American at the 38th Annual Meeting of the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC). [23]

Learn more about the American Legislative Exchange Council at  the Center for Media and Democracy’s ALECexposed.org.

February, 2007

In February 2007, The Guardian (UK) reported that AEI was offering scientists and economists $10,000 each, “to undermine a major climate change report” from the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

AEI asked for “articles that emphasize the shortcomings” of the IPCC report. AEI visiting scholar Kenneth Green made the $10,000 offer “to scientists in Britain, the US and elsewhere,” in a letter describing the IPCC as “resistant to reasonable criticism and dissent.” [24]

June, 2003

AEI and the Federalist Society launched a project and website called NGOWatch to monitor nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), especially those involved in foreign policy and international relations. [25]

Later reorganized and renamed Global Government Watch, the initiative was initially launched at an AEI conference entitled “NGOs: The Growing Power of an Unelected Few,” which was cosponsored by the right-wing Australian think-tank Institute of Public Affairs[26]

According to the conference organizers, “NGOs have created their own rules and regulations and demanded that governments and corporations abide by those rules.”

August 2, 2002

AEI wrote to President Bush discouraging him from attending the UN Summit on Sustainable Development. Bush did not attend. [27

AEI Contact & Location

As of June 2016, the American Enterprise Institute (AEI) listed the following contact information on their website: [37]

American Enterprise Institute
1150 Seventeenth Street, NW
Washington, DC 20036
Main telephone: 202.862.5800
Main fax: 202.862.7177

Related Organizations

Social Media

Resources

  1. ExxonSecrets Factsheet: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research
  2. About,” American Enterprise Institute. Archived August 20, 2015.
  3. Board of Trustees,” AEI. Archived April 30, 2003.
  4. The Kyoto Treaty Deserved to Die,” The American Enterprise Online. Archived June 5, 2008. Originally published in Energy Crunch, September 2001.
  5. Benjamin Zycher. “The Fact-free Opposition to Keystone XL,” The American Enterprise Institute, February 5, 2014. Archived August 20, 2015.
  6. Jeffrey Sachs. “How the AEI Distorts the Climate Debate,” Huffington Post, February 8, 2014. Archived August 20, 2015.
  7. Michael J. Perry. “Nonsensical ‘fractivist’ pipeline hysteria,” The Washington Times, July 21, 2015. Archived August 20, 2015.
  8. American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research,” Conservative Transparency. Data retrieved June 29, 2016.
  9. Suzanne Goldenberg and Helena Bengtsson. “Secretive donors gave US climate denial groups $125m over three years,” The Guardian, June 9, 2015. Archived August 20, 2015. 
  10. Board of Trustees,” American Enterprise Institute. Archived August 20, 2015.
  11. Council of Academic Advisers,” American Enterprise Institute. Archived August 20, 2015. 
  12. Officers,” American Enterprise Institute. Archived August 20, 2015. [NA]
  13. National Council,” American Enterprise Institute. Archived August 20, 2015.
  14. Scholars,” American Enterprise Institute. Archived August 20, 2015.
  15. Board of Trustees,” AEI. Archived April 30, 2003.
  16. Board of Trustees,” AEI. Archived January 12, 2012.
  17. Council of Academic Advisers,” AEI. Archived February 18, 2012.
  18. Officers,” AEI. Archived January 21, 2012.
  19. To tax or not to tax: Senators Sheldon Whitehouse and Brian Schatz present their American Opportunity Carbon Fee Act,” American Enterprise Institute, June 10, 2015. Archived August 20, 2015.
  20. Chad Stone. “Will Republicans Ever Buy a Carbon Tax?USNews.com, June 12, 2015. Archived August 20, 2015.
  21. Mark J. Perry. “18 spectacularly wrong apocalyptic predictions made around the time of the first Earth Day in 1970, expect more this year,” American Enterprise Institute, April 21, 2015.
  22. Libby Watson. “On Fox, Pundit From Oil-Funded Group Says Climate Scientists Are The Profiteers,” Media Matters for America, November 18, 2014. Archived August 20, 2015.
  23. Hundreds of State Legislators Gather to Discuss Policy Solutions Promoting Economic Growth and Limited Government,” ALEC, August 3, 2011. Archived January 11, 2012.
  24. Ian Sample. “Scientists offered cash to dispute climate study,” The Guardian, February 2, 2007. Archived August 20, 2015.
  25. Jim Lobe, “Bringing the War Home: Right Wing Think Tank Turns Wrath on NGOs,” Foreign Policy In Focus, June 13, 2003. Archived August 20, 2015.
  26. “We’re Not from the Government, but We’re Here to Help You,” American Enterprise Institute, June 11, 2003. Archived August 20, 2015.
  27. (Press Release) “Africa: Corporate-funded Lobbyists Aimed to Sabotage Johannesburg Summit,” AllAfrica.com, August 19, 2002. Archived August 20, 2015.
  28. About Global Governance Watch®,” Global Governance Watch. Archived January, 2011.
  29. About Global Governance Watch®,” Global Governance Watch. Archived August 20, 2011.
  30. Graham Readfearn. “Exclusive: Mont Pelerin Society Revealed As Home To Leading Pushers Of Climate Science Denial,” DeSmogBlog, January 14, 2014.
  31. The AEI-Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies,” American Enterprise Institute newsletter, November 1, 1998. Archived May 18, 2016. WebCite URLhttp://www.webcitation.org/6hbToRFBF
  32. Factsheet: American Enterprise Institute-Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies,” ExxonSecrets. Accessed May 18, 2016.
  33. Snapshot of http://www.aei-brookings.org/index2.html at Web.archive.org, March 4, 2009.
  34. About Us,” AEI-Brookings Joint Center. Archived February 9, 2007.
  35. Valerie Richardson. “Exxon fights Mass. AG’s ‘political’ probe into climate change dissent,” The Washington Times, June 15, 2016. Archived June 24, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6iVfnzUhc
  36. Ben Jervey. “State Investigations Into What Exxon Knew Double, and Exxon Gets Defensive,” Desmog, April 1, 2016.
  37. Contact,” The American Enterprise Institute. Archived June 29, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6icDmBFi2
  38. CPAC 2017 Sponsors,” cpac.conservative.org. Archived March 6, 2017. Archive.is URLhttps://archive.is/SKFRU
  39. American Enterprise Institute (AEI): Koch Industries Climate Denial Front Group,” Greenpeace USA. Archived March 14, 2017. Archive.is URL: https://archive.is/4ziLv
  40. What did they know, and when did they know it? The municipal climate litigation, the fossil-fuel industry, and the municipal bond market,” American Enterprise Institute, April 17, 2018. Archived April 23, 2018. Archive.is URL: https://archive.li/wvcBP
  41. Lawrence Carter. “Liz Truss met with ‘dark money’ think tanks during taxpayer funded trip to Washington DC,” Unearthed, December 19, 2018. Archived December 22, 2018. Archive.fo URLhttp://archive.fo/onRDJ
  42. Paul Kupiec. “Central banks’ misguided plan to become climate warriors is doomed to fail,The Hill, May 18, 2021. Archived May 21, 2021. Archive URL: https://archive.ph/AHP4g
  43. Phoebe Cooke, Rachel Sherrington and Mat Hope. “Revealed: The Climate-Conflicted Directors Leading the World’s Top Banks,” DeSmog, April 6, 2021.
  44. Nick Cunningham. “‘Uninsurable and Unhedgeable’: Central Banks Warn of Financial Crisis from Climate Change,” DeSmog, January 31, 2020.

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